A gerund is what is called a verbal noun. This means that it occupies a middle ground between a verb and a noun and shows characteristics of both. It is active in meaning and only exists in the singular form.
Gerund: Verbal noun
|Verb properties||Noun properties|
A gerund is formed from a verb
A gerund can be described using an adverb
A gerund can govern a case
|A gerund declines like a neuter singular noun|
The gerund is formed by removing the '-s' from the present participle, adding '-d', and then the relevant ending and is translated in English by '-ing'
|Verb||Present participle (adjective)||Gerund (noun)|
|vocare (1)||to call||vocans||calling||vocandum||calling|
|habere (2)||to have||habens||having||habendum||having|
|mittere (3)||to send||mittens||sending||mittendum||sending|
|audier (4)||to hear||audiens||hearing||audiendum||hearing|
Deponent verbs also have gerunds that are formed in a similar way.
|ingredior (3)||to enter||ingrediens||entering||ingrediendum||entering|
When you decline a gerund, it will look like a neuter singular noun in Group 2 across all the cases, except for the nominative, where it will rarely appear.
|Conjugation 1||Conjugation 2||Conjugation 3||Conjugation 4|
In each case the gerund is translated slightly differently and is often preceded by a particular preposition.
|Accusative||ad||vocandum||with a view to calling, towards calling|
|Genitive||causa||vocandi||of calling, for the sake of calling|
|Ablative||ab, de, ex, in, pro||vocando||about/by/from/in/concerning calling|
You will notice examples of Latin gerunds still in use in modern English today.
Modus vivendi - a way/style of living
Modus operandi - a way/style of working