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Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of SIR ALISTER CLAVERING HARDY FRS (1896 - 1985)

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Reference NCUACS 5/4/88
Covering dates 1901 - 1985
Held by Oxford University, Bodleian Library, Special Collections and Western Manuscripts
Extent 444 files
Source of acquisition The material was received at various dates July 1986 - February 1988 from Mr Michael Hardy and Mrs Belinda Farley (son and daughter).
Creators Hardy, Sir, Alister Clavering, knight, 1896-1985, scientist, zoologist, religious thinker
Related information Alister Hardy Research Centre Oxford: watercolours of temples
Fisheries Laboratory Lowestoft: framed photograph of George Bligh and crew; plans, and miscellaneous photographs of Continuous Plankton Recorder
Hull University Library Archives: taped recollections
National Maritime Museum: 26 watercolours and 3 photographs of Discovery expedition
Oxford University Department of Zoology: 42 watercolours
Science Museum London: original Continuous Plankton Recorder
Monks Wood Experimental Station Huntingdon: insect drift material
Note Compiled by Jeannine Alton and Peter Harper
The work of the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and organisations:
The Biochemical Society
The British Library
The City of Bath
The Geological Society
The Institute of Physics
Pergamon Books
The Royal Society
The Royal Society of Chemistry
Shell UK Ltd
The Society of Chemical Industry
We would like to thank Mr Michael Hardy and Mrs Belinda Farley for making the material available and for their advice and encouragement, and members of the staff of the Department of Western Manuscripts of the Bodleian Library for advice and information.

Administrative history:
Alister Hardy was born in 1896 into a prosperous middle-class family then living in Nottingham where his father was an architect. His mother was from Northumberland; both parents were country lovers and the family regularly spent holidays in Yorkshire in the country or at the sea. When Hardy's father died in 1904 they moved to Harrogate and Hardy embarked on a traditional education pattern at preparatory school (Bramcote, Scarborough 1908-11), public school (Oundle 1911-14) and university (Exeter College Oxford 1914).
Already, however, less conventional elements were present in his love of natural history, cycling, aircraft and sketching. The enforced interruption of the war and his service with the Northern Cyclist Battalion gave him new perspectives and catalysed his thinking on many social, humanitarian and spiritual matters for the rest of his life. He returned to Oxford in 1919, conducted research at the Stazione Zoologica Naples in 1921 and from August of that year took up his first post at the Fisheries Laboratory Lowestoft where he worked on herring drifters and from aircraft as well as in the laboratory in a study of plankton. This became his principal research interest and prompted his devising of recording apparatus leading to the Continuous Plankton Recorder with which his name will always be associated.
In 1924 he was appointed Zoologist on the Discovery expedition to the Antarctic 1925-27. This was another vital formative period, confirming him in his research interest and providing the additional stimuli of new experiences, a degree of physical challenge, camaraderie and a distancing from everyday preoccupations. On his return he enriched his private life by marriage to Sylvia Garstang (December 1927), while professionally he was appointed to a newly created Professorship at Hull with a special interest in marine biology (October 1928). Here he was able to develop a Department of Oceanography and pursue his work on marine and aerial plankton. His award of the Scientific Medal of the Zoological Society (1939) and election to the Royal Society (1940) date from this period.
Hardy moved in 1942 to the Regius Chair at Aberdeen and in 1946 to the Linacre Chair at Oxford where he did much to encourage field researches at the Bureau of Animal Population and the Edward Grey Institute for Field Ornithology. He saw these as a contribution to his aim of fostering the study of ecology - including human ecology - adumbrated in his Inaugural Lecture at Aberdeen 1942 ('Natural history old and new') and developed in his British Association Address 1949 ('Zoology outside the laboratory'). His own work in marine biology continued and his major work The open sea was published in two volumes in the 1950s.
With the Gifford Lectures given at Aberdeen 1963-64 and 1964-65 and their publication as The living stream and The divine flame in 1965 and 1966 Hardy's career moved more strongly towards the study of evolutionary theory, natural theology and the biological basis of religious behaviour. In 1968 he set up the Religious Experience Research Unit at Manchester College Oxford to assemble and analyse religious experiences and most of his later writings were about the work of the Unit and his own beliefs. This aspect of his life work was crowned by the award of the Templeton Prize for 1985 which enabled the work to continue under a fitting change of name as the Alister Hardy Research Centre. Hardy himself, then 89, lived to make preparations and compose his address for the award ceremony, but was not well enough to be present and died a week later, in May 1985.

NCUACS 5/4/88/A.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/A.54 Career, Honours and Awards
NCUACS 5/4/88/A.55, NCUACS 5/4/88/A.56 Autobiography
NCUACS 5/4/88/A.57 Miscellaneous
NCUACS 5/4/88/B.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.67 Research Projects
NCUACS 5/4/88/B.68-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.95 Lectures, Publications, Broadcasts
NCUACS 5/4/88/B.96-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.106 Visits and Expeditions
NCUACS 5/4/88/B.107-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.155 Correspondence
NCUACS 5/4/88/B.156-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.167 References and Recommendations
NCUACS 5/4/88/C.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/C.11 Investigations and ideas
NCUACS 5/4/88/C.12-NCUACS 5/4/88/C.65 Lectures, Publications, Broadcasts
NCUACS 5/4/88/C.66-NCUACS 5/4/88/C.90 Religious Experience Research Unit (RERU)
NCUACS 5/4/88/C.91-NCUACS 5/4/88/C.110 Correspondence
NCUACS 5/4/88/C.111 Printed Material
NCUACS 5/4/88/E.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/E.11 Flight and balloons
With an introductory note
NCUACS 5/4/88/E.12-NCUACS 5/4/88/E.23 Northern Cyclist Battalion (NCB)
With an introductory note
NCUACS 5/4/88/E.24-NCUACS 5/4/88/E.27 Drawing and painting
With an introductory note
NCUACS 5/4/88/E.28-NCUACS 5/4/88/E.34 Fiction and poetry
With an introductory note
NCUACS 5/4/88/E.35-NCUACS 5/4/88/E.42 Boxing
With an introductory note
NCUACS 5/4/88/F.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.48 Photographs
NCUACS 5/4/88/F.49, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.50 Drawings
NCUACS 5/4/88/F.51-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.54 Tape recordings
NCUACS 5/4/88/F.55, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.56 Films
It must be borne in mind that Hardy and his wife lived to a great age and as they became frailer moved to smaller accommodation with inevitable restrictions on space. Thus while the collection gives a good picture of most aspects of Hardy's many-sided life there are some omissions, such as any records of committee work for his several universities and departments, for government or advisory boards or for learned societies. There are few, albeit interesting, first-hand research records and Hardy's expeditions and travels are under-documented. The surviving correspondence is relatively thin and much must have been discarded. Fortunately Hardy, who was determined to write his autobiography, firmly kept documentation of what he considered key events or those which continued in the forefront of his interest. There is in consequence more material about his early formative years than about the established career, especially the Oxford period.
The papers are presented as shown in the List of Contents. Additional explanatory notes accompany many of the sections, sub-sections and individual entries in the body of the catalogue. The following paragraphs aim only to draw attention to material of particular interest.
Section A (Biographical and autobiographical) documents most of the steps in Hardy's career both in relation to formal appointments and to personal relationships, and includes some applications for or offers of posts not otherwise recorded; the material tails off somewhat after about 1950. There are also the plans, outlines and several draft chapters for the autobiography which Hardy did not live to complete; the extant draft goes up to 1925 and thus includes the crucial 'vow' which Hardy made in his first term at Oxford to try to bring about a reconciliation between evolution theory and the spiritual awareness of man.
Section B (Zoology and marine biology) contains the surviving research material with related publications, lectures and expeditions. It includes Hardy's early plankton research, the development of the plankton indicator and recorder, the ill-fated expedition and shipwreck of 1941 in an attempt to explore plankton as a food resource. Of special interest is the material on the Discovery expedition, with Hardy's preparatory work and sketches and his journals and reports; material on his published account of the voyage, Great Waters, and later correspondence are also included. Other projects are aerial drift, vertical migration and the 'Aquatic man' theory. The correspondence, though generally slight, has more substantial exchanges in the 1920s with Armand Denis whom Hardy met at Naples, and with Sir John Ellerman the reclusive millionaire shipping magnate who supported Hardy's oceanographic work at Hull.
Section C (Religion and the paranormal) supplies another dimension in Hardy's life and work. The material preserved here suggests that rather than being a scientist with a secondary interest in religious matters Hardy was a religious or mystic personality who saw his scientific career as an essential platform from which he could pursue a primary spiritual aim. The introduction to Section C develops and gives some of the evidence for this view.
The material includes records of Hardy's early (1916) and continuing interest in telepathy and thought transference. There is a considerable number of lectures and publications; the best-known are of course the Gifford Lectures, but they are only the most substantial contribution to a steady output right up to 1984 by no means all of which are listed in the published bibliographies. The history of the Religious Experience Research Unit is also documented in some detail through correspondence, minutes and other papers from its founding in 1968 to Hardy's death in 1985.
Section D (Patents, inventions, ideas) is a short section showing the liveliness and ingenuity of Hardy's mind, and also his self-confidence; the first attested patent dates from 1919, and he was still busy inventing devices of various kinds in 1979.
Section E (Other interests) bears more abundant testimony to Hardy's exceptional drive and energy. Some of the 'interests' such as flight and sketching might be termed 'hobbies' though Hardy put them to good use in other areas of his life. His short stories and writings were in part an attempt to externalise some of his philosophical and social preoccupations. The correspondence and other material on boxing, and on the Northern Cyclist Battalion, however, bring out much more sharply some of the factors bearing on his formation and mind. There are fuller notes on all these topics in Section E.
Section F contains photographs, tape recordings and film of most phases in Hardy's career, including his war service, the Discovery and other expeditions, his university departments at Hull and Oxford and some of his marine research. The tape recordings are of his autobiographical Desert Island Discs programme, and expositions of his views on evolution and religion.
The obituary of Hardy published in The Times bore the headline 'Zoologist and religious thinker', and with truth. Yet this leaves out of count one of the most fundamental aspects of his character as shown in his personal papers: an amalgam of philanthropy, idealism, social concern, anger at false values, revulsion from established privilege and artificial barriers. This complex emotion, which Hardy himself found hard to express in other than rather naive terms, was triggered by his sudden contact as an immature 19 year old with the Northumberland and Durham pitmen of the Northern Cyclist Battalion. He felt, as he later explained, intense anger at having been misled by his education and social circumstances into such ignorance of life, and he determined never himself to erect social barriers and to dismantle them wherever he could. His resolution combined with his innate energy and he was as good as his word. The collection abounds in clusters of correspondence from those in subordinate positions whom he never overlooked, never forgot, and never treated as other than a friend. The letters speak directly or by implication of steady exchanges of news, advice, visits, remembrances for birthdays, Christmas, weddings and christenings unto the second and third generation. One has a picture of Hardy making regular safaris often to considerable distances to hospitals, homes and gatherings, arranging reunion meals and meetings, welcoming old acquaintances at his home, and also of wives, children and grandchildren taking up a treasured correspondence when the original recipient was too infirm, or dead. There were shipmates from the George Bligh (A.14) and Discovery (A.16), laboratory staff from Hull (A.23, A.24), Aberdeen (A.39) and Oxford (A.47). There are sparring partners (E.35-E.42). There are touching letters from the widows of the lost crewmen of the Christine Rose (A.33). Most remarkable is the long sequence of letters and other material from the ex-servicemen of the Northern Cyclist Battalion (E.12-E.23) with its repeated testimony to the respect and affection which Hardy inspired in those who kept up the correspondence. While there was undoubtedly some measure of social guilt on Hardy's part, and a degree of artificiality in such a relationship, yet his own directness and simplicity make it impossible to do other than admire his dedication.
Hardy thus emerges as something of a Protean figure yet wholly straightforward in all his activities. It is perhaps significant that he went by an unusual variety of names to suit the circumstances. He did not like his own name Alister which he described as 'sissy', though he used it and was addressed by it in official correspondence and by less close friends. To university employees he was 'Prof' and to their families and children 'Uncle Prof'. To most scientific colleagues he was 'A.C.'. To his father-in-law he was and signed himself 'Ali'. More mysteriously, old friends from Oundle and Plymouth called him 'Glider' and some of his Lowestoft colleagues use 'Clarence'. But to his shipmates and NCB comrades he was always 'Mac', and 'Uncle Mac' to their families, contracted from 'Mac - Alister' a nickname he had been given in 1915 because of the vaguely Scottish origins of his own name. It is uncommon to find someone answering to so many names - one is reminded of David Copperfield - and it adds another strand to the tantalising mixture of complexity and simplicity in Hardy's personality.


NCUACS 5/4/88/A.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/A.54 Career, Honours and Awards
NCUACS 5/4/88/A.55, NCUACS 5/4/88/A.56 Autobiography
NCUACS 5/4/88/A.57 Miscellaneous

CAREER, HONOURS AND AWARDS  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.1-A.54  1896-1985

Early Days  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.1  1914-1910

Postcards from parents.
Miscellaneous religious material including Hardy's Member's Card of Schoolboys' Scripture Union.
Bramcote Preparatory School, Scarborough (Roll of Honour).
Oundle School: views of school and laboratory, Transactions of Science Society 1914, cyclist's map of area with some underlined roads and places, headmaster's testimonial 1916 recommending Hardy for the post of 'Forest Officer to the Board of Agriculture', and a later letter 1919.

Exeter College Oxford  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.2  1914, 1919-21

Matriculation Certificate 1914.
'Decimal Club' meetings, menu card designed by Hardy and signed by members 1914, miscellaneous memorabilia 1919-20.
Question paper for Christopher Welch scholarship, press-cutting, letter of congratulation 1920.

War Service  NCUACS 5/4/88/A3-A5  1915-1926

War Service  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.3  1915

Commission with Northern Cyclist Battalion 1915.
Certificates of courses attended, transfer to Northumberland Fusiliers, posting abroad, demobilisation etc.
Army book 439 with record of service.
Memorabilia, including souvenirs of brief service in France.
Also included here are two letters from F.C. Garrett (1919, 1936) through whom Hardy had first joined the cyclist battalion.
Hardy's service with the Northern Cyclist Battalion was a very important factor in his life, introducing him to a hitherto unknown sector of British society. The relationships he made at the time and carefully fostered for the rest of his life are documented in Section E and in the photographs and film in Section F.

Work on camouflage  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.4  1917-18

Notes on 'Painting its use and misuse', 'Invisibility in Warfare', 'Camouflage'. Army instruction book on camouflage.

Letters from wartime comrade  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.5  1918-23, 1926

Stazione Zoologica, Naples  NCUACS 5/4/88/A6-A9  1920-1926

Hardy spent six months December 1920 - June 1921 at the Stazione, working on Priapulus and other worms. The correspondence with his colleagues and friends is about research, the organisation of the Stazione and his own future career prospects; it is presented in alphabetical order of correspondent.

Correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.6  1920-1921

Bourne, G.C. 1920-21
Buxton, P.A. n.d. [1921]
De Beer, G. 1921, 1922
Goodrich, E.S. 1920, 1921
Harrison, J.W.A. 1920
Two draft letters by Hardy on the organisation of the Stazione.

Huxley, J.S.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.7  1920-26

This is a wide-ranging exchange of personal and scientific news on the Stazione, Hardy's and Huxley's careers etc. Hardy's letter of 16 May 1921 reveals his range of interests, his views on academic research and his inclination towards the post at the Fisheries in preference to an immediate return to University work.

Shorter correspondence following Naples visit.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.8  n.d

Hardy's journal of impressions of Rome and Naples December 1920 - January 1921, and 1 page on leaving Naples 3 June. Hardy's report on work done at Stazione. Diary for 1921 including Naples and Italian travels, visits to NCB comrades, expeditions on George Bligh, flying at Felixstowe.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.9  1920-1921

Career prospects  NCUACS 5/4/88/A10  1920, 1921

Offers of posts as Curator of Sarawak Museum, special lecturer at Leeds, assistant lecturer at Edinburgh.

Fisheries Research, Lowestoft  NCUACS 5/4/88/A11-A14  1922-1984

Hardy's appointment as Assistant Naturalist, preliminary correspondence with J.S. Gardiner, testimonials, resignation from Christopher Welch scholarship, letter of thanks on resignation from post to serve on Discovery, signed menu for farewell dinner 1924.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.11  1924

Miscellaneous telegrams (signed with nicknames) and letters from colleagues at Lowestoft 1922-57.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.12  1922-57

Later material, mainly historical 1967-84. Includes various references to Hardy and colleagues, photographs and films, a copy of Hardy's comic drawing of the George Bligh and its personnel (made 1922 or 1923) with his description and reminiscences (1982).  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.13  1967-1984

Letters from crew of George Bligh (research trawler at Lowestoft) and their families.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.14  n.d

'Discovery' expedition  NCUACS 5/4/88/A15-A16  [n.d.]

Correspondence re Hardy's appointment as 'Zoologist on Scientific Staff' (he had applied for the post of Director, to which S. Kemp was appointed), letters of thanks at end of appointment (1928). Also included are signed menus for launching parties, and copy of R. Darnley's article in The Nineteenth Century 1923 which first aroused Hardy's interest in expedition and which he often refers to in his accounts.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.15  1923-1928

Letters from crew of Discovery and their families. Material relating to the research of the Discovery expedition is in Section B. Photographs are in Section F.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.16  n.d

Engagement and marriage  NCUACS 5/4/88/A17-A18  1926-1927

Letters  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.17  1926

To Sylvia Garstang (14 December 1925) and Walter Garstang (28 July 1926).
Hardy's long letter 43 pp to Sylvia is an important statement of his views on evolution, the relationship between science and religion, human nature, class, and his own personality and spiritual development past and future.

Letters of congratulation, notices of wedding 1927.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.18  1927

University College (later University) of Hull  NCUACS 5/4/88/A19-A25  1929-1985

Letters  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.19  1929-1936

Hardy's draft letter of application for Chair of Zoology.
Letter 1929 from Duchess of Bedford giving set of Journal of Zoological Society to Hardy's Department as he had written 'the most courteous letter'. This episode is referred to in the history of the Department (A.30) pp.13-14.
Correspondence 1936 re application by Hardy for the Chair of Zoology at Glasgow and his decision to remain at Hull. Includes long draft letter from Hardy to Huxley setting out his views on his career, the eventual possibility of the Oxford Chair and his wish to develop research in human ecology, and manuscript testimonials from S. Kemp and A.E. Morgan.

Correspondence 1935-40 with A.E. Morgan including Morgan's brief period as Principal of McGill University.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.20  1935-1940

Hardy's letter to old members of Needler Hall (of residence) where he was Acting Warden 1940. Minutes of meetings, statement by Hardy on his acceptance of the Regius Chair at Aberdeen and the future of the oceanographical work at Hull, 1942.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.21  1940-1942

Conferment of Hon. D.Sc., Hull  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.22  1963

Letters from Hull Laboratory staff and their families.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.23  n.d

Letters from Needler Hall staff and their families.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.24  n.d

Letters and photographs from J. Bartlett and family  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.25  1940-1985

Hardy first met Bartlett during the Second World War at Needler Hall where Bartlett was then working as a porter and Hardy was Acting Warden. He remained in touch with him and his family through the many vicissitudes of Bartlett's career and was known to the children as 'Uncle Prof.' The letters, from Bartlett, his children and others, run from 1940 to 1985 showing Hardy's solicitude and unwearying attempts by precept, gifts, visits and interventions to establish a stable way of life for him. Several of Hardy's later letters are of interest for their autobiographical content and exposition of his spiritual views; they survive in longhand drafts or copies laboriously made when he was already in his eighties.

Historical material on the University of Hull  NCUACS 5/4/88/A26-A31  [n.d.]

Brief correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.26  1971

And (part) transcript of Hardy's taped recollections recorded for the history project for the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the University College, 1971.

Correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.27  1976-1977

With author and with C.E. Lucas on University history project, with special reference to Chapter 5 'Success and failure: two case studies'. Includes draft chapter, and detailed comments by Hardy and Lucas, 1976-77.

'Notes on Cyril Lucas'  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.28  1929-1978

Written by Hardy at request of Public Orator (J.G. Phillips) for conferment of Honorary Doctorate on Lucas, 1978.
3 pp. typescript recollections, mainly on plankton research; includes reference to shipwreck of Christine Rose expedition off West of Scotland in 1941.
Also included here are Lucas's own recollections of early years (1929-37) at Hull, n.d.

'Sir Alister Hardy's reminiscences of the early days of the Department of Zoology at the University of Hull.'  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.29  1928-1984

Related information: See also NCUACS 5/4/88/B.12, NCUACS 5/4/88/B.13.

47 pp. typescript with manuscript corrections, contributed at the request of J.G. Phillips and H.B. Miles for a proposed history of the Zoology department from its inception in 1928.
Includes material on the circumstances of Hardy's appointment, building design, teaching load, early colleagues, museum and library, plankton research, kite-flying and aerial plankton, Hardy's acceptance of the Regius Chair at Aberdeen and the transfer of oceanographic work to Edinburgh as the Oceanographic Laboratory of the Scottish Marine Biological Association.
Correspondence 1981-84 with Phillips and Miles is also included.

Copy of the history. Special mention is made in the Foreword of Hardy's assistance.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.30  n.d

Printed matter relating to the foundation and early history of University College Hull and to Hardy's work there.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.31  n.d

Miscellaneous biographical material 1930s  NCUACS 5/4/88/A32  1935-1939

Royal Naval Review at Spithead 1935; invitation aboard Discovery, plan of review.
Correspondence on proposed Biological Station at Bermuda to be built by the Rockefeller Foundation and offer to Hardy of post as first Director. These are Hardy's own manuscript copies of letters to him by 'J.S.H.' (Huxley) and 'E.J.A.' (? E.J. Ashworth) n.d. [1930] see letter of 5 June 1937 to J. Ellerman at B.117.
Correspondence on award of first Scientific Medal of Zoological Society of London 1939.

The 'Christine Rose'  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.33  1941

This was a steam trawler engaged on a research project to investigate the possibility of using marine plankton as a source of food, which sank off the West of Kintyre on 10 September 1941 with the loss of the captain and four members of the crew.
Material includes certificate of loss of belongings, draft note by Hardy for Nature, Hardy's list of crew members, letters from next of kin of lost crew to whom he had sent letters of condolence and money (addressed to nursing home where he was recuperating).

Aberdeen University  NCUACS 5/4/88/A34-A39  [n.d.]

Related information: For earlier correspondence about the Regius Chair at Aberdeen, see NCUACS 5/4/88/A.19.

Warrant of appointment  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.34  1942

Montage of photographs of Natural History Museum of University sent to Hardy 1949.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.35  1949

Hardy's Inaugural Address 'Natural history - old and new' delivered 28 April 1942, with Hardy's reflections on human ecology and evolutionary theory. Copy with some later revisions by Hardy. Also includes his correspondence 1982 arranging for copies to be sent to UK copyright libraries because of the relevance of the lecture to his later work.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.36  1942-1982

Letters of thanks for copies of original address, some with personal or scientific news.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.37  n.d

Conferment of Hon. Ll.D.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.38  1962

Letters from Aberdeen Laboratory staff and their families.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.39  n.d

Glasgow University  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.40  1944

Offer of Chair of Zoology

Oxford University  NCUACS 5/4/88/A41-A48  [n.d.]

Preliminary correspondence and approaches to Hardy about the Linacre Chair of Zoology, February-July 1945.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.41  1945

Hardy's application for Chair, letter of appointment miscellaneous material on FSSU, salary.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.42  July 1945

Letters and telegrams of congratulation, described as 'selection from the many... received', some with personal or scientific news, 1945.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.43  1945

General correspondence on the affairs and organisation of the Oxford Department 1945-48; scientific correspondence, Hope Professorship, ecological studies in America etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.44  1945-1948

General shorter correspondence on affairs of Department  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.45  1957-71

Correspondence and papers on Hardy's retirement, the Linacre Chair, the organisation of biological studies at Oxford and the new Zoology building  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.46  1959-63

Letters from Oxford Laboratory staff and their families.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.47  n.d

Miscellaneous material on Oxford Department 1947-77, including presentation of the triple portrait of Hardy, J.R. Baker and E.B. Ford in the new building 1972.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.48  1947-1977

Related information: See also NCUACS 5/4/88/F.34, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.35.

British Museum of Natural History  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.49  1946-1947

Correspondence 1946-47 when Hardy was asked to consider the post of Director.

Honours 1949-57  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.50  1949-1957

Election to Athenaeum 1949.
Hon. Fellowship, Zoological Society of India 1956.
Knighthood 1957.

Honours 1961-84  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.51  1961-1984

Hon. Life Member, New York Academy of Sciences 1961.
Hon. D.Sc., University of Southampton 1962.
Hon. Membership, British Ecological Society 1963.
Hon. Fellowship, Merton College Oxford 1964.
Vice-Presidency, World Congress of Faiths 1979.
Vice-Presidency, Scottish Marine Biological Association 1984.

Charities  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.52  1956 and n.d

Miscellaneous subscriptions and charities. Includes correspondence re Hardy's regular donations to St Giles Church Oxford; in his letter of October 1956 he explains his practice of calling there most mornings on his way to work, though feeling 'more at ease theologically' for public worship at Manchester College.

Hardy's death  NCUACS 5/4/88/A53-A54  [n.d.]

Letters of condolence on Hardy's death (Few survive from the very large number received.)  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.53  1985

Recollections of Hardy, sent to N.B. Marshall (author of Royal Society Memoir of Hardy) and passed on by him; from P. Brunet, C. Elton, J.R. Lucas, H.N. Southern, T.R.E. Southwood, N. Tinbergen.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.54  n.d

AUTOBIOGRAPHY  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.55, A.56  1896-1985

Hardy had intended to write a full autobiography to complement the various accounts of separate episodes of his life already published. He drew up plans and chapter headings and had many photographs prepared from manuscripts, letters, drawings or press-cuttings already in his files (see F.48). He envisaged a two-volume production, to be called 'For fun and for joy' and 'More fun and greater joy' with the subtitle 'An Autobiography of a life of many experiences and adventures, but governed by a teen-age vow'. Later the title 'A Life with a vow' was adopted and Hardy began dictating the work to Anita Dunn. The surviving document is typescript with some manuscript corrections by Hardy.

'A Life with a vow'  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.55  1896-1977

Introduction i-ii
Chapter 1 The honeysuckle and the bee - childhood wonder pp. 1-18
Chapter 2 Airships and flying machines pp. 19-27
Chapter 3 Pack up your traps pp. 28-32
Chapter 4 Oundle pp. 33-44 with two additional pages
Chapter 5 1914 - War and the vow pp. 45-54
Chapter 6 Beloved company pp.55-65
Chapter 7 Camouflage pp.66-70
Chapter 8 Oxford 1919-1920 pp. 71-82
Chapter 9 Naples pp. 83-89
Chapter 10 Fisheries research, Lowestoft 1921-1924 pp. 90-105
Chapter 11 R.R.S. Discovery - preparing for the voyage pp. 106-112
Chapter 13 Flying for fish (pages not numbered)
Chapter 33 My mermaid (pp. 7)
Also included are various chapter-headings and draft introduction for 'For fun and for joy', notes of episodes to be included etc., and a duplicate copy of Hardy's letter of 1 December 1977 (also at C.51) outlining his intentions and proposed method for the autobiography.

Miscellaneous biographical notes prepared by Hardy at different dates.  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.56  n.d

MISCELLANEOUS  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.57  1925-1985

Miscellaneous  NCUACS 5/4/88/A.57  1925-85

Shorter personal correspondence, various dates
Envelope of photographs and documents found in Hardy's wallet and of special value to him.
Envelope of obituaries of friends and colleagues, many written by Hardy.
Miscellaneous memorabilia.
Obituaries of Hardy.
Press cuttings.


NCUACS 5/4/88/B.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.67 Research Projects
NCUACS 5/4/88/B.68-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.95 Lectures, Publications, Broadcasts
NCUACS 5/4/88/B.96-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.106 Visits and Expeditions
NCUACS 5/4/88/B.107-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.155 Correspondence
NCUACS 5/4/88/B.156-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.167 References and Recommendations

RESEARCH PROJECTS  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.1-B.67  1920-1931

In chronological order of the surviving dated material.

PRIAPULUS  NCUACS 5/4/88/B1-B6  1920-1931

Hardy was able to obtain specimens of this rare worm in Essex and won the Christopher Welch Scholarship in 1920 largely to conduct research on them. He drafted a paper, but did not publish it. During his period at Hull he continued his interest in the work, which was carried out by M. Tazelaar on specimens provided from various sources on the Essex mudflats.

'Notes on the habits, reproductive and excretory organs, and early stages in the development of Priapulus caudatus.'  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.1  1926-1930's

Manuscript draft with manuscript corrections by Hardy and marginal comments signed 'FJL' (probably F.J. Lambert who obtained specimens for Hardy in the 1930s. See correspondence). 13pp, acknowledgments, references. With a note from Hardy passing on the material 1926 (no indication of recipient).

Hardy's notes on the literature.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.2  1920

Experimental notes probably 1920; Drawings and diagrams, some dated 1920, 1931, most undated.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.3  1920-1931

Correspondence 1920 re location of specimens.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.4  1920

Later correspondence on Priapulus research, location of specimens; includes correspondence with E.S. Goodrich to whom Hardy sent his early drawings and notes.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.5  1931-40

Manuscript draft for a lecture by Hardy on Priapuloidea, Spinunculoidea (a worm which he had studied at Stazione Zoologica Naples) and other larval forms.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.6  n.d

PLANKTON  NCUACS 5/4/88/B7-B28  1921

This was the principal subject of Hardy's scientific work, begun in 1921 at the Fisheries Research Laboratory, Lowestoft. It prompted him to invent the plankton indicator and, later, the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) which has continued in use, in modified form, as a tool of oceanographical research.
The surviving material is presented in chronological order of topic, and may include drawings, photographs, drafts and correspondence. Photographs of the recorder in use at sea and in the laboratory, and of the fishing fleets working out of the east coast ports of Britain are held at Lowestoft. Photographs of the recorder in use on the Discovery expedition, and the original drawings, are at F.16 and F.49 respectively.

Plankton and herring  NCUACS 5/4/88/B7-B9  1922-1923

Cruise XXXIV of S.S. George Bligh, 22-30 March 1922.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.7  1922

This was the cruise when Hardy was in charge because of the illness of W. Wallace and used a spare day to conduct a multiple sampling over 24 hours from the same station. The wide variation in plankton distribution which he thus discovered was of great importance in prompting him to devise a continuous recording instrument (Memoir p. 230).
Material includes 'programme' for cruise, Hardy's manuscript report on his findings 30 March 1922, his scheme for a '24 Hours station experiment' 14 February 1923, diagrams of fluctuation observed on original experiment, photographs of 'patchiness of North Sea plankton', plankton identification charts.

Early papers on plankton.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.8  1922-1923

'The study of plankton in relation to the food of the herring', to Challenger Society June 1922.
'Plankton in relation to the food of the herring', British Association September 1923.
'Notes on plankton'.

Hardy's patent no. 205260, for 'An instrument for use on fishing boats to indicate the probable presence or absence of pelagic fish (Herring, Mackerel and the like)'  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.9  August 1922

Plankton Indicator and Continuous Recorder  NCUACS 5/4/88/B10-B11  1927-1934

Material commemorating first successful tow of recorder by commercial ship from Hull to Bremen, 1931. Includes signed dinner menu, drawings of recorder and plankton variations, and earlier letter 1927 from M.T. Denne who made the first recorder (see Hardy's Autobiography).  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.10  1927-1931

Material 1934 re The Hardy Patent Plankton Indicator for commercial fishing.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.11  1934

Correspondence, reports and papers  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.12, B.13  September 1948 - March 1951

Related information: (see NCUACS 5/4/88/A.29).

Relating to continuing plankton recording at Hull and its transfer from Hull to the Scottish Marine Biological Association Oceanographic Laboratory, Leith, Edinburgh.
Hardy felt that this transfer, and his part in it, had been misunderstood and unfavourably interpreted and he was particularly concerned that the matter should be correctly set out in the Hull Departmental history
The correspondence is exchanged with the Universities of Hull and Edinburgh, the Development Commission, and with research colleagues.

Hardy's letter 6 May 1949 to the Principal of Hull explains his thinking about the move to Leith and the history, financing and possible future of oceanographical research at Hull.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.12  1948-49

Includes Hardy's farewell letter to the staff 31 March 1950.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.13  1950-51

Material re working scale model of plankton recorder made at Government Training Centre Leicester 1951 and presented to Hardy. Includes photographs, correspondence with manager and with all trainees involved, and later material 1960 re retirement of manager which Hardy attended.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.14  1951-1960

'My long association with the Hardy Continuous Plankton Recorder'. 80pp typescript account by J.M. Scrivener, Laboratory Steward at Hull from 1936 and later at Edinburgh. 1975.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.15  1975

Correspondence etc. with Science Museum London 1981 on original CPR displayed in new Geophysics and Oceanography Gallery.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.16  1976-77

Miscellaneous correspondence on plankton recorder.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.17  1945-1977

1945 (early work by J.V. Thompson).
1959 (recorder on submarine).
1963 (plankton in Indian Ocean).
1977 (opening of Institute for Marine Environmental Research, Plymouth, where work was transferred from Edinburgh).

Aerial plankton/insect drift  NCUACS 5/4/88/B18-B26  [n.d.]

[no title]  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.18  1941-1943

Related information: For photographs of Hardy's experiments on serial plankton (all dates) see NCUACS 5/4/88/F.5, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.6.

This work began in the early 1930s somewhat hazardously using kites on land, and later using collecting nets or kites flown from the research ship George Bligh. The work was resumed in 1947 using ships and helicopters.
Material includes small notebook of observations on George Bligh 3-9 August 1937 (not in Hardy's hand), and some later notes May 1945 on vertical distribution of plankton, correspondence and reports on 'Sky-Insect-Trap' with RAF personnel on helicopter observations, copy of Punch article on ship observations on Newhaven-Dieppe crossing (not otherwise documented).
Plankton as a source of food
This was a wartime project, mainly triggered by articles and Parliamentary questions by Sir John Graham Kerr, which Hardy developed via an article in Nature (June 1941) into a research proposal funded by the Agricultural Research Council. The work began in August 1941 but was cut short in September by the loss of one of the vessels, the Christine Rose, with the loss of the skipper and four of the crew. Investigations continued in 1942 and 1943 but were brought to an end in July 1943 as the plankton yield appeared to be declining and to offer little prospect of an economic harvest.

Correspondence and papers April-August 1941  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.19  1941

Including exchanges with Graham Kerr, Hardy's Nature article and research proposal, negotiations with Agricultural Research Council and other official bodies, and with scientific colleagues on various aspects of research.

Correspondence on equipment, mainly special netting required.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.20  n.d

Correspondence September-November 1941  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.21  1941

Following shipwreck, including medical certificate for Hardy 'suffering from an extreme form of debility both physical and nervous'.

Correspondence and papers 1942-44  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.22  1941-1943

On continuation of investigations. Includes Hardy's 'Brief note on experiments ...' July 1943, and his unpublished report to the ARC 'Investigations (1941-43) into the possible use of plankton for the feeding of animal stocks' (2 copies, one with extensive deletions and corrections).

Observations and data Background material, some unpublished.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.23  1941-1943

Costs and expenses.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.24  n.d

Shorter later correspondence on plankton as food  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.25  1949, 1954

Hardy's 'Diary and proceedings' of the origins, setting-up and research of 1941 expedition, up to and including the loss of the Christine Rose.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.26  1941

Vertical migration  NCUACS 5/4/88/B27-B28  1942-1943

Two small notebooks of observations at various points off coast of Scotland.

Notebook  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.27  22 May - 27 August 1942

Two small notebooks of observations at various points off coast of Scotland.

Notebook  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.28  16-29 September 1942, 1 May - 3 July 1943

Related information: For photographs of this work, and of Hardy's assistant W.N. Paton, see NCUACS 5/4/88/F.4, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.7-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.10.


Preparatory work  NCUACS 5/4/88/B29-B36  1920-1969

Hardy describes much of this work in his draft autobiography, Chapter 11 R.R.S. Discovery - preparing for the voyage and also in Great Waters.

Album 'Notes from the "Michael Sars" July 1924'.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.29  1924

This was the research ship (spelt Mikel Saars in the autobiography) of Johann Hjort the Norwegian oceanographer with whom Hardy spent six weeks planning and making detailed drawings of equipment. The album contains photographs and pen and ink drawings.

Album of photographs taken during summer 1924  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.30  1924

Including testing of whale-marking gun and 'crossbow', of Michael Sars equipment and gear, Hardy's tour of Iceland, ascent of Mount Hekla where he found a specimen of Epsilia quadrangula not recorded at that altitude.

Loose papers from B.30  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.31  1924

Include water-colours by Hardy, press-cutting, map of Mount Hekla and letter from E.B. Poulton about moth specimen.

Drawings for 'Arctic and Antarctic Plankton-Boats'  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.32  1924, 1928

Probably made on Michael Sars, and two letters 1924, 1928 from J. Hjort.

Hardy's original sketches 1924 for the shore laboratory at South Georgia  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.33  1924-1969

And the original blueprint made from them August 1924 sent to Hardy as a gift from the British Antarctic Survey in 1969.

Deck plans and drawings  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.34  n.d

Some by Hardy.
Charts and diagrams some by, or annotated by Hardy.

Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Research and Development in. .. the Falkland Islands, HMSO 1920.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.35  1920

Hardy's own copy, with some marginal scoring of sections relating to work on whales.

General regulations and instructions for the Discovery expedition.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.36  n.d

Hardy's Journals and reports  NCUACS 5/4/88/B37 - B41  1925-1927

'The Private Diaries of A.C. Hardy. R.R.S. Discovery 1925-1927'.
Two large ledger-type volumes, closely written in pen, with considerable revision, deletion and editorial work in pencil probably added when the material was revised for Great Waters.

Volume 1 pp. 1-300.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.37  24 September 1925 - 25 April 1927

Volume 2 pp. 301-376.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.38  25 April - 9 September 1927

'Second report on the scientific work of the R.R.S. William Scoresby  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.39  1926-1927

For period 16 December 1926 - 31 January 1927. Hardy's original 10 pp. manuscript, and later typed-up version.

'Fourth report of the scientific work of the R.R.S. William Scoresby  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.40  1927

For period 11 May - 30 June 1927. Hardy's manuscript and typed-up version.
'Report on damage done in the deck laboratory... upon defects and deficiencies in the scientific fittings and equipment generally on the William Scoresby', n.d. but sent with above.
'Description of Wilson Harbour', n.d.

Miscellaneous press-cuttings on Discovery expedition.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.41  n.d

Great Waters  NCUACS 5/4/88/B42 - B46  1937-1968

Hardy's account (Collins 1967) of the Discovery expedition, based on his journals and other contemporary material, and on the published Discovery reports.

Miscellaneous data, notes and drawings assembled or made for book.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.42  1937-1962

Included here is correspondence 1937-62 with Methuen & Company whose editor E.V. Rieu had been in contact with Hardy since 1937 with a view to publishing his book (Antarctic Natural History). Later the company felt less interested in the project and the book was published by Collins.

Correspondence with colleagues in preparation for book  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.43  1962-1967

Information, permission to quote or reproduce diagrams, comments on draft. Various dates 1962-67. Includes some recollections of expedition, photographs etc.

Errata lists, Hardy's list of those receiving complimentary copies, letters of thanks from readers, some with personal recollections or scientific information/queries and some with Hardy's replies.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.44  n.d

Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.45  1968

Made in 1968 for Great Waters. Correspondence, draft of Hardy's speech of acceptance (read on his behalf).

Reviews of book.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.46  n.d

Later Discovery correspondence and material  NCUACS 5/4/88/B47-B51  1963-1984

Correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.47  1963-1976

Related information: (see also NCUACS 5/4/88/B.30).

1965. On J.R. Stenhouse, Captain of Discovery; includes photograph (1941), and original sketch of ship off South Shetland, by Stenhouse April 1927.
1976. On 'crossbow' for whale-marking

Mainly on project to refit and restore Discovery as floating museum as part of National Maritime Museum, colloquium on project (Hardy attended and spoke, photographs included), map showing 'Hardy Point' on Bellingshausen Island, Hardy's drafts for display material etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.48  1979

Hardy's gift of watercolours and photographs of expedition to National Maritime Museum, second Discovery colloquium (includes photograph).  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.49  1980

Continuing correspondence, mainly with National Maritime Museum and Maritime Trust.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.50  1981-83

Miscellaneous correspondence with Discovery colleagues and historians of Antarctica. For photographs of the Discovery expedition and its history  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.51  1977-84

Related information: see NCUACS 5/4/88/F.11-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.20.

MOTHS AND THE MOON  NCUACS 5/4/88/B52  1947-1948

Records of three experiments  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.52  1947-1948

September 1947 and September 1948 to investigate possible effects of light on insects, using balloons and ground observers, conducted at Weston-on-the-Green, Oxford (see Memoir p. 245). The descriptive title is Hardy's own.

HERRING  NCUACS 5/4/88/B53  1944-1957

'A programme of herring research'  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.53  1944-1951

Prepared by Hardy for Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries 1944, address on same topic October 1949, minutes of Herring Group meetings (chaired by Hardy) 1949, 1951.

ZEBRA COLORATION  NCUACS 5/4/88/B54  1959-1976

Correspondence, photographs and papers  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.54  1959-76

On zebra coloration and its relation to 'dazzle' camouflage. Includes exchange of correspondence with N. Tinbergen December 1964 in which Hardy explains his ideas on illusion patterning. See also his lectures on camouflage and animal coloration at B.72.

KRILL  NCUACS 5/4/88/B55-B56  1960-1979

Correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.55  1960-1965

1960-63. on preparation of report on Antarctic krill by J. Marr, and on Hardy's Great Waters.
1965. Correspondence arising from Hardy's article on krill in New Scientist, July 1965.

Material relating to Symposium on Antarctic Oceanography, Santiago, Chile, September 1966  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.56  1966-1976

Which Hardy attended as a delegate of the Royal Society, delivering a paper 'The production, distribution and possible exploitation of the Antarctic krill'. The paper was not published at the time and Hardy submitted it for inclusion in the proceedings of a subsequent conference in 1976. See G. Deacon's letter returning the paper in B.57.
Included here is a provisional patent specification filed on 26 January 1967 for 'A device for the capture of fish, krill etc. by a combination of nets and pumps'.

Later correspondence and material on krill harvesting  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.57  1976-79

LOCH NESS MONSTER  NCUACS 5/4/88/B58  1960-1962

Correspondence, photographs and other material  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.58  1960-62

Mainly including minutes of meeting at Linnean Society April 1961 and separate reports by C.F.A. Pantin and Hardy.

AQUATIC MAN  NCUACS 5/4/88/B59-B67  1960-1985

Related information: (see NCUACS 5/4/88/B.63).

Hardy published only short papers on the possible aquatic past of man, though there were tentative plans for an extended work in collaboration with Desmond Morris during the 1970s. The ideas of the earlier papers, which were widely disseminated, aroused interest among researchers and were a material factor in the popular accounts The descent of woman and The aquatic ape, by E. Morgan
Much of the material consists of correspondence with colleagues and researchers, drafts of papers, comments by Hardy etc.

Copies of Hardy's published articles on aquatic man  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.59  1960-1977

(New Scientist April 1960, The Listener May 1960, Zenith 1977), presented with linking material for publication as an appendix to The aquatic ape.
Miscellaneous manuscript notes by Hardy.

Cunnane, S.C. Correspondence, drafts, Hardy's comments  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.60  1977-79

Correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.61  1979

Harries, H.C.
Kurtén, B.

Correspondence, drafts  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.62  1980-83

La Lumière, L.P. and others. Hardy's comments

On the writing and reception of The aquatic ape, Hardy's foreword etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.63  1979-85

Morgan, E. and others.
Hardy's and Morris's letters of February 1979 refer to plans for a book by D. Morris provisionally called Aquatic man: the Hardy theory reexamined.

Correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.64  1979-85

Morris, D.

Correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.65  1982

Sherry, B.J.

Correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.66  1979-83

Wescott, R.W.

Miscellaneous shorter correspondence.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.67  n.d


LECTURES  NCUACS 5/4/88/B68-B82  1920-1962

Very few lecture scripts survive. Those that do are mainly for university courses, all manuscript and with drawings or diagrams by Hardy, sometimes given from year to year with additions and updating, and in consequence very difficult to date.

'Modern whaling', 25 September 1930.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.68  1930-1934

7pp. manuscript.
'Principles and problems of pelagic ecology'. Course of three special lectures, University College London, November 1934 (Notice only. Not otherwise documented.)

'Animal distribution'  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.69  1957

Related information: (see NCUACS 5/4/88/B.100).

Lectures 4 (Coral reefs and islands), 8 (The tropical forest), 9-13 (Zoogeographical regions), 14 (Land bridges), 15 (Island faunas) of a course, n.d. Material on coral reefs incorporates later talk on 'Visit to a coral reef' on occasion of Pacific Science Congress in 1957

'The Mechanics of animal design'  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.70  n.d

Larval forms'  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.71  1920

Related information: See NCUACS 5/4/88/B.83 re his publication of Garstang's verses.

Notes and diagrams of several dates, incorporating some verses by Garstang, Hardy's notes of lecture on larval forms by Garstang, Plymouth 1920, and notes by him for a lecture on 'The Idea of Paedomorphosis'.

'Animal coloration'  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.72  1930's

Notes, drawings and material, perhaps 1930s (cf. B.54). Includes brief notes for a talk on 'Camouflage in nature and war' and Hardy's water-colour drawings and photographs (marked 'Secret') for camouf laged road-blocks on main roads into Oxford, on Hull University writing-paper and probably done before Second World War.

Heads or Tales?  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.73  May 1950

Notes and material for a paper given to the Bodley Club, Merton College Oxford

Hardy's introduction to 'The Final Honours Course in Zoology at Oxford University' for advanced class undergraduates, October  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.74  1951

'Natural History as a Science and its Importance to Man'. Manuscript notes and drawings for lecture at University of Singapore  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.75  1953

Related information: See NCUACS 5/4/88/B.96-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.98

'Toward prediction in the sea'. Paper given at Symposium on 'Perspectives in Marine Biology', Scripps Institution of Oceanography 1956. Text prepared for publication but not listed in Bibliography of Memoir.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.76  1956

Related information: See NCUACS 5/4/88/B.99

'General Morphology'. Notes, drawings and material for a course of six lectures given at Oxford  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.77  n.d, 1950s

'Evolution'. Notes, drafts, drawings, reading lists for a course of sixteen lectures given at Oxford, n.d. 1950s with updated references to 1960. Also includes notice and reading list for a course of five lectures on evolution given by Hardy for University of Oxford Institute of Education 1958, and miscellaneous unattributed notes and drafts.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.78  1950-1960

'Biological Oceanography'. Syllabus, notes, drafts, drawings, reading lists for a course of sixteen lectures given at Oxford, n.d. 1950s with updated references to 1962. Also includes miscellaneous manuscript notes and diagrams, mainly on sea floor sampling.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.79  1962

'Thomas Linacre - his life and influence'. Lecture given in 1960, Linacre's quincentenary.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.80, B.81  1960

Heavily corrected variously-paginated manuscript draft.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.80  n.d

Background information on Linacre, including Thomas Linacre School Wigan where Hardy gave the Speech Day address November 1954 (programme enclosed).  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.81  1954

Brief notes by Hardy on his lectures at Oxford, and suggestions for examination questions.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.82  n.d

PUBLICATIONS  NCUACS 5/4/88/B83-93  1951-1983

Related information: For his book Great Waters on the Discovery expedition, see NCUACS 5/4/88/B.42-NCUACS 5/4/88/B.46.

No manuscript material survives for most of Hardy's scientific publications.
Larval Forms
This was a collection of 'zoological verses' by Walter Garstang, Hardy's father-in-law. Hardy collected and edited them in 1951, contributing an introductory essay on Garstang's theory of paedomorphosis, the importance of which from an evolutionary point of view he thought insufficiently well known. The publisher was B.H. Blackwell.

Correspondence with colleagues, family and publisher, royalty statements etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.83  1951-80

The Open Sea
Hardy was first invited to contribute a book of this title to Collins 'New Naturalist' series in 1943 by Julian Huxley who was then on the editorial board. A contract was signed in 1943 and arrangements made for Hardy's own water-colours to be used as illustrations, with photographs by the distinguished marine photographer D.P. Wilson. When Hardy's manuscript was finally completed (1956) it greatly exceeded the series length and the decision was taken to present it in two volumes - The World of plankton (1956) and Fish and Fisheries (1959). The books were very popular, with American and paperback editions.

Vol.I The World of plankton  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.84  1952-56

Correspondence with colleagues sending information, photographs, specimens etc. In alphabetical order.

Comments on book, suggestions for corrections, Hardy's errata lists In alphabetical order.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.85  1956-58

Letters of thanks for complimentary copies  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.86  1956

Vol.II Fish and Fisheries  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.87  1957-58

Correspondence with colleagues sending information, specimens etc. In alphabetical order.

Comments on book, suggestions for corrections, letters of thanks etc. 1959-60. In alphabetical order. Also a little later correspondence from readers 1968-84.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.88  1959-1960

Collins Publishers  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.89  1943-84

Correspondence with publishers and editors, contracts, later editions etc.

Reviews  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.90  n.d

Press-cuttings of Vols.I and II.

Illustrations  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.91  n.d

Drawings, figures, plates, mostly Hardy's originals, also some of D.P. Wilson's photographs used as plates.

Miscellaneous  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.92  1964, 1981, 1983

Miscellaneous shorter correspondence with publishers and editors on projected books and writings

Royalties  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.93  n.d

Folder of royalty statements and information, all dates, on both scientific and religious publications.

BROADCASTS  NCUACS 5/4/88/B94-95  1930-1984

BROADCASTS  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.94  1930-1931

1930. BBC talk 'Catching whales', version published in The Listener 1 October.
1931. BBC series of six talks 'Our food from the sea', versions published in The Listener April-May.

BROADCASTS  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.95  1960-1984

1960. BBC TV 'Eye on research' (correspondence only).
1961. Granada TV (correspondence only).
1981. BBC Natural History Unit (Aerial plankton - correspondence only).
1982. Central IV 'Nature Watch' (correspondence only).
1984. Golden Dolphin Productions (aquatic ape - correspondence only).

VISITS AND EXPEDITIONS  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.96-B.106  1953-1985

Far East 1953-54
The main purpose of the visit was to Hong Kong for the launch of the research vessel Alister Hardy built for the University's fishery research department. Hardy also attended the Pan-Pacific-Congress in Manila as a Royal Society delegate, and visited Singapore, the Philippines and Ceylon.
World Tour 1961
This included attendance at Tenth Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu as Royal Society Delegate, visits to Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Canada lecturing and visiting institutions and colleagues.

Travel arrangements and schedules, Hardy's sketch maps of places visited.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.96  n.d

Hardy's preliminary circular letter outlining tour, letters to Department and to family, letter from Hong Kong colleague.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.97  1953-1954

Lecture notes.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.98  n.d

Related information: For photographs of the journey and the Alister Hardy see NCUACS 5/4/88/F.21-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.24. For a film of the launch, see NCUACS 5/4/88/F.55.

USA 1956  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.99  1956

Schedule and personal material only. See B.76 for lecture given at Scripps Institution during visit.

Far East 1957  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.100  1957

Papers, correspondence, travel schedules etc. re Ninth Pacific Science Congress Bangkok (Hardy attended as Royal Society delegate), British Council lecture tour in Japan via Pakistan and other visits en route.

Travel schedules, Hardy's speech of thanks at Congress, visit to Fiji.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.101  1961

Visits in Australia.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.102  1961

Visits in New Zealand and Canada.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.103  1961

Te Vega Expedition 1965  NCUACS 5/4/88/B104  1965

Related information: For photographs of the expedition see NCUACS 5/4/88/F.28, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.29.

The Te Vega was a research schooner used for graduate student cruises under the Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University California. Hardy joined Cruise 8 in September 1965 as Visiting Professor, lecturing on plankton biology, zoology of plankton animals, aquatic man etc.
Correspondence and papers, invitation, appointment, organisation and arrangements, reports on expedition, exchanges with crew members etc.

West Indies 1968  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.105  1968

Brief correspondence on visit and lectures.

Pelagic Biogeography Conference Amsterdam 1985  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.106  1985

Correspondence and papers. Hardy accepted nomination to the Comité d'Honneur.

CORRESPONDENCE  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.107-B.155  1918-1985

The surviving correspondence is unlikely to be more than a small proportion of that received by Hardy. There is, for example, almost no official correspondence relating to his University Departments, to professional organisations, learned societies, committees or advisory boards on which he served.
Although there are a few more substantial exchanges, many of the letters are incoming only; even when the content is primarily scientific, the tone almost always reflects the warmth and enthusiasm engendered by Hardy's own personality. Personal news, or photographs, may also feature and Hardy's late letters - such as remain - often include news of his publishing commitments and of his research on religious questions.

Bahl, K.N. and Bahl, K.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.107  1942-44

An Indian zoologist who had studied at Oxford 1919-21; Hardy acted as guardian to his son during his war service.

Baker, J.R.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.108  1920-22, 1928, 1958, 1962, 1970, 1981

Early Oxford research and career etc.

Barrington, M.R.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.109  1969

Factory farming

Bencke, H.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.110  1967

Bisset, K.A.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.111  1954

Ciliate protozoa

Burkhardt, R.W.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.112  1983

Related information: See NCUACS 5/4/88/F.53.

Taped discussion with D. Morris.

Burt, C.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.113  1968

Chen, C. and others  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.114  1948-54, 1982-85

A Chinese colleague working on plankton, whose relations with Hardy were broken by political factors and resumed only towards the end of their lives.

Deacon, G.E.R.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.115  1967, 1985

Correspondence 1967 is re H. Herdman, hydrologist on Discovery.

Denis, A.G.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.116  1922-1950s

Hardy met Armand Denis, a Belgian zoologist with private means, at Naples and they maintained close relations for some years, Denis sharing Hardy's interests in spiritual and ethical as well as scientific matters. Early letters include comments on Hardy's 'Osmic Jones' (E.30). Later Denis became well-known for film and television work on animal life.
The letters continue relatively regularly to 1933; miscellaneous cards and letters, not all dated, continue into the 1950s. Photographs of Denis are included at F.4.

Ellerman, J.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.117  1935-56

Sir John Ellerman was a wealthy but reclusive magnate with a serious interest in zoology. His father, from whom he inherited a fortune in 1933, was born in Hull and founded the Ellerman Lines. Hardy encouraged Ellerman's research on small mammals, especially rodents on which he eventually published standard works. Ellerman, for his part, supported Hardy's oceanographical research at Hull, providing additional funds in 1936 when the move to Aberdeen was first bruited and the help of the shipping line for fishery investigations, and later made a donation to the Oxford department.
The letters (mostly from Ellerman but with a few of Hardy's drafts) are mainly on the progress of Ellerman's research and show the mutual help he and Hardy gave each other and the friendly basis of their relations. Hardy's letters of 5 June 1937, 30 October 1945, September-October 1948 are of special interest in setting out various research proposals.

Ford, E.B.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.118  1951

Galbraith, V.H.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.119  1966

Sir James Gray's paper on science in education.

Gardiner, W.A.C.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.120  1922-43

Gardiner was a hydrobiologist, educated at Dundle, who had worked at Lowestoft and elsewhere though his scientific career was interrupted by illness. Includes letters from Gardiner's family after his death, and reflections on science teaching at Dundle.

Garrett, F.C.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.121  1918-27

Garstang, W.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.122  1929, 1943, 1949, 1954, 1980-83

Related information: See NCUACS/5/4/88/F.32.

Only one letter (1943) from Garstang (Hardy's father-in-law); later correspondence is recollections or historical enquiries. Item of 1929 is humorous verse on Hardy's museum at Hull.

Glover, R.S.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.123  1975, 1983-85

Gunther, E.R.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.124  1927-28, 1949

Includes letters from Gunther's family after his death.

Re Huxley, J.S.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.125  1980-83

Huxley had been Hardy's tutor at Oxford, and also tutor to Sylvia Garstang (later Lady Hardy). The material mainly concerns memorials to Huxley and includes Hardy's own 7pp. account 'Some memories of Julian Huxley by Alister Hardy'.

Jones, F.W.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.126  1943, 1944


Kemp, S.W.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.127  1937-42, 1945

Kemp was the leader of the Discovery expedition; includes letters from family after kemp's death.

Klingender, F.D.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.128  1942

'Dialectical materialism', arising from Hardy's Inaugural lecture at Aberdeen.

Land, M.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.129  1979


Lucas, C.E.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.130  1981, 1983

Mackie, G.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.131  1962


Marshall, S.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.132  1962

Matthews, J.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.133  1981

History of whaling.

Medawar, P.B.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.134  1949, 1951

Oxford Zoology Department, religion, appointments.

Nicholson, E.M.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.135  1968

Turning in flocks of birds.

Parks, P.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.136  1962, 1969

Paton, W.N.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.137  1941-47

Related information: See also NCUACS 5/4/88/B.27, NCUACS 5/4/88/B.28, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.4, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.7-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.10.

Paton was a young marine biologist who had worked with Hardy on vertical migration of plankton shortly before the start of the Second World War in which he served with the Fleet Air Arm before being reported missing in June 1942. Includes wartime letters from Paton, and letters from family and colleagues after his death and Hardy's obituary notice of him.

Peitzmeier, J.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.138  1968

Evolution in birds.

Polanyi, M.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.139  1957

Genes and homology

Ride, W.D.L.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.140  1963, 1977, 1982

Correspondence 1977 is on the early work of B. Tucker on Thylacinus and Hardy's wish to have it completed.

Ritterbush, P.C.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.141  1968

Herring and environment.

Seward, M.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.142  1984

Smith, A.J.F.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.143  1976-79

Expeditions etc., mainly on blind fish.

Smullen, I.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.144  1984

Animal coloration.

Sutherland, J.M.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.145  1984

Turtle expedition.

Tabreti, K.P.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.146  1954

Fishing methods in Borneo.

Tazelaar, M.A.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.147  1981

Hardy's assistant at Hull. Mainly personal news.

Thorsen, G.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.148  1960

Tinbergen, N. and others  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.149  1958, 1962, 1975, n.d

Totton, A.K.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.150  1954


Tucker, D.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.151  1958-63

Scientific and personal correspondence.

Vickers, C.G.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.152  1923-27, 1949, 1951

Vickers was a slightly older contemporary of Hardy at Oundle, and shared his interests in sketching, ballooning and ingenious inventions, and also in spiritual matters. The exchange of letters in 1927 is of special interest for Hardy's exposition of his views and aims for the future 'to establish the reality of the mystical by the scientific method' and Vickers's reply. Vickers was best man at Hardy's wedding later that year.

Victor, A.O. and others  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.153  1956-59


Yonge, C.M.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.154  1982

Shorter unindexed correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.155  1940-83


Correspondence relating to theses, research grants and proposals, university and other appointments.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.156-B.166  1961-1973

B.156 1961
B.157 1962
B.158 1963
B.159 1964
B.160 1965
B.161 1966
B.162 1967
B.163 1968-69
B.164 1970
B.165 1971-73
B.166 1975-78

Individual/personal requests for advice on career or for a reference from Hardy, letters of thanks.  NCUACS 5/4/88/B.167  [n.d.]

1955, 1961-63, 1968


NCUACS 5/4/88/C.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/C.11 Investigations and Ideas
NCUACS 5/4/88/C.12-NCUACS 5/4/88/C.65 Lectures, Publications, Broadcasts
NCUACS 5/4/88/C.66-NCUACS 5/4/88/C.90 Religious Experience Research Unit (RERU)
NCUACS 5/4/88/C.91-NCUACS 5/4/88/C.110 Correspondence
NCUACS 5/4/88/C.111 Printed Material
This topic, however difficult to encapsulate in a short form of words, was of immense importance to Hardy. It could indeed be argued that it was of over-riding importance, and that his scientific career was in a sense no more than the establishment of a reputation and solid background from which he could launch a long-prepared project of research into the spiritual nature of man. He had begun collecting evidence of news items on religious or spiritual matters through a press-cutting agency from 1925 and to some extent regarded his carefully fostered friendships with old comrades from the war and later expeditions, shipmates, laboratory staff, boxers and miners as essential features in his understanding of humankind and thus as contributing to his task. Hardy made many references to the shape and priorities of his life as he saw them, and would certainly have elaborated on this theme had he completed his autobiography; a particularly succinct account is given in one of his last public speeches in October 1984 at the opening of the Alister Hardy Religious Research Centre (successor to his Religious Experience Research Unit). Nevertheless, his chosen branch of science - marine biology - with its 'blind' research over vast wastes, its extremes of microscopic and gigantic life-forms, its physical contact with elemental forces was well suited to the mixture of mysticism and boisterous energy in his own nature. The Discovery-expedition was a crucial factor here both in determining his future research career and in giving the experience to clarify his spiritual ideas.
It is therefore no accident that the material in this Section follows a very similar pattern to that of the scientific work in Section B. There are investigations extending over a long period of time, lectures, publications, broadcasts and correspondence; a further resemblance is the two-volume major publication of the Gifford Lectures (The living stream, The divine flame) which parallels the two major works on marine biology (The open sea, Great waters). The tally of lectures and writings is considerable and greatly extends the number listed in the Bibliography of the Royal Society Memoir. In addition there is the crucial component of the Religious Experience Research Unit (RERU) which Hardy established at Manchester College Oxford, financed originally by the royalties from his Gifford Lectures and other religious publications, and enabled to carry on after his death, bearing his name, through his making over of the substantial benefaction of the Templeton Prize for 1985.
Hardy's religion was not of a doctrinal or dogmatic nature. He described himself as a Unitarian and for that reason had had long contact with Manchester College, though his Linacre Chair was at Merton where he was a much-loved member of the Common Room. In writing or speaking on the subject he often used terms such as 'natural theology', 'spiritual awareness', 'the transcendental'; some of his own early investigations were of telepathy, he was President of the Society for Psychical Research, and he retained an interest in the subject (publishing a collaborative book with R. Harvie and A. Koestler in 1973) alongside the attempts to assemble and classify religious experience on scientific principles at the RERU.
The opportunity has been taken to group together at C.1 a selection of material of different dates documenting Hardy's interest in the spiritual or non-material aspects of life and his dissatisfaction with most established forms of religion. In addition, certain of his letters elsewhere in the collection such as those to Sylvia Garstang (A.17), J.S. Huxley (A.19), the Vicar of St. Giles Oxford (A.52), C.G. Vickers (B.152), A. Koestler and P. Toynbee (C.53), H.G. Wells (D.3) should also be consulted. Similar, albeit more summary, discussions or professions of faith are frequent in his later general correspondence.
Many of the stories or planned writings at E.28-E.34 dating from the early 1920s show Hardy attempting to work out some of his ideas in poetic, narrative or fictional form.


Miscellaneous material  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.1  1923-1984

1923-84 testifying to Hardy's interests, attitude to religion, established churches, social class, aims in life etc.
Arrangements with press-cutting agency 1925, 1935.
Letter 1923 (addressee unidentified).
Letters 1925 to NCB comrades and to R. Cowan on social class and friendship.
Correspondence 1937 with Bishop of Hull (H.T. Vodden) on Christianity, theology and faith.
Letter August 1978 to Mrs. K. Buck, autobiographical account of Hardy's ideal to establish friendships across social barriers.
Draft speech October 1984 at press lunch for Alister Hardy Research Centre.

Notes and accounts of séances  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.2  1916-17

In London and Skegness (Lincs.), mainly with Mrs. Margaret Wedgwood and Dr. W.F. Miller (see C.3) but also with others.

Correspondence with W.F. Miller  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.3  1917-1920

29 March 1917 - 14 January 1920, on 'spiritual rationalism', 'psychic force' etc., mainly from Miller (a doctor at Wainfleet, Lincs.) but a few by Hardy.

Correspondence with Reverend J.R. Trotter, on religious problems.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.4  1917

Specimens of automatic script  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.5  November and December 1918

'Telepathy  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.6  1883-1953

Folder of drawings of thought-transference experiment; based on early experiments of 1883 and 1885, used and discussed by Hardy in his 1953 lecture to the Society for Psychical Research on 'Biology and Psychical Research'.

Photocopies of data of 'precognitive guesses' sent to Hardy  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.7  1965

Correspondence on telepathy.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.8  1950-1984

1950 Carpenter, G.D.H.
1953 Murray, G.G.A.
1957 Lack, D.L.
1962 Agnew, A.L.
1967 Williams, C.B.
1970 Rushton, W.A.H.
1973 Rosalind
1979 Gilbert, M.J.
1983 McConnell, R.A.
1984 Playfair, G.L. (Hardy's letter of 6 April explains his altered views on telepathy).

Miscellaneous notes, references, quotations, ideas on religion.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.9  n.d

Two notebooks, marked 'A' and 'B' kept as commonplace books for ideas and quotations on religious and philosophical topics  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.10, C.11  c.1925


'Science in relation to religion', lecture given at Exhall Training College, Coventry, 15 January 1947. Manuscript draft, correspondence, arrangements for a second visit by Hardy to answer questions arising from his lecture.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.12  1947

'The faith of a scientist', address at Priestley Hall Leeds, December 1948. Copy of address, comments from colleagues on draft and on published version (Lindsey Press).  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.13  1948

'Zoology outside the laboratory', Presidential Address to Section D of British Association, 1949. Copy of lecture, press comment, biographical notes prepared by Hardy.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.14  1949

Correspondence 1949 re talk on telepathy given by Hardy to Royal Society Club. Correspondence and programme for Society of Experimental Biology meeting January 1950 at which Hardy chaired a symposium on paranormal phenomena.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.15  1949-1950

'Science and Christianity - VIII', Hardy's contribution to a series broadcast in BBC European Service August 1955. Transcript of broadcast, photocopy of version published in The Friend.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.16  1955

'Religion in a scientific age', draft for lecture at The Hague  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.17  1964

The Gifford Lectures  NCUACS 5/4/88/C18 - C27  1962-1965

The lectures 'on natural theology without reference to creeds', were given by Hardy in the University of Aberdeen. They constitute a major statement, occupying two sessions, each of ten lectures, in the academic years 1963-64 and 1964-65. The published versions, in two volumes, indicate by their sub-titles the somewhat different emphases of the series; the first, The living stream: a restatement of evolution theory and its relation to the spirit of man (1965) and the second, The divine flame: an essay towards a natural history of religion (1966). The books reached a wide public, The living stream being awarded the Lecomte de Noüy Prize (see C.23) and Hardy made over the royalties from these and his other books on religion to establish his Religious Experience Research Unit.

Invitation  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.18  1962

Correspondence, information on Gifford bequest etc.

The living stream  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.19  n.d

Miscellaneous notes and drafts by Hardy.

Correspondence with colleagues for information or comments during preparation of lectures  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.20  1963-65

Hardy's errata lists for published volume and of complimentary copies; correspondence from scientific colleagues, friends and members of public arising from publication, some with detailed replies from Hardy.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.21  n.d

Reviews of The living stream.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.22  n.d

Award of Lecomte du Noüy Prize 1968, and correspondence  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.23  1968-71

Hardy's original black and white line drawings.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.24  n.d

The divine flame  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.25  n.d

Hardy's list of complimentary copies, correspondence from colleagues preceding or following publication, and from readers, some with drafts of Hardy's replies.

Hardy's lists of acknowledgments and permissions to quote, correspondence with publishing house; syllabus and abstracts of lectures.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.26  n.d

Reviews of The divine flame.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.27  n.d

'Behaviour as a selective agent - a new look at evolution theory', lecture to Section D, British Association, September 1967. Manuscript drafts, summary report.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.28  1967

'Theology in the university: an outsider's view', lecture at Conference for teachers of theology in UK Universities, Leeds, December 1967. Manuscript draft.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.29  1967

'Marett, anthropology and religion', the Marett Memorial Lecture, Oxford, 9 May 1968. Manuscript draft.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.30  1968

'Science and the transcendental', lecture at Manchester College Oxford, 22 May 1968, and to Guild of Pastoral Psychology Conference, Oxford, September 1968. Manuscript draft.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.31  1968

'Science and an experimental faith', lecture on work of newly-established RERU, n.d. [1968-69]. Notes, 'abridged version'.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.32  1968-1969

'A scientist looks at religion', Friday Evening Discourse at Royal Institution, 7 November 1969. Manuscript draft, correspondence. Similar material to C.32.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.33  1969

'Is there a future for religious belief?', talk on BBC Third Programme, 17 March 1970. Hardy's draft, transcript, shorter version published in The Listener, correspondence.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.34  1970

Correspondence (only) re Hardy's 'Lunch-hour Dialogue' at St. Mary-le-Bow London, 29 September, and Advent Lectures on 'The Spiritual Development of Man' at Sion College London, 7 and 14 December 1970.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.35  1970

'Does God make a difference?', talk on BBC Overseas Service November 1971. Hardy's manuscript draft, transcript. Correspondence (only) re BBC TV 'Horizon' programme on religious experience 1972-73.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.36  1971-1973

'An experimental faith', draft for second of two short articles, published in The Times 18 August 1973. The first article (no draft survives) had appeared on 11 August.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.37  1973

Sermon preached at Christ Church Cathedral Oxford 18 November 1973 and at Oundle School 8 May 1975. Manuscript notes, incomplete.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.38  1973-1975

'Evolution and the human spirit', lecture at Sussex University  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.39  22 November 1973

The challenge of chance. Experiments and speculations  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.40  1973

A collaborative publication on coincidence, telepathy and randomness, with R. Harvie and A. Koestler, published by Hutchinson and in USA by Random House, Inc.
Brief correspondence, reviews and replies to reviews.

'Behaviour and evolution', the Boyle Lecture, Oxford, 1 February 1974. Manuscript draft.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.41  1974

'Behaviour as a selective agent in evolution', contribution to new preface for J. Huxley's Evolution: the modern synthesis, 3rd edition 1975. Manuscript drafts and notes.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.42  1975

Drafts for two chapters 'for the Farmington Trust Volume', entitled 'The world we live in', and 'Spiritual awareness in the experience of mankind', n.d., perhaps 1975.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.43  1975

The biology of God (Cape 1975)  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.44  n.d

Notes, quotations etc. used for book. Draft for Chapter 9 'Dog and man: man and God' (an idea frequently used by Hardy in later writings and interviews).

Hardy's list of presentation copies, correspondence from colleagues and readers.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.45  n.d

Reviews, a few with correspondence.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.46  n.d

'The universality of religious experience', address to World Congress of Faiths, Manuscript draft.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.47  17 September 1977

BBC TV 'Everyman' programme 'It could happen to you', October 1979. Manuscript notes, brief correspondence.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.48  1979

The spiritual nature of man (Oxford 1979)  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.49  n.d

Miscellaneous notes and drafts.

Comments on draft by colleagues and editor; correspondence from readers.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.50  n.d

Correspondence re possible publication of book and other projected writings by Hardy, mainly with Cape but also with Gollanoz. Hardy's letter of 1 December 1977 is of special interest in outlining his substantial writing programme including his autobiography (a duplicate is included for ease of reference at A.55).  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.51  n.d

Correspondence with OUP contract, editing, publishing, publicity, paperback edition etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.52  1978-83

Hardy's list of complimentary copies, correspondence with writers, journalists, editors etc. re publicity. Hardy was particularly desirous of ensuring a wide and sympathetic reception for the book which described the results of the work of the RERU and was also intended to assist its future via the royalty receipts (the BBC TV 'Everyman' programme (C.48) was also intended to foster interest). Hardy's letters to Arthur Koestler and Philip Toynbee set out at some length his views on science and religion.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.53  n.d

Reviews of Spiritual nature of man.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.54  n.d

'Science and spirituality', lecture given to Centre for Spiritual and Psychological Studies, in the Jerusalem Chamber Westminster Abbey Draft.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.55  20 September 1980

'The church and science', Lenten lunch-time talk, St. Martin-in-the-Fields London, Draft.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.56  1981

'Darwinian evolution need not be materialist. .. . ', paper given at Higher Education Conference, Exeter, Manuscript notes and draft.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.57  December 1981

Correspondence (only) re possible BBC Radio 4 programme on coincidence; Border Television volume based on series of programmes on 'Revelations', for which Hardy wrote a Foreword. Correspondence 1984-85, draft of Hardy's contribution.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.58  1982-1985

Darwin and the spirit of man (Collins 1984)  NCUACS 5/4/88/C59  1984

This was the last book which Hardy saw through the press, and the only one for which a complete draft survives.
Typescript and manuscript drafts and amended proofs.

Correspondence with publishers, contract, readers' and editor's comments, revisions, publicity etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.60  1981-84

Correspondence re biographical interview arranged as part of launch of book, published in The Standard 13 February 1984. Includes drafts of article and Hardy's emendations and comments.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.61  1982-84

Correspondence with colleagues, replies to reviewers.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.62  n.d

Reviews of book, press-cuttings on Darwin and Darwinism.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.63  n.d

'Science and Religion', article written on request for Le Figaro Magazine, but apparently not published.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.64  October 1984

Miscellaneous invitations to attend or address meetings and conferences on religious topics.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.65  n.d


The material is presented as follows:
C.66-C.78 Organisation and research 1966-85.
A chronological sequence of correspondence, reports and papers relating to all aspects of RERU (establishment, administration, funding, relations with Manchester College, appointments, research programmes).
C.79-C.86 Funding.
C.87-C.90 Staff and appointments.

Organisation and research  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.66 - C.78  1966-1985

[no title]  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.66  1966-68

Establishment of Unit, assignment of royalties from The divine flame, agreement with Manchester College, legal arrangements.

Launch of the Unit, circular letters and reports, correspondence.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.67  1969

Reports, correspondence, extracts from college committee minutes (compiled by Hardy). Includes speech by Hardy to celebrate 25th anniversary of founding of Faith and Freedom and its editor E.S. Price. 1972.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.68  1970-75

Meetings of RERU Research Council (1st Meeting July 1976), reports, correspondence, charitable status, college committees etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.69  1976-78

This was a difficult year for the RERU financially and also because of uncertainty about the programme of future research proposed by the Director, E.A. Robinson. In view of the weak financial situation, Hardy dissolved the Research Council after its meetings in April in order to relieve the Trustees of any responsibility, which he took upon himself for a limited period.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.70  1979

Drafts for research projects put forward for RERU by E. A. Robinson, including 'Tradition and Experience' 1979, religious studies in education, and others, various dates 1979-81, some annotated unfavourably by Hardy, and discussed in the papers and correspondence.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.71  1979-1981

Meetings of reconstituted Research Council, research proposals, separate charitable status etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.72  1980

Correspondence with Director and Council members on research proposals.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.73  August-December 1980

Papers and correspondence on future of RERU, relations with college, possible re-siting etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.74  1981-82

Council meetings, new trust deed, proposals for new Alister Hardy Research Centre and comments.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.75  1983

Draft documents, proposals and appeal material for the Alister Hardy Research Centre, some annotated, discussed in committee meetings and correspondence and including final versions.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.76  n.d

Meetings, reports on research project, correspondence, arrangements for Press Lunch for Alister Hardy Research Centre 9 October.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.77  1984

Meetings and correspondence January-June (Hardy attended the Council meeting on 7 May and died on 22 May).  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.78  1985

Funding  NCUACS 5/4/88/C79-C86  1968-1985

An alphabetical sequence of correspondence and papers relating to individuals and charitable institutions including the Templeton Trust and Templeton Prize of £170,000 awarded to Hardy in 1985.

The Dulverton Trust  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.79  1980, 1984

Re Mrs. Ernest, a benefactor who left a bequest to RERU in 1969. Correspondence (with daughter).  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.80  1968-70, 1985

The Farmington Trust 1972  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.81  1980-85

The Moorgate Trust Fund, founded by Sir John Ellerman (Hardy's earlier patron at Hull and Oxford) in 1970. Correspondence 1980-81 with Lady Ellerman and Trustee.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.82  1970-1981

The Templeton Foundation  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.83-C.85  n.d

General correspondence with J.M. Templeton and others 1973-80, 1984.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.83  1973-1984

Award of Templeton Prize to Hardy in The award was announced to Hardy on 10 February (his birthday) and the public ceremony took place at Guildhall London on 14 May. On the previous day Hardy suffered a stroke and was unable to attend or to give his address, which was read for him. He died on 22 May. Folder includes correspondence, arrangements and invitations for ceremony, copy of Hardy's speech and his manuscript commentary on the Lord's Prayer, brochure of ceremony.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.84  1985

Letters of congratulation (not indexed).  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.85  n.d

Miscellaneous financial statements and estimates for RERU 1971-82. Also included is a letter from Hardy June 1983 about his difficulties and successes in fund-raising.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.86  1971-1983

Staff and collaborators  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.87-C.90  1979-1984

B-H, W.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.87  n.d

Hay, J.D.L.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.88  1977-84

Knox, C.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.89  1981, 1984

Robinson, E.A.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.90  1969-70, 1975, 1979

CORRESPONDENCE  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.91-C.110  1966-1984

Armstrong, H.J.B.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.91  1979

Berry, R.J.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.92  1979-81

Burt, C.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.93  1965-68

Correspondence on various theories and writings; includes extensive comments by Burt on Hardy's draft Gifford lectures, and copy of letter on logos by M. Laski (Memoir, p. 265).

Cook, G. and Cook, V.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.94  1975-84

Ernest, J.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.95  1979, 1981, 1983

Includes Hardy's draft for foreword for book on life of the mystic and healer Dorothy Kerin, by Ernest.

Honig-Prager, D.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.96  1979-85

Dieuwke Honig-Prager was the widow of C.J. Honig, a Dutch industrialist, whose writings she assembled. She endowed a research studentship at RERU in his memory.

Hyde, L.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.97  1923, 1927, 1951-52

Oxford contemporary of Hardy.

Koestler, A.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.98  1979-85

Includes material re K.I.B. Foundation (Koestler, Brian Inglis, Instone Bloomfield), memorial meeting for Arthur and Cynthia Koestler, Koestler Chair of Parapsychology.

Micklem, N.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.99  1969, 1976

Montgomery, H.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.100  1982

Scoresby, Coleridge and the unconscious.

Oakeshott, W.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.101  1964

Manchester College and Oxford University.

Popper, K.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.102  1966-67, 1974-76

Correspondence 1966-67 includes Hardy's comments on Popper's Herbert Spencer lecture on evolution.

Raven, C.E.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.103  1962, 1975

Letter 1962 is from Raven, on Teilhard de Chardin. Correspondence 1975 is re biography of Raven.

Robertson, E.H.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.104  1981-82

Mainly on article written by Robertson on Hardy and RERU for 'God and the scientists', and includes draft and comments.

Russell, W.M.S.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.105  1963-64, 1972

Simpson, H.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.106  1983-84

Tickell, R.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.107  1963-66, 1983

Weatherhead, L.D.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.108  1952, 1966

Wilson, M.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.109  1981

Miscellaneous shorter correspondence on religious matters, experiences, publications etc., most with replies from Hardy on his views and plans. Not indexed.  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.110  n.d


Articles, letters to press etc. on religion by Hardy  NCUACS 5/4/88/C.111  n.d

RERU Reports.
Press-cuttings on Hardy and religion, RERU, Templeton Prize etc.


Historiograph  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.1-D.3  1919-45

This was a device 'for displaying, recording and teaching history or other subjects'. Hardy First patented it when he was at Oxford in 1919 but was unable to interest any commercial educational publisher. In 1937 and 1938 he revised and re-filed his patent and in 1940-41 pushed hard first to interest University College Hull, then to raise private finance. In a letter to H.G. Wells of 3 January 1941 included at D.3 he explains that his main purpose in launching the device was to further the scientific study of human ecology.

First patent, drawings, correspondence etc. for 'An improved system for recording and teaching history'.  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.1  1919-23

Revised patent, drawings, under title 'Histograph'.  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.2  1937-38

Correspondence, extracts from Hull Senate minutes on 'Historiograph'.  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.3  1940-41, 1945

'A floating university. An idea', 7 pp. manuscript draft, n.d. perhaps during Naples period  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.4  c.1921

'The motor catering company', 1 p. outline for a type of 'Meals on Wheels' service aimed at an affluent public, n.d. early 1920s.  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.5  n.d, 1920

Drawings of various devices for sea-bed harvesting by 'submarine tractor trawl' harrow and mopeds  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.6  n.d

Two patents filed patent and drawings for 'Microdrome' or 'Improvements in buildings for instruction or entertainment'; pp. 3 and 4 only of patent for a device for microscopic work.  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.7  1937

'The need for Noah's Arks', Hardy's suggestion for preserving aspects of civilisation after a nuclear war, published as article in The Times May 1960. Includes draft, correspondence from readers 1960 and later (to 1967), copy of abridged version used as examination paper 1960.  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.8  1960-1967

Brief correspondence on new design for bicycle which Hardy had invented and was thinking of patenting  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.9  1979

Melbourne Landmark Ideas Competition Includes Hardy's entry and drawings, official report on entries received. In his entry, Hardy referred to his earlier 'Noah's Ark' proposal (D.8) and hoped it might be incorporated in the eventual choice.  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.10  1979

'Designs for a "House of Prayer"'  NCUACS 5/4/88/D.11  n.d

Related information: See NCUACS 5/4/88/B.9, NCUACS 5/4/88/B.56 for other patents filed by Hardy

SECTION E OTHER INTERESTS  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.1-E.42  1908 - 1982

NCUACS 5/4/88/E.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/E.11 Flight and Balloons
With an introductory note
NCUACS 5/4/88/E.12-NCUACS 5/4/88/E.23 Northern Cyclist Battalion (NCB)
With an introductory note
NCUACS 5/4/88/E.24-NCUACS 5/4/88/E.27 Drawing and Painting
With an introductory note
NCUACS 5/4/88/E.28-NCUACS 5/4/88/E.34 Fiction and Poetry
With an introductory note
NCUACS 5/4/88/E.35-NCUACS 5/4/88/E.42 Boxing
With an introductory note
The topics in this section represent active interests of Hardy which played a part in his scientific and spiritual formation rather than what would normally be termed 'outside interests'. It is clear from the outlines for his autobiography (A.55), which have been drawn upon for the introductory notes to each topic, that he intended them to feature in his own account of his life. They are presented in chronological order of the earliest surviving datable material.

FLIGHT AND BALLOONS  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.1-E.11  1908-1924

Hardy's fascination with what he called 'airships and aeroplanes' dates from his preparatory schooldays in 1908. Chapters 5 and 13 of the draft autobiography (A.55) deal briefly with his first flight in 1914, won in a lottery, and later observation flying as part of his fishery work. There is also the account of a balloon flight from London to Oxford in 1924 which was published posthumously in 1986 as Weekend with Willows; here Hardy refers to his schoolboy enthusiasm and adds (p.15) 'I still have four large scrap albums of cuttings and photographs covering all the important flights of the years 1908-10'. These are preserved at E.1-E.4. Additional material of general historical interest can also be found at E.5, E.9.

Four large-format scrapbooks of photographs and press-cuttings.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.1-E.4  1908-1911

'Airships and Flying-machines Vol.I', 'commenced 28.XII.08 completed 5.IX.09'.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.1  1908-1909

'Airships and Flying-machines Vol.II', 'commenced 6.IX.09, completed 13.1.10'.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.2  1909-1910

'Airships and Flying-machines Vol.III', 'commenced 14.I.10, completed 4.VIII.10'.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.3  1910

Untitled, similar material, mainly 1910-11. Includes photograph of the 'Willows airship' signed by E.T. Willows.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.4  1910-1911

Similar material, some contemporary with scrapbooks but some later material, including Hardy's coronation balloon flight at Merton (see also F.45) Sadler commemorative flight (see also F.46) Lunardi bicentenary etc. Probably intended for incorporation in scrapbooks but not completed.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.5  c.1909-11

Three early notebooks kept by Hardy at his preparatory school Bramcote, Scarborough.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.6-E.8  1909-1910

'Aeronautics', begun 21 June 1909.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.6  1909

'Aeronautics. Artificial and natural flight by means of flapping wings'  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.7  19 June 1910

'Aeronautics. Artificial and natural flight by means of flapping wings'  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.8  2 August 1910

Album of photographs and press-cuttings  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.9  1908-1914

Of various aviation meetings 1908-14, at Harrogate, Doncaster, Bradford etc., some captioned by Hardy. Includes original material relating to Hardy's flight from Bradford to Leeds with Sydney Pickles in July 1914 (certificate, photographs, Hardy's sketch of the route, poster 'Harrogate man wins free flight' etc.).

Hardy's copy of programme of 1909 Doncaster aviation meeting.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.10  1909

Miscellaneous material relating to balloon flight from London with E.T. Willows in 1924, later published as Weekend with Willows. Plan of account, manuscript draft of first episodes, diary of events.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.11  1924


Hardy served with the NCB from January 1915 to October 1917, and was in command of C company from February 1917. The battalion was composed almost wholly of miners and pitmen from the Durham coalfield. Hardy's experience with the NCB was catalytic. Although he had already, during his first term at Oxford in 1914, made his secret vow to reconcile Darwinian evolutionary principles with his deep sense of the spiritual nature of man, it was his encounter and prolonged contact with these men of such differing origin and outlook from any previously imagined which crystallised Hardy's view of the unity of mankind and added a sense of social anger and a desire to break down artificial barriers of class and education. The impression made on him can be gauged by the title he gives Chapter 6 of his draft autobiography - 'Beloved Company' - though the surviving account as written up is little more than an outline of his career with NCB and the frequent promise of more to come. The various plans for the projected book show at least one and sometimes two further chapters allocated to his later contacts with his old comrades; there is also a heading for a chapter on 'The conquest of class' (A.55).
The manuscript and other material below, however, give ample indications of Hardy's devotion to the NCB and its men; he contributed drawings and cartoons to the magazine The Northern Mudguard (E.21, E.22, originals at E.24); he was in correspondence with some former company members from early 1918 and by autumn 1919 had started to write to and assemble records of as many as possible of the battalion; he published the results at his own expense as A Memoir in 1920 (E.23); and he maintained regular postal contact with a substantial number of old comrades and their families. As with his contacts with shipmates and laboratory staff documented in Section A, the NCB letters extend to children and grandchildren, may include photographs, drawings or similar mementoes, and regularly record visits by or to Hardy and Lady Hardy, advice on careers and welfare and quiet benefactions. Some of the exchanges are very brief, perhaps through an early death or (very rarely) lack of response, but the majority extend over long stretches of time and are broken only by death. They provide an interesting picture of social changes; they are preserved in alphabetical order at E.12-E.18.
The annual reunions, of which the first took place in 1919, were not in origin Hardy's idea, but their regular continuation owed almost everything to his determined enthusiasm. The chief local organiser was Bob Cowan, for many years secretary of the Ashington and Ellington Social Club where the reunions were often held, and there were various 'whippers-in' for other districts. Hardy made a point of attending and of looking up old friends and their families whenever possible and into advanced age. Another feature of the NCB connection was the Christmas card which he designed specially every year as long as he was able to do so and which was much looked forward to and cherished by the recipients (E.26).
Almost all the letters are incoming, and bear a tick or symbol (o) indicating that Hardy had answered them; only a few of his draft replies remain, usually with material of some personal or biographical interest. Examples of these may be found in correspondence with D.D. Anderson 9 November 1927, P.M. Black 5 January 1932, J. Irwin 20 February 1949, B. Patterson 4 October 1951, J.A. Scott 1920.

Letters from old NCB comrades.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.12-E.18  n.d

A. Hardy's lists of correspondents (D-W only) are also included here.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.12  [n.d.]

B.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.13  [n.d.]

C.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.14  [n.d.]

D-G  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.15  [n.d.]

H-L  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.16  [n.d.]

H-P  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.17  [n.d.]

R-M  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.18  [n.d.]

Miscellaneous material re NCB and reunions Includes Hardy's circular letters, address lists, lists of those attending reunions etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.19  1925-75

Press-cuttings of reunions  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.20  1919, 1920, 1961-69

The Northern Mudguard (NCB magazine)  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.21, E.22  1915-1918

Vol. I, nos. 1-24  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.21  September 1915 - September 1916

Vol. II, nos. 1-12 Vol. III, no. 1; October 1916 - December 1916, January 1918  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.22  1916-1918

A Memoir of C Company  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.23  n.d, 1920

Related information: Photographs of NCB members, on wartime service and in later years, and of reunions are at NCUACS 5/4/88/F.37-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.43. A film of an NCB reunion is at NCUACS 5/4/88/F.56.

With preface by Hardy explaining genesis of the work and his part in it. n.d. [1920]
Also included here is Programme of Military and Athletic Sports meeting 1916.

DRAWING AND PAINING  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.24-E.27  1915-1884

Hardy was a skilful amateur artist. He provided his own sketches, diagrams and water-colour illustrations to all his major scientific works. The original drawings for the open sea and Great waters are in the Zoology Department Oxford; drawings of temples are at the Alister Hardy Research Centre. See B.31, B.72, F.50 for other water-colour sketches by Hardy, and B.91, C.24, Section D passim for drawings and diagrams.

Sketches and cartoons  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.24  1915-18

Some of plans for coastal defence by NCB but mainly caricatures and humorous drawings of individuals or incidents. Many appeared in The Northern Mudguard.

Miscellaneous drawings and sketches, including mining scenes aeroplanes, bird flight, woad industry etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.25  c.1925

Album of NCB Christmas cards designed and sent by Hardy, 1937-78.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.26  1915, 1937-8

Album of Christmas cards designed and sent by Hardy to others  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.27  1938-84

FICTION AND POETRY  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.28-E.34  1921-1960

A chapter heading for the draft autobiography (A.55) is 'The fun of writing stories'. It remains tantalizingly unwritten, but its place between 'Lowestoft' and 'Out with the herring fleet' suggests a period in the early 1920s for many of Hardy's literary efforts. This would be broadly correct, but much of his writing was of a semi-abstract nature on his familiar humanitarian anti-materialist themes which may be of a slightly earlier date. The reflections on Newcastle and the verses on Durham cathedral for example (E.28) date from 1917 according to Hardy's letter of 30 October 1979 to Philip Toynbee (see C.53), and the drafts and plans for his book on 'A layman's search for God' (E.29) may belong to his time at Naples.

Speculations, reflections, poems, plans for books or writings on evolution, natural theology, social justice etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.28  1917-1925

Include reflections on Newcastle, a 'rough rhyme' on 'Impressions of a visit to Durham' (both 1917), 'The Boiling Point' (perhaps during wartime), 'At the top of the ladder - what?' (outline for seventeen chapters of book on 'a theory of scientific theology', 'The guiding force of future evolution' (outline for seven chapters of book), speech attacking established Church (post war), miscellaneous verses, outline for book on 'The Weaving: a natural history of life as a whole' (1925).

'A layman's search for God'  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.29  nd, 1921

Plans and drafts for book so titled. n.d. but kept with draft of letter to A. Denis on subject, and travel notes of journeys in Italy 1921.

Osmic Jones  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.30  1923

Being a popular account of the extraordinary adventures of Professor Oswald Jones FRS in the microscopic world and the events leading to the foundation of the Tanklin Society'.
This was Hardy's most ambitious venture, a science fiction fantasy using his ideas on evolution and other autobiographical elements. It is often referred to in the early correspondence with Denis (B.116). The 'title page' is given a notional publication date 'London 1923' but Hardy does not seem to have submitted it to a publisher. The material consists of a title page, introduction and variously paginated drafts.

Short stories  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.31  1925

Written at Lowestoft, submitted to literary agent and returned to Hardy at Dartmouth 1925 immediately before sailing of Discovery. Includes reader's report on five stories: 'The alchemist', 'Scrooby's hole', 'George and the dragon', 'The little silver flute', 'Bath salts'. A sixth story 'The Whincroft mystery' is also included. All the stories are signed 'Mac Alister' (Hardy's wartime nickname).

Out with the herring fleet  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.32  n.d., [1924-25]

Manuscript draft for the first of a series of narratives planned under the title 'Little Adventures' (list enclosed) which would also have included 'Down the mine', 'Into the microscopic world', 'Weekend ballooning', 'Flying for fish' and accounts of travels in Italy and Iceland.

Plans and drafts for stories  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.33  n.d

Similar to those at E.31 but also including 'The Expedition' perhaps written during or after Discovery expedition.

Plans and drafts for later writings  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.34  1942-1960

Includes some humorous anecdotes, various dates; 'Developing ideas. Essays towards new ways of thinking about science, psi and religion' (anthology of Hardy's addresses 1942-60), 'Ideas and Speculations' n.d. 1960s, 'The conquest of class' n.d. (also proposed as a chapter title in draft autobiography).

BOXING  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.35-E.42  1932-1982

Once more the title of an unwritten chapter in the draft autobiography (A.55) provides a partial clue to this interest of Hardy. It reads 'What is it about boxing?' and is immediately followed by 'Appointed to the Discovery', again suggesting that his involvement with the sport was developed during his years at Lowestoft. The correspondence with the Dann brothers (E.40) supports this by their recollections of sparring sessions in various Lowestoft public-houses where they were landlords, though no date is given. Hardy's preparation for the Discovery voyage seems to have included physical training, which brought him into contact with H.W. Birmingham and H. Young, both army boxers (E.39, E.42).
On his move to Hull, Hardy wished to continue boxing. He advertised in the Hull newspaper and received a reply from C.J. Buck, an amateur boxer then serving in the army. This began a long involvement with the Buck family through many vicissitudes, Hardy greatly valuing the contact with a (then very humble) Hull family who welcomed him into their home, and keeping in touch with successive generations by post and by visits right to the last. Several of his later letters to the younger members necessarily contain explanations of his arrival among them as 'Uncle Mac' and are of interest in that respect.
It is less clear how Hardy became involved with A. Newton, a blind boxer who ran training establishments for several years in London. The earliest letter is dated 1952 but suggests some previous acquaintance. Hardy kept up contact with the family for many years (E.41).
Because of its extent, the material relating to C.J. Buck and family is placed first (E.35-E.38), the other boxing correspondence following in alphabetical order.

Correspondence with C.J. Buck and family kept in Hardy's bundles, some with notes by him.  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.35  1932-50

(Year of C.J. Buck's death)  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.36  1951-71

Miscellaneous correspondence with members of the Buck family  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.37  1954-69

Later correspondence with members of the Buck family after the death of C.J. Buck 1972-82  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.38  1972-1982

Hardy wrote a circular letter at Christmas and sometimes in between, and continued to offer friendship, help and annual visits (the last apparently in 1979). Several of his letters contain personal and biographical reminiscences.

Letters from H.W. Birmingham and family  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.39  1925-63

Letters from Arthur, George and Ernest Dann and families  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.40  1939-61

Letters from and material relating to the blind boxer A. Newton, and family  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.41  1952-80

Letters from H. Young  NCUACS 5/4/88/E.42  1926-31

SECTION F NON-PRINT MATERIAL  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.1-F.56  1901 - 1984

NCUACS 5/4/88/F.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.48 Photographs
Personal and family NCUACS 5/4/88/F.1-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.3
Colleagues NCUACS 5/4/88/F.4
Research projects NCUACS 5/4/88/F.5-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.10
Discovery NCUACS 5/4/88/F.11-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.20
Other expeditions NCUACS 5/4/88/F.21-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.29
Hull NCUACS 5/4/88/F.30-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.33
Oxford NCUACS 5/4/88/F.34, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.35
British Association NCUACS 5/4/88/F.36
Northern Cyclist Battalion NCUACS 5/4/88/F.37-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.43
Miscellaneous NCUACS 5/4/88/F.44-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.48
NCUACS 5/4/88/F.49, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.50 Drawings
NCUACS 5/4/88/F.51-NCUACS 5/4/88/F.54 Tape Recordings
NCUACS 5/4/88/F.55, NCUACS 5/4/88/F.56 Films

PHOTOGRAPHS  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.1-F.48  1901-1984

Personal and family  NCUACS 5/4/88/F1 - F3  1914 - 1984

Portrait studies of Hardy ?1915, in uniform 1917. Hardy's mother. Hardy and Sidney Pickles in aircraft 1914.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.1  1914 - 1917

Hardy and his children (snapshots) 1930s. Hardy and Sylvia, Faroe Islands 1949. Hardy 1949, 1979, n.d.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.2  1930-1979

Honorary degrees Southampton 1962, Hull 1963. Ornithological Congress 1966 (2 with Ernst Mayr, 1 with V. Wynne-Edwards). In Australia (2) 1961. At Alister Hardy Research Centre ?October 1984.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.3  1961-1984

Colleagues  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.4  1920-1942

Hardy with C.P. Blacker, J.R. Baker and T.T. Barnard, Plymouth 1920. F.S. Russell. Monica Taylor (Sister Monica). W.N. Paton c.1942. A.E. Morgan. Mrs Ernest (benefactor of RERU). Armand Denis, all periods.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.4  1920-1942

Research projects  NCUACS 5/4/88/F5-F10  1930 - 1950

Aerial insect drift. Tow-net experiments from ships and with kites and balloons  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.5  1930s

Aerial insect drift. Tow-nets from helicopters  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.6  1947

Vertical migration. Work with W.N. Paton c.1942, some used for paper 1947.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.7  1942-1947

Vertical migration. Work with R. Bainbridge and others on 'Plankton Wheel'.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.8  Early 1950s

At Millport. Hardy in frogman suit.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.9  Late 1940s

At sea off Scotland. Bioluminescence and vertical migration  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.10  ?1950s

Discovery  NCUACS 5/4/88/F11-F20  1901 - 1925

Related information: Some, but not all, of these photographs were later used in Great waters. See also NCUACS 5/4/88/B.49.

Crew and colleagues.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.11  n.d

Ships: William Scoresby (2); St. George, Dartmouth 1925; Launch of first Discovery, Dundee 1901 (3).  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.12  1901 - 1925

Discovery (sometimes with other ships).  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.13  n.d

Photographs (small format) identified by Hardy on verso, landfall in Canaries etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.14  n.d

Landfall in South Africa.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.15  n.d

Voyage, equipment, crossing the line, plankton recorder etc.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.16  n.d

Tristan da Cunha.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.17  n.d

Birds, penguins, seals, dolphin.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.18  n.d

Whales.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.19  n.d

Icebergs and floes, Antarctic scenery.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.20  n.d

Other expeditions  NCUACS 5/4/88/F21-F29  1953-1967

Visit to Hong Kong 1953 (see B.96-B.98). Construction, launching ceremony and banquet, sea trials of research vessel Alister Hardy. Includes negative of photograph of Hardy framed by vessel's lifebelt, of which he was very fond.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.21  1953

Two enlarged photographs of Alister Hardy.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.22  n.d

Hardy and colleagues during Hong Kong visit.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.23  n.d

Photographs of Alister Hardy, crew, equipment etc. at work, 1954.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.24  May 1954

On research vessel Explorer  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.25  1957

Not used.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.26  nd

At Angkor Wat  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.27  1957

Related information: (see NCUACS 5/4/88/B.100)

Te Vega expedition Album.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.28  1965

Related information: (see NCUACS 5/4/88/B.104).

Photographs of Te Vega expedition.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.29  n.d

Hull  NCUACS 5/4/88/F30-F33  1929

Department and laboratory.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.30  n.d

Hardy and members of department.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.31  n.d

Specimens and exhibits, mainly the very large tunny fish referred to in W. Garstang's verses of  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.32  1929

Related information: (see NCUACS 5/4/88/B.122)

Hull University College Group photograph  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.33  May 1931

Oxford  NCUACS 5/4/88/F34-F35  1948 - 1972

Zoology Department Group photographs.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.34  1948 - 1960

1948 (with key)
1949 (with key)
1951 (with key)
1954 (with key)
1955 (with key)
1956 (with key)
1957 (with key)
1958 (with key)
1959 (with key)
1960 (with key)

Photograph of E.B. Ford, Hardy and J.R. Baker posed in front of their triple portrait by H. Schwarz unveiled in Zoology Department by J.S. Huxley 1972. Photographs of Hardy, J.W.S. Pringle and T.R.E. Southwood (successive Linacre Professors) at party in Department. Photograph of Department at coffee break 1958.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.35  1958 - 1972

British Association  NCUACS 5/4/88/F36  1948-1958

Group photographs of Section D (zoology) at annual meetings 1948 Brighton, 1949 Newcastle, 1958 Glasgow (with key).  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.36  1948-1958

Northern Cyclist Battalion  NCUACS 5/4/88/F37-F43  N.d

Album of individual and group photographs compiled by Hardy.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.37  n.d

Portrait photographs or snaps of NCB comrades during active service, most identified and dated.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.38  n.d

Group photographs during active service.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.39  n.d

NCB with cycles during active service.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.40  n.d

Photographs or cards of sites of NCB service or. East coast.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.41  n.d

Later photographs of NCB comrades, families.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.42  n.d

NCB reunions, some dated. Most at Ashington, some London.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.43  n.d

Miscellaneous  NCUACS 5/4/88/F44-F.48  n.d

Crew of George Bligh. Photographs at Ashington.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.44  n.d

Attempts to send up balloon from Merton quadrangle to celebrate Coronation  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.45  1953

Sadler Commemoration balloon ascent from Merton playing field  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.46  1970

C.J. Buck and family, all periods (album).  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.47  n.d

Glossy photographs documenting all periods of Hardy's career, taken or enlarged by N. Richards c.1984 as part of Hardy's preparations for his autobiography, from existing photographs or memorabilia.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.48  n.d

DRAWINGS  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.49, F.50  1923 - 1963

Continuous Plankton Recorder drawings. In roll.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.49  n.d

Certificate for 'Crossing the Line' Ceremony on Discovery 1925 (drawn by Hardy). Also later certificate for crossing by plane 1963. Kept together.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.50  1925-1963

TAPE RECORDINGS  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.51-F.54  1973 - 1984

'A scientific approach to religion' Seminar Cassettes Ltd.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.51  1973

'Desert Island Discs' BBC cassette  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.52  c.1974

Discussion with D. Morris  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.53  8 June 1983

Interview with D. Freeman, Radio Oxford  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.54  2 August 1984

FILMS  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.55, F.56  n.d

Launch of Alister Hardy, Hong Kong 16 mm. silent.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.55  1953

NCB reunion, 9.5 mm.  NCUACS 5/4/88/F.56  n.d

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