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STOTT ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICES


The hierarchical structure of this catalogue is shown below. See the entire contents of the catalogue

Reference D-SRJS
Covering dates 1861-1969
Held by Oldham Local Studies and Archives
Extent 5.25 cubic metres
Conditions of access Access to this collection will be via the microfiche in the first instance. However, where necessary, access to the original drawings will be granted under the usual conditions of use for archives. Copies can be provided from the microfiche on the microform reader/printer.
Conditions of copying Photocopying of this collection is not permitted, but the use of photography may be considered upon application to the Archives Officer.
Archival history This collection was donated to Oldham Library when Sanger and Rothwell closed in 1981.
Source of acquisition Accession 2002-001 donated by Sanger and Rothwell in 1981
Creators Joseph Stott, 1861-1894, architect; Joseph Stott, Heywood and Ogden, 1894-1895, architects; Joseph Stott and Son, 1896-1936, architects; Ernest S England, architect; Sanger and Rothwell, 1937-1969, architects
Arrangement REF CODE PROPERTY/CLIENT DATE
D-SRJS/1 ALBION MILL, Bradshaw St, Oldham 1883-1884
D-SRJS/2 ALHAMBRA SKATING RINK, Bloom St, Oldham 1911
D-SRJS/3 ALMA MILL, Scottfield St, Oldham 1878-1917
D-SRJS/4 ANCHOR MILL, Daisy St, Oldham 1881-1903
D-SRJS/5 BALDERSTONE MILL, Oldham Rd, Rochdale 1919-1949
D-SRJS/6 BANK TOP MILL, Edmund St, Oldham 1907
D-SRJS/7 BARDSLEY HOLY TRINITY SCHOOLS, Ashton-under-Lyne 1929
D-SRJS/8 BARROWFIELD MILL, Reid St, Glasgow 1885
D-SRJS/9 BEAL MILL, George St, Shaw 1886-1889
D-SRJS/10 BEEVOR MILLS, Pontefract Rd, Barnsley 1887
D-SRJS/11 BRADLEY FOLD MILL, Bolton 1908
D-SRJS/12 BRAZIL MILLS 1917-1922
D-SRJS/13 BROADWAY MILL, Goddard St, Oldham 1882-1890
D-SRJS/14 BROOK MILL, Millgate, Hollinwood, Oldham 1891-1935
D-SRJS/15 BUCKLEY BROOK MILLS, [Buckley Lane], Rochdale 1889
D-SRJS/16 FRED BUTLER, shop premises in Huddersfield Rd, Oldham 1929
D-SRJS/17 BUTLER GREEN MILL, Wallis St, Chadderton 1903-1922
D-SRJS/18 CENTRAL MILL, Woodstock St, Oldham c1916-1956
D-SRJS/19 CHAMBER ST MISSION HALL, Oldham 1870s
D-SRJS/20 WILLIAM CLEGG, house at Balderstone, Rochdale early 20 c
D-SRJS/21 COLDHURST MILL, Rochdale Rd, Oldham 1875-1922
D-SRJS/22 COMMERCIAL MILL, Falcon St, Oldham 1883
D-SRJS/23 COUNTY ESTATE AND LAND COMPANY, Edith St, Oldham 1905
D-SRJS/24 CROWN MILL, Bentinck St, Oldham 1861-1926
D-SRJS/25 DEVON MILL, Chapel Rd, Oldham c1907-1961
D-SRJS/26 DIAMOND MILL, Diamond St, Oldham 1881
D-SRJS/27 DIAMOND ROPE WORKS, Cocker Mill Lane, Shaw 1912-1915
D-SRJS/28 DUKE MILL, Refuge St, Shaw 1883-1885
D-SRJS/29 EGYPT - MILL AT RAMLEH, CAIRO 1892-1896
D-SRJS/30 ELM MILL, Linney Lane, Shaw 1890-1919
D-SRJS/31 FAILSWORTH PREMISES OF GEORGE WHITTAKER LTD 1927-1928
D-SRJS/32 FERN MILL, Siddall St, Shaw 1884-1941
D-SRJS/33 FIRS/GLADSTONE MILL, Oldham Rd, Failsworth 1875-1945
D-SRJS/34 FLEECE HOTEL, Manchester Rd, Oldham 1898
D-SRJS/35 GERMANY - MILL AT RHEINE 1882
D-SRJS/36 GLASGOW COTTON SPINNING COMPANY LTD, Swanston St, Glasgow 1883-1902
D-SRJS/37 GRANGE MILL, West End St, Oldham 1906-1907
D-SRJS/38 GRESHAM MILL, Main Rd, Oldham 1882-1960
D-SRJS/39 HEALEY MILL, Smallbridge, Rochdale 1876-1889
D-SRJS/40 F N HENTHORN, house in Rochdale Rd, Shaw 1923
D-SRJS/41 HOLYROOD MILL, Windsor St, Oldham 1870s-c1920
D-SRJS/42 HONEYWELL LANE METHODIST SCHOOL CHAPEL, Oldham 1877
D-SRJS/43 HONEYWELL MILL, Ashton Rd, Oldham 1874-1943
D-SRJS/44 JOHN HULBERT, Glansevern Estate, Welshpool, Wales 1917-1918
D-SRJS/45 IRK MILL, Oldham Rd, Middleton 20 c
D-SRJS/46 KENT MILL, Victoria St, Chadderton 1907-1937
D-SRJS/47 LANSDOWNE MILL, Crompton St, Chadderton 1884-1885
D-SRJS/48 LEES BROOK MILL, High St, Lees c1884-1963
D-SRJS/49 LILY MILLS, Linney Lane, Shaw c1904-1969
D-SRJS/50 LODGE MILLS, Townley St, Middleton 1919
D-SRJS/51 MANAGERS, ENGINEERS, CARDERS AND OVERLOOKERS' SOCIETY, Mumps, Oldham 1921
D-SRJS/52 MANOR MILL, Victoria St, Chadderton 1906-1925
D-SRJS/53 MONS MILL, Burnley Rd, Todmorden, Yorkshire 1918
D-SRJS/54 MOORFIELD MILL, Durden St, Shaw c1876-1950
D-SRJS/55 MOORSIDE AND PARKFIELD MILLS, Ripponden Rd, Oldham 1891-1960
D-SRJS/56 MYRTLE MILL LTD, Chadderton 1914
D-SRJS/57 NAPIER MILL, Atkinson St, Oldham 1918-1919
D-SRJS/58 NEW DOCKS STEAM TRAWLING COMPANY (FLEETWOOD) LTD, Station Rd, Fleetwood 1915-1917
D-SRJS/59 NORTH ST MILLS, off Rochdale Rd, Oldham 1888
D-SRJS/60 OAK MILL, Spencer St, Oldham 1882-1883
D-SRJS/61 OAK VIEW MILLS, off Manchester Rd, Greenfield, Saddleworth 1906-1914
D-SRJS/62 OLDHAM AND LEES SPINNING COMPANY LTD, Waterhead Mill, Oldham 1881-1888
D-SRJS/63 OLDHAM BREWERY COMPANY LTD, Albion Brewery, Coldhurst St, Oldham 1889
D-SRJS/64 OLDHAM ESTATE COMPANY LTD, [Waterhead], Oldham c1877-1880
D-SRJS/65 OLDHAM MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL EXTENSION, Ascroft St, Oldham 1925-1927
D-SRJS/66 OLIVE MILL, Quebec St, Oldham c1883-1945
D-SRJS/67 OSBORNE MILL, Robinson St, Chadderton 1924-1954
D-SRJS/68 S AND L PATTERSON, house in Gorton St, Chadderton 1897
D-SRJS/69 PEEL MILLS, Chamber Hall, Bury 1885-1918
D-SRJS/70 PINE MILL, Sherwood St, Oldham 1880s-1941
D-SRJS/71 W H PLATT, premises in Ashton Rd, Oldham 1898
D-SRJS/72 REGENT MILL, Princess St, Failsworth 1904-1916
D-SRJS/73 ROCHDALE AND MANOR BREWERY LTD, premises in Shore St, Oldham 1898
D-SRJS/74 ROCHDALE COTTON SPINNING COMPANY, Vavasour St, Rochdale 1884
D-SRJS/75 ROME MILL, Walkers Lane, Springhead, Saddleworth 1896-c1913
D-SRJS/76 ROYTON SPINNING COMPANY LTD, High Barn St, Royton 1929
D-SRJS/77 RUBY MILL, Vincent St, Oldham 1887-1894
D-SRJS/78 SMALLBROOK MILL, Nolan St, Shaw 1906-c1940s
D-SRJS/79 SOUDAN MILLS (ALSO DON AND REX MILLS), Oldham Rd, Middleton 1900-1956
D-SRJS/80 STANDARD JACQUARD COMPANY LTD, Albert St West, Failsworth 1926-1927
D-SRJS/81 G STOTT, "The Cottage", Boarshurst Lane, Greenfield, Saddleworth 1925-1928
D-SRJS/82 SUMMERVALE MILL, Fletcher St, Oldham 1881-c1940
D-SRJS/83 SUN IRON WORKS, King St, Oldham 1924
D-SRJS/84 SUN PAPER MILL, Stanworth Rd, Feniscowles, near Blackburn 1890-1891
D-SRJS/85 WILLIAM TAYLOR, shop at 159 Yorkshire St, Oldham 1898-1899
D-SRJS/86 VALE MILL, Beal Lane, Shaw 1918-1925
D-SRJS/87 VALE MILLS, Clegg St, Oldham 1884-1907
D-SRJS/88 VERNON MILLS, Mersey St, Stockport 1880s
D-SRJS/89 WARWICK MILL, Oldham Rd, Middleton 1907-1911
D-SRJS/90 WATERFORD MILL, Factory Lane, Chippenham, Wiltshire c1911-1915
D-SRJS/91 R WATSON, bungalow in Shaw Rd, Grains Bar, Shaw 1925
D-SRJS/92 WERNETH MILL, Henley St, Oldham 1880-c1947
D-SRJS/93 WESTHULME HOTEL, Featherstall Rd, Oldham [1886]
D-SRJS/94 LILIAN WHITEHEAD, house in Bartlett Rd, Shaw 1926
D-SRJS/95 WHITWORTH MANUFACTURING COMPANY LTD, Albert Mill, Whitworth, Rochdale c1882
D-SRJS/96 WOODSTOCK MILL, Meek St, Royton Junction 1919
D-SRJS/97 JOHN WRIGHT AND SON, houses in Robinson St and Cow Mill, Chadderton early 20 c
D-SRJS/98 GEORGE H WRIGLEY, house in Chadderton 1901
D-SRJS/99 CONTRACT BOOK AND INDEX c1903-1936
Related information (Ref D-SRJS (add 1) 1)
Oldham Archives
James Stott & Co Engineers, Ltd (ref D-JSE)
Oldham Local Studies
Philip Sidney Stott, Architect: List of works and extensions to works constructed to the designs of Sidney Stott by Robert W Howarth, c. 1975 (ref GK(STO))
Who was Sir Philip Stott? By John Lang, 1997 (ref GK(STO))
Stott of Stanton: a rich man man and a Cotswold village, 1906-1937 by John Lang, 1995 (refGK(STO):MI:TI)
The Cotton Mills of Oldham (3 edition) by Duncan Gurr and Julian Hunt, 1998 (ref MI:TI)
Stott and Sons, Architects of the Lancashire Cotton Mill by Roger N Holden, 1998 (ref MI:TI)
Stott and Sons, Architects of the Lancashire Cotton Mill by Roger N Holden, 1992 (original thesis) (ref MI:TI)
Oldham Textile Mills by the Greater Manchester Sites and Monuments Record, 1992 (ref MI:TI)
Satanic Mills: Industrial Architecture in the Pennines by Marcus Binney and Randolph Langenbach, 1979 (ref MI:TI)
"Fireproof and other flooring": British Patent No 1881 - A H Stott, July 1871 (ref MI:TI)
"Modern Mill Architecture" in The Textile Manufacturer, June 1876 (ref MI:TI)
"Recent Cotton Mill Construction and Engineering" in The Textile Recorder, Vol 12, No 1, May 1894 (ref MI:TI:TL)
"Structural Engineering in the Lancashire Cotton Spinning Mills, 1850-1914: The Example of Stott and Sons" by Roger N Holden in Industrial Archaeology Review Vol 15, No 2, 1993 (ref MI:TIV)
Cotton Mills in Greater Manchester by Mike Williams with D A Farnie, 1992 (ref TI:EP)


Administrative history:
STOTT ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICES
The growth and development of Oldham was inextricably linked with the Industrial Revolution and, more particularly, the expansion of the cotton industry. Many other mill towns expanded rapidly, but none established and maintained such a primacy as Oldham. During the decade of the Cotton Famine, Oldham became the leading mill town of the world, consuming more raw cotton and spinning more yarn than any other single centre of the cotton industry. Further boom periods followed in the 1870s and during the first decade of the twentieth century. In order to serve the needs of this exploding industry, Oldham also became an international centre for textile machinery and mill design.
This collection consists of the architectural drawings of Joseph and George Stott of Oldham, together with records of the later practice. Several other members of the Stott family also became leading mill architects and a short history of Abraham Henthorn Stott and his son, Philip Sidney Stott is also included in this introduction.
JOSEPH STOTT
Joseph Stott was born on 25 October 1836 in Oldham, the son of James Stott and Mary Henthorn. His parents had been married at Prestwich Parish Church on 18 June 1821. Joseph had one elder brother, Abraham Henthorn Stott, three elder sisters Sarah, Ann and Alice (all born in Crompton), and one younger brother, James, born in 1845. At some point prior to 1836, the family moved to Oldham and by 1851, they were living in Chapel Street. On the census of that year both Joseph and his father were listed as stonemasons. Abraham Henthorn Stott was already listed as an architect. The younger brother, James, dabbled with architecture in the later 1860s, but eventually founded a firm of heating, ventilating and catering equipment manufacturers. Plans for some of his premises are contained within this collection for the period between 1906 and 1911.
Following in Abraham's footsteps, Joseph also became an architect. He worked for his elder brother to begin with, but eventually established a rival practice at 26 Clegg Street in Oldham in the late 1860s. Joseph designed a great many mills in Lancashire and also further afield in Glasgow, Germany and Egypt. An appointment diary for 1875 for the firm has survived. In that year alone, Joseph was working on nine mills.
Joseph's interests in the mills extended beyond their design. He was actively involved with the finance and promotion of limited liability cotton spinning companies, and was on the boards of several spinning companies. He caused a scandal in 1890 when he became a director of the Pine Spinning Company Ltd whilst he was employed as their architect.
Joseph also patented an improved transmission mechanism for the triple-expansion engine, and pioneered the introduction into Lancashire of the triple expansion engine, in 1889 at the weaving shed of the Platt Lane Manufacturing Company at Hindley, near Wigan. Although predominantly a mill architect, he also worked on other buildings such as the Chamber Street Mission Hall, Oldham in the 1870s, the bobbin works at Beevor Mills, Barnsley in 1887, and a dray shed for Oldham Brewery in 1889.
A great rivalry developed between Joseph and his brother, Abraham Henthorn Stott. While Joseph was working for Abraham, they invented a new method of construction - the double brick arch system, first used about 1865. Joseph claimed joint authorship, but when he set up his own practice he had to seek a variation that copied the system as closely as possible without infringing the patent. He used his method in 1884 for the mill of the Rochdale Cotton Spinning Company. On 14 June, the Oldham Chronicle observed that the arrangement of rolled iron girders with brick arches of 5' 3" was introduced by Joseph about ten years previously. A response followed from Abraham's firm (Stott and Sons) on 21 June, pointing out that A H Stott had invented the system and that it had been patented in 1871. Joseph had merely helped in the preparation of drawings. Stott and Sons claimed that Joseph's method was not an infringement as such, and it had its disadvantages, in particular a loss of window height. Joseph maintained his joint authorship. When Joseph died, no members of Abraham's family attended the funeral, suggesting that the rift was never healed.
Joseph Stott died aged 57 of bronchitis and influenza at his residence in Queen's Road on 21 January 1894, leaving a widow, two daughters and a son, George. The Oldham Chronicle of Monday 22 January commented that outside his architectural practice Joseph "led a quiet life". The Builder publication for 1894 commented in a brief report on his death that "he was the architect engaged in the erection of a large percentage of the local cotton mills". He was buried at Greenacres Cemetery on 25 January.
GEORGE STOTT
The only son of Joseph Stott, George was born in Oldham in 1876. He was educated at Mr Binns' Highfield Academy and Manchester Grammar School. On Joseph's death in 1894, Mr Heywood and Mr Ogden, who had been in Joseph's employ, continued the practice. The office was moved to 34 Clegg Street, operating under the name Joseph Stott, Heywood and Ogden. Plans for the firm's work in the years 1894 and 1895 relate to a mill at Ramleh in Egypt, Elm Mill and Pine Mill. After George Stott had served his articles as an architect and reached the age of 21, he took over the practice established by his father, using the name Joseph Stott and Son. The first plan in this collection under this name is dated 1896, and most of the plans reflect the mill construction boom in the first decade of the twentieth century.
George adopted the triple brick arch system of flooring, but his mills stand out more for their superb proportions and the meticulous detail of their facades. The adjacent Manor and Kent Mills in Chadderton are two good examples.
George was a director of a large number of mills in Oldham and the surrounding districts, and had business connections in Brazil. At his death he was a director of the Soudan, Devon, Avon and Kent Spinning Companies. He worked on a variety of other buildings including hotels, schools and picture houses. George was a prominent and popular member of the Oldham Central Conservative Club and a generous subscriber to party funds. In December 1928, he became a magistrate of Oldham Borough. George Stott died of pneumonia at his residence at 93 Queen's Road, Oldham, in December 1936, aged 60, leaving a widow. He was buried at Greenacres Cemetery, after a service at St Mark's, Glodwick.
ERNEST S ENGLAND AND SANGER AND ROTHWELL
Plans by Ernest S England cover the period between 1919 and 1950, although there are references to him working for the firm in 1913 (see D-SRJS/3/26 and D-SRJS/69/59). He is listed in the trade directories from 1924 to 1934 at his office at 12 Clegg Street, Oldham. After George's death in 1936, Ernest S England took over the practice, and one plan from November 1937 records the practice as "Ernest S England, including Joseph Stott and Son" (see D-SRJS/46/75). The firm was eventually taken over by Sanger and Rothwell of Yorkshire Chambers, Yorkshire Street, Oldham and some additional plans covering the years between 1937 and 1969 have been retained in this section of the catalogue as explained below.
THE STOTT FAMILY
In order to appreciate the pivotal role of the Stott family in Oldham architectural history, a short history of the other main Stott practices has been included.
A H STOTT AND SONS
This architectural practice was founded by Abraham Henthorn Stott (the elder brother of Joseph Stott). It was known as Stott and Sons from Abraham's retirement in 1883. A H Stott was born on 25 April 1822 in the parish of Crompton. He served a seven year apprenticeship with Sir Charles Barry, the architect of, amongst many other renowned buildings, the Houses of Parliament and Manchester Art Gallery. Abraham returned to Oldham in 1847, and started a practice at 12 Clegg Street. He gained a considerable reputation for innovative structural engineering. He and his wife, Elizabeth Ainsworth, the daughter of a prominent family of land and property owners in Oldham, had nine children, including three sons who followed their father into the architectural profession.
Abraham's first cotton mill design was the Summervale in 1850 for his wife's uncle, Jesse Ainsworth. He acquired a reputation as the leading mill architect of Lancashire after building three large spinning mills in Manchester and Reddish in the 1860s. He took his two eldest sons, Jesse Ainsworth Stott and Abraham Henthorn Stott (jnr) into apprenticeship, and made each a partner as they reached the age of 21. The firm was renamed A H Stott and Sons, and played a leading part in the mill building boom between 1873 and 1875. In 1883 the main office was moved to Manchester, although a branch office was retained in Oldham until 1896. By 1887, the practice employed between 20 and 30 people and extended throughout Lancashire and Cheshire. Between 1900 and 1914, they designed 24 cotton mills. Their last mill in Oldham was the Ram in 1907.
A H Stott's greatest innovation was the fireproof construction technique, patented in 1871. He used cast iron columns with a girder-carrying bracket and rolled iron girders to create a rigid frame. Between the girders were brick arches, seven feet in span, which increased the width previously possible between columns.
Abraham Henthorn Stott died on 17 February 1904, aged 81 at Bowden in Cheshire. Jesse Ainsworth Stott died on 13 February 1917 aged 64 leaving an estate valued at £36,708. A H Stott (jnr) remained in sole charge of the firm from that date until his own death on 5 July 1931. Two plans for this firm have survived in this collection; Peel Mill, Bury (D-SRJS/69/2) and Ruby Mill, Oldham (D-SRJS/77/1).
P S STOTT
Philip Sidney Stott, the third son of A H Stott (snr), is regarded as Oldham's greatest architect. He established his own practice in 1883 at 3 Clegg Street, and later moved to Yorkshire Street. He was known as Sidney Stott until 1920, but adopted the title Sir Philip Stott upon being made a baronet. He benefited by the innovations made both by his father and Edward Potts, another Oldham architect. P S Stott designed 22 mills in Oldham and 55 elsewhere in Lancashire, accounting for 44% of the increment in the spinning capacity of the county between 1887 and 1925, and for 40% of the new spindles laid down in Oldham between 1887 and 1914. He was one of the last architects to adopt the concrete floor, relying instead on the triple brick arches supported on steel beams favoured by George Stott.
During a career of more than 40 years, P S Stott claimed to have designed mills all over the world, with an aggregate of 9 million spindles. His first mill design was for Chadderton Mill in 1885 and his last was the Maple No 2 in 1915, although he continued to build many more extensions afterwards. A staunch Conservative and Freemason, he was also President of the Oldham Lyceum, played rugby for Oldham Football Club, and held several directorships in the cotton spinning industry. He moved to Stanton Court, Broadway, Gloucestershire in 1913, where he became a Justice of the Peace and, in 1925, High Sheriff of Gloucester. He died in 1937.


Contents:
Including:
Joseph Stott (1861-1894)
Joseph Stott, Heywood and Ogden (1894-1895)
Joseph Stott and Son (George Stott, 1896-1936)
With later related plans of Ernest S England and Sanger and Rothwell (1937-1969)
The architectural drawings in the collection are executed on a variety of supports. Tracings, cartridge paper, tracing cloth and photo-reproductions comprise the majority. The latter include cyanotypes (blueprints) and diazotypes developed onto a paper support.
Before the conservation and cataloguing process of the collection began, the plans were tightly rolled in bundles and stored in some 90 boxes, and no precise number of plans was available. They were dirty (though not mould damaged) and torn and crumpled at the edges, especially the larger plans. The plans were so acclimatised to rolled storage that they behaved like coiled springs at any attempt to hold them flat. In addition, the tracings, which make up a large proportion of the collection, were particularly brittle and vulnerable to damage from handling. Extracting and consulting a plan was therefore extremely difficult, with further damage the inevitable result.
It was first necessary for the plans to be flattened in the conservation studio to enable appraisal and numbering. This was done by gently humidifying the plans to relax the paper before pressing flat between blotters. This exposure to moisture also helped improve the flexibility of some of the plans, particularly the tracings, by renewing chemical bonding between the paper fibres. The flattened plans were then stored temporarily in groups of thirty in folders.
Together with rolled plans, there were also numerous large folders of plans, primarily from the later years of the architectural practice, but including some plans by Joseph and George Stott. Once all of the plans had been counted, the total amount of plans presented for appraisal was 7500, of which some 5000 were from the earlier years of the practice.
It was decided that the early plans were the ones which should be set aside for cataloguing first, although some later plans by Ernest S England and Sanger and Rothwell have been included in this section where they relate to mills designed or worked on by Joseph and George Stott. By doing this, continuity in the architectural practice is shown and the whole archive is put in to context.
An appraisal of the earlier plans was then undertaken, with duplicates, unfinished sketches (where the information was available on other plans) and a few detail drawings being rejected for permanent retention. As well as block plans, mill plans, sections, elevations, and most plans relating to internal décor and fittings, all details relating to machinery, power systems and fireproofing were kept, together with plans reflecting changing social conditions e.g. welfare departments and canteens. Specifications, bills of quantities and correspondence were also retained. A straight A-Z format by mill was decided upon, supplemented by a detailed index. The number of plans per mill ranges from 1 to 310 plans for the Soudan Mills complex on Oldham Road, Middleton. In total there are 3060 plans listed in the catalogue, together with a contract book (and index) covering the period c1903-1936 (D-SRJS/99). The largest plan is 1030mmx2250mm (for the mill in Egypt), and the smallest ones c230mmx230mm. About 3% of the plans are larger than A0 size (841mmx1189mm) with some 48.5% being between A0 and A1 size (841mmx595mm), and 48.5% less than A1 size.
Following appraisal the plans were cleaned of the worst of the surface dirt, often concentrated at the exposed edges of the roll. Smaller items protected within rolls were often in better condition. It was only possible to clean the fragile tracings with a soft brush but their smooth surface tended not to trap dirt as badly as the cartridge papers.
The most badly damaged plans were repaired with archival tissue. Each plan was then encapsulated in a bespoke archival polyester sleeve welded on three sides. Larger plans were fitted with a specially designed rolled sleeve. The transparent sleeves provide individual protection and enable both sides of the plan to be consulted without removal. In addition, it was possible to microfilm the entire collection through sleeves, avoiding the risk of further damage to fragile plans in the process.




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