(A summary relation of all his services in Ireland.)
Coldness is thought in me in proceeding in the matter of marriage between my son and your daughter. In truth, it is not so. "Compremitting the consideration of the articles to the Earls named by you, and to the Earl of Huntingdon, I most willingly agree, and protest I joy in the alliance."
By your letters of 3 January I find there is no hope of relief of her Majesty for my decayed estate in her service. By sale of part of that which is left, I ransom me out of the servitude I live in for my debts. "I am not so unlusty but that I may be so employed, as I may have occasion to sell land to redeem myself out of prison; nor yet am I so old nor my wife so healthy but that she may die and I marry again, and get children or think I get some."
But since her Majesty will not reward me, give me leave somewhat to write to you of my two high offices, and of my service in them.
"Three times her Majesty hath sent me her Deputy into Ireland, and in every of the three times I sustained a great and a violent rebellion, every one of which I subdued, and (with honorable peace) left the country in quiet. I returned from each of those three deputations three thousand pounds worse than I went."
The first ["Note.--In my first passage I lost by shipwreck the most of my household stuff and utensils, my wife's whole apparel and all her jewels, many horses and stable stuff, &c."] was against Shane O'Neale, who had usurped the whole of Tyrone, being O'Neale's country, and subdued all the potentates and landlords in Ulster. The Scots of the Glynnes he held in pay. The Queen had nothing but the miserable town of Carregffargus. The county of Lowthe paid him tribute, called black rent. He exiled O'Donell, Lord of Tirconneil, and drave him into England.
I made war with him. He had of Scots and Irish 7,000 men. I had but 1,700, with 300 Berwick soldiers. I advanced into the rebel's country the 22nd of September 1566, and wasted Tyrone. The old Magwyre died in my camp, but I possessed his brother in his country. I then entered Tireconnell, where I found Colonel E. Randle, with a regiment of 700 soldiers. There of an old church I made a new fort. I left not one castle in the possession of the rebel, nor unrestored to the right owner. I repossessed the old exiled Callagh O'Donnell of the castle of Dunyngall and his country. In the second time of my deputation I sent to the now O'Donell, called Hugh, for the rent and the arrearages, to gather which he desired me to send my serjeant with some force.
I then marched into Carberie, O'Connor Sligo's country. O'Wryrk and others submitted. O'Conor made me great cheer. O'Ghare vowed to go into England, which he performed. I took the great abbey of Aboyle in Connaught. MacDermode submitted. The strong castle of Roscoman had been in the possession of disloyal Irishmen 160 years, "for so long was it before that it was betrayed, and the English constable and ward murdered, as I found in the Irish chronicles." There I planted a small garrison. O'Connor Dun, O'Connor Ro, O'Byrn, O'Flyn, and O'Flanygan did their homage.
From thence I went to Alone. The O'Kellyes desired to hold their lands of the Queen, "and it was done." The two principal captains of the Annally, called O'Farroll Boy and O'Farroll Bane, desired that Connaghe might be shired and rented, which was done, by the name of the county of Longford. I built the bridge of Alone.
The traitor, in my absence, invaded the English Pale, and made roads to the very walls of Dreydath, but was driven home by Sir Warham Sentleger and Sir Nicholas Heron. He approached the fort of the Derry. Colonel Randle repulsed him, but was slain. The rebel thus escaping invaded O'Donneyl's country, where he was met with and defeated by Sir Hugh O'Donnell. Between the end of November and the beginning of Lent following, I made many incursions into his country. Sometimes my vauntcurrers "felt his couch warm where he lay that night."
"In the Christmas holydays I visited him in the heart of his country, where he had made as great an assembly as he could, and had provided as great and good cheer as was to be had in the country. And when word was brought him that I was so near him, 'That is not possible (qd he), for the day before yesterday I know he dined and sat under his cloth of estate in the hall of Kilmainham.' 'By O'Neyle's hand (qd the messenger), he is in thy country and not far off, for I saw the red bractok with the knotty club, and that is carried before none but himself; meaning my pensell with the ragged staff. With that he ran away, and so I shortened his Christmas, and made an end of mine own with abundance of his good provision." He resolved to submit, but feared the fury of the watch.
"How pleasant a life it is that time of the year, with hunger and after sore travail, to harbour long and cold nights in cabbanes made of boughs and covered with grass, I leave to your indifferent judgment."
But now the Earl of Ormond applied the Queen with such complaints against me and Sir Warham Sentleger, whom I placed with others in commission in Munster, and her Majesty wrote so often and so earnestly to me touching hurts done to him and his by the Earl of Desmond, that I was forced to address me southward against Desmond. So I advanced towards Munster in January and came not home till April. "The Earl of Desmond met me at Carryke (a house of Ormond) whom I carried with me to Waterford, Dungarvon, Yoghill, and Cork, all the way hearing and ordering the complaints between the two Earls. When the Earl found I dealt justly with Ormond, and that I rather showed favour than severity (as indeed I did to all his), after sundry and several speeches of very hard digestion, expressing his malicious intention, he would have been gone from me, which I denied him, and unwitting to him appointed a guard to attend him day and night. I ordered against him a great sum in recompense of damages done to Ormond, and so took him with me to Kilmallocke. Then I was informed by his own brother John and by Lacie, then Bishop of Limerick, that he intended by force to rescue himself from me, and to that end had a great number of men in areadiness.
"Hereupon, calling such noblemen and potentates of Munster as I had with me, namely, the Viscounts Barry and Roche. Macarty Reoghe, Sir Dermod MacTeague of Muscrye, the Barons Coursey and Lexnaue, with Condon and a few other principal gentlemen of that province. I declared unto them what intelligence I had of Desmond's intention, and asked them whether they would give me their faithful promise and oath to take my part, and do as I would; 'for Desmond (said I) will I take, and as a prisoner lead away with me.' They forthwith answered me as it were with one voice, that they would to the uttermost adventure of their lives do whatsoever I would have them. Hereupon I took such security of them as I thought convenient, and was indeed sufficient, and immediately sent for the Earl of Desmond, whom in the presence of the forenamed personages and the Sovereign of Kilmallock, with the best of his brethren of the same town, [I] did arrest, and committed him to the custody of my Marshal; which arrest and commitment humbly on his knees he yielded unto."
The lords and others above written persuaded me that it was no policy nor safe for me to lead him out of that town till I had greater force. I had but 50 English spears, 50 English shot, and 50 galloglass. But I, seeing the town to be great and weak, sent to the Mayor of Limerick, willing him to make ready for me as many men as he could, which he accomplished. 300 well-appointed fighting men met me between Kilmallock and Limerick. Out of Kilmallock I took 150 men. With these forces I issued out of the town.
"But still came threatenings to me that I should be fought with by the way, and the prisoner taken from me, but I rested resolute that I would to Limerick, and lead Desmond prisoner with me, and protested to him in the hearing of a multitude that if the least violence that might be were offered to the basest churl or horseboy of my train, he should die of my hand; and so mounting him on a worse horse than I rid on, marched away with him to Limerick, where after very few days I condemned him in the forfeiture of his band to the Queen's Majesty's use for breach of the peace against the Earl of Ormond of 20,000l. and had him indicted according to form and order of law for levying unlawfully men in warlike manner against me, her Majesty's Deputy, which is treason.
"Here I constituted John of Desmond, his brother, to be seneschal and captain of all the Earl's lands and seigniories, with charge and oath for his loyalty, and that he should, with all the speed he might, restore or recompense all her Majesty's subjects who[m] Desmond had (I now remember not in how many years before) spoiled or injured. And so making him knight, I departed that city, leaving him behind and still leading his brother prisoner with me. Sir John did so effectually in that his charge as (within three months after) I received letters of good credit that he had caused restitution to be made to the Queen's good subjects oppressed by his brother's tyranny of above 5,000l. These my acts (good Mr. Secretary) are both registered and enrolled.
"Then I went into and through the great countries of Tomond, and quieted all controversies in the same. I made the people apt to have and to obey a President and Council, like as I had planted in Munster. I took pledges of all such as I thought necessary to take pledges of. And so (having the Earl of Tomond with me) I passed through O'Shaghness' country and came to Salowe in Connaught, where I quieted and appeased sundry griefs and controversies between the Earl of Clanricard and other landlords of that province of Connaught. From thence I went through the same province to Alone, where I found everything in good quiet, in sort as I had left it, in my former long journey.
"But all this my doing for the Earl of Ormond and his could nothing satisfy him, but still he exclaimed in England that he could have no justice of me, nor of the Commissioners established in Munster, who were Sir Warham Sentleger, the second Baron of th' Exchequer, called Cusake, and Nicholas White, now Master of the Rolls in Ireland. Sir Warham Sentleger I knew, and do know him, for a worshipful, honest gent', and one that would not blemish his credit for either of both the Earls. Cusake I deemed to be more affected to Desmond than Ormond. White I knew, and all others that knew him thought [him] to be affectuously devoted to Ormond as one born his follower; and yet both honest.
"This composition of a Council I thought convenient for the primitive reformation of so old a cankered faction as was and yet is between the two Earls, who albeit they would inveigh each against other, yet if any sentence passed for the advancement of the Queen's prerogative, or suppression of either of their tyrannies, straightways it was cried out of, and complained of to the Queen, specially by the Earl of Ormond, as injustice and oppression; and thereupon received I many a bitter letter, which indeed tired me, and so perplexed my most dearest wife, as she fell most grievously sick upon the same, and in that sickness remained once in trance 52 hours, upon whose recovery I sent her into England."
I then addressed myself northward against Shane O'Nell, and wasted his country. He practised with Alister Oge MacDonnell, an Irish Scot, but upon the battle fought at the fort of Derry the most of his mercenary Scots left him. Captain Piers, seneschal of Clandeboy, did deal so as the traitor's practice was prevented. "And whereas he (O'Nell) looked for service at their (the Scots') hands against me, for service of me, they killed him the 22th day of June. And I began my wars with him the 22th of September before; so the wars endured eight months, whereof three I spent in Munster about the Earl of Ormond's causes, as is above rehearsed. And [they] sent me his head pickled in a pipkin and craved their reward, and (as I think they be not lately satisfied) they do still, as I know not many years since in your presence at the Council board the forenamed Alister Oge did by his letters and Captain Piers's."
I then went down into Ulster as far as the Blackwater, where I had yielded to me all holds or fast-places that Shane O'Nell kept anything of price in, more specially the pledges or prisoners, amongst whom was Thomas Vaughan; which pledges through hard keeping and famine were in most pitiful and miserable case. Amongst those places that were delivered me was an island standing in Logh Eogh, by the countrymen called Island Sydney, which piece Shane thought to be of most strength of any that he had, and where he kept his plate, jewels, and apparel.
"To my camp there came Turlo Lenogh, who had been in Shane's life Tanist of Tyrone, and yet by me made in those wars his enemy. He was by the people of that country chosen O'Nell, which title in truth he accepted, being given him with the brutish ceremonies incident to the same. There came with him the principalest of all his sirname, and I had with me the young Baron of Dunganan, Shane's eldest brother's son, whom I had bred in my house from a little boy, then very poor of goods and full feebly friended. I then, in the presence and hearing of all that were in my camp, as well of them who came with me as those that came with him, and all other the potentates and landlords of Ulster, rebuked him sharply for taking upon him the title of O'Nell afore her Majesty's pleasure were known, affirming unto him that I would not confirm the same, but would write to her Highness to nobilitate him with title of higher honour and dignity, which he seemed reverently to accept, and willingly to expect her Majesty's resolution. I then set down in form of articles certain covenants:"--that he should not take upon him the name of O'Nell till her Majesty's pleasure were known; that he should disclaim any superiority, rent, or service taken before by Shane from his uriaghs; that he should cease to exact other rent or service, or "buying," in certain countries (named); that he should not entertain any Scots, either born in the Glynnes or in Scotland, without special licence of the governor for the time being.
"Then descended I with him into the consideration of his own country of Tyrone, meaning indeed the dissipation of the same, and appointed unto him all the lands beneath or by north the Great or Black Water, with the service of O'Chane MacKann, O'Donnell, O'Quyn and two other landlords," and to bear the title of principal of his sirname.
"I appointed unto Turlo Brasylogh the lands called Clanbrassyll; this Turlo was the son of the eldest son of Chon, first Earl of Tyrone. Then allotted I to Hugh, Baron of Dungannon, and of right ought to be Earl of Tyrone, all the lands called the O'Nele lands, the very first and most ancient possession of the O'Nells, lying about and by south the Great Water. I exempted him from taking any exaction upon any of the lands of the church of Armagh or any member of the same; to all which covenants he agreed, to the great rejoicing and contentment of all the proprietaries of that province, saving some particular and peculiar followers of his own, who much repined that the great and regal estate of the O'Nell (as they deemed it) should be so broken and dismembered.
"Then dealt I with O'Donnell and with Chon, who both were in my camp, which Chon was eldest son to Callogh, eldest brother unto Hugh, then and now O'Donnell, at that time lately dead, and nephew to Turlo Lenogh. This Chon looked to be captain of the country, but the bishops and other landlords of the same elected Sir Hugh to be O'Donnell, whereupon there was great likelihood of great wars, which I quieted, establishing Hugh in the place of O'Donnell, and gave unto Chon the castles of Lyppar and Fynn, and the lands belonging to the same, being a good third part of all Tirconell.
"I planted three garrisons in Clandeboy and the Glynnes, namely, the good old Captain Willm. Piers with a company of footmen in the castle and town of Carre[g]fergus, the renowned soldier Captain Malbye with a company of horsemen in Belfast, and the lusty young Captain Willm. Horsey in Glanarme in the Glynnes, and a ward in Island Sydney under James Vaughan.
"Lastly, I made Alister Oge and all his Scots who killed Shane, and all other Scots not born in Ireland, to depart the realm; and the rest born in Ireland and inhabiting the Glynns offered to hold that country of her Majesty by rent and service."
Ever since, each landlord has enjoyed that possession I left him in, saving McGwier, whom the Earl of Essex, when he was General of Ulster, gave to O'Nell to hold of him by rent and service, as Shane before had challenged in the time of the deputation of Sir William FitzWilliams, which was not well done.
I returned to Dublin, and caused the old ruinous castle of Dublin to be reedified. But Ormond ceased not to persecute me, alleging that his people were still oppressed by Sir John of Desmond and the Desmonians. Hearing also that it was resolved that, for saving of charges, I should abate my forces, and should not proceed in building of bridges, towns, and forts, I then procured my revocation. I passed the seas attended on by OcKoner Sligo, captain of his country called Carbrye, OcKaroll, captain of his country called Elye OcKaroll, the Baron of Dungannon, Patrick FitzMores, eldest son of the Baron of Lexnaue, John O'Reley, eldest son to O'Reley, a great man, and of the province of Conaghe anciently, but adjoining to the English Pale, captain of [the] country called Breni O'Reley, and Ros Magochigan, eldest son to Magoghigan, captain of his country called Kymaliagh. All these and many others went with me to surrender to her Highness all their lands, and to receive the same again of her, yielding far greater rent and service.
"But when I came to the Court it was told me it was no war that I had made, nor worthy to be called a war, for that Shane O'Nell was but a beggar, an outlaw, and one of no force, and that the Scots stumbled on him by chance. But such a beggar he was that after a former was made in the government of the Earl of Sussex, a peace was made with him not the most honorablest; and as he and his would say, he was entreated to come into England, and there rewarded of her Majesty with favour and good apparel, and 2,500l. lent him, but as he termed given him to buy his peace. Sure I am the money he had, the apparel and other gifts, and nothing had ever the Queen for it again, saving his head. This may argue he was no beggar.
"And within the few days after, I was charged for not redressing the damages done to Ormond and his followers by Sir John of Desmond, whom I left seneschal and captain of his brother's countries, as before is mentioned; his brother still remaining with me in captivity. And there it was openly spoken that the Butlers could have no justice against Sir John of Desmond neither by Sydney nor Sellenger, whom I had left chief in commission to minister justice in Munster. And unwitting to me the Earl of Desmond and Sir John his brother were sent for, which Sir John (being come to Dublin for conference with the LI. Justices) was (together with his brother the Earl) sent as prisoners and committed to the Tower of London, where they remained (I think) seven years after. And truly (Mr. Secretary) this hard dealing with Sir John of Desmond was the origin of James FitzMores' rebellion, and consequently of all the evil and mischief of Munster, which since (I can prove) hath cost the crown of England and that country 100,000l.
"When they were come, I was eftsons charged with partiality between the Earls, and in especial for that I did not apprehend them sooner than I did. For the younger brother I had no warrant, nor (in truth) saw no cause, but much to the contrary; and for the other I was driven to prove that I had apprehended him and committed him prisoner in Kilmallock (as before is mentioned) 48 days before the letter was written at St. James' for to apprehend him." Foris triumpho, at domi ploro.
Turlo Lenogh, seeing no plantation to follow, after so great a destruction of the people of Tyrone, nor garrisons maintained, but diminished or totally withdrawn, grew proud and insolent, and demanded and arrogated his ancient truage and service of his uriaghs." I was sent for to the Court again and again. As-the people of that country were desirous to have me, so were there some of this country unwilling that I should go; but before a full year was run out, I was sent again Deputy into Ireland. I landed at Carregfergus the 6th of September 1568. Turlo Lenogh, hearing of my landing there, came to the Bane side. He was contented to cease from challenging any more the uriaghs, and promised me, when his wife returned out of Scotland, to come to me to some more convenient place, which he performed.
Thereupon, some order being taken with the MacGwillins and the native Scots of the Rowte and Glynnes, I returned to Carregfergus, where I found the garrisons that I there left in very good order, the people furnishing them with victuals at a very easy price, as a fat cow at 6s. 8d. and 24 eggs for a penny, and rising out when commanded. "Surely, Sir, so it might have been kept, if the violent and intempestive proceeding of the Earl of Essex and his followers had not been, for undoubtedly the treasure, horses, victuals, and other furniture, as well for the war as for husbandry, which was spent and spoiled in that his enterprise, whereof came no good but the destruction of that town with the church and utter ruin of all the country about, had been well employed, and seasons of the year observed, and leisure taken in dealing with the people, had been sufficient to have reduced all the last forenamed countries to as good obedience as the English Pale." In Carregfargus twice a week a good market was kept, where out of the English Pale, the Isle of Man, and Scotland came much merchandise, victuals, and other commodities, and out of France; and in one summer three barks of 40 tons apiece discharged their loading of excellent good Gascoigne wine, the which they sold for 9 cowskins the hogshead.
I surveyed and viewed Clandeboy and Ardes, and shired the same by the name of the county of Carregfargus. "The Archbishop of Armagh and the Bishop of Meath, with divers noblemen and gentlemen as well of England and the English Pale, lawyers, merchants, and others, came from Dublin to Carregfargus, only for visitation' sake, the Bishops riding in their rochets, and the rest unarmed."
Then I journeyed towards Dublin. By the way there met me all the horsemen and freeholders of the Ardes, McGennys, the captain of Kilwltogh, and the captain of Kilwarlyn.
"James FitzMores, son to Mores of Desmond, nicknamed Attolane, brother to James Earl of Desmond, father to the now Earl, traitor and rebel, understanding that I was arrived [at Dublin] and had not brought with me neither the Earl nor Sir John his brother, which he thought I might and would have done, assembling as many of the Earl of Desmond's people as he could, declared unto them that I could not obtain the enlargement either of the Earl or of his brother John, and that there was no hope or expectation of either of them, but to be put to death, or condemned to perpetual prison. And therefore (saying that that country could not be without an earl or a captain) willed them to make choice of one to be their earl or captain, as their ancestors had done, after the murther (as he termed it) of the good Earl Thomas FitzJames, his ancestor, put to death by the tyrant the Earl of Worcester (as he called him), then Deputy of Ireland. And according to this his speech, he wrote unto me, they forthwith, and as it had been with one voice, cried him to be their captain." I wrote to him to desist from that unlawful usurpation, and used threats. He persisted in assembling of men of war. This was the origin of the rebellion in Munster; "and to use plain terms, 'twas the withdrawing of Sir John of Desmond from the governing of that country, where he governed well, and the long imprisonment of him, which was the Earl of Ormond's counsel, and lastly the enlargement of them both; for if the one had been kept, though the other enlarged, each had been a sufficient hostage upon the other.
"James grew into more and more insolencies and great outrages upon divers whom he loved nor liked not; whereupon I was driven to proclaim him traitor and rebel. And looking for the service of Sir Edmond Butler, then captain and seneschal of all the Earl of Ormond's countries, (for so the Earl his brother had made him, and politicly kept himself in England, as well for duty's sake to the Queen, as ancient and innate malice to the Earl of Desmond and all Desmonians,) I was quite disappointed, being answered as well by scornful letters as frivolous and foolish speeches, that he was able to do none, alleging that I had made him to ride up and down the country like a priest, inferring thereby the suppressing of the most filthy and intolerable exaction of coyne and livery, used most harmfully by him, the country being quiet and no wars, nor likely to be. I urging him still to serve, he fell into rebellious actions; for he wasted and destroyed almost all the Queen's County, killing very many of the inhabitants of the same, but most especially all the Englishmen; and for more despite to the nation he would cause English dead men's bodies to be stripped out of their English garments, and their hose and dubletts (being stuffed and trussed) he would set up as marks for his kernes to throw their darts at. He wasted much of the county of Carlow and of the Kavenoghes, as many as would not be of his rebellious faction; he did much hurt in the bounds of the counties of Dublin and Kildare; he utterly spoiled a great fair held at Inys Corthie, a house and town of the Queen's in the county of Washford (Wexford). I am sure that fair is far the greatest of any in Ireland, and held yearly, and usually at a day certain; the horrible rapes and shameful murders, with the total rapine of all the goods that could be carried away, were too loathsome to be written or read. There were assembled (beside a multitude of country people) the most of the merchants of the good town of Washford, either in their own persons, their wives or their servants, who were ravished, killed, or spoiled; all looking for no such ever unheard-of harm there, whither peaceably they came by water.
"Then increased he his strength by stirring the Earl of Thomond to rebellion, and to resist Sir Edward Fitton, then Lord President in Connaught and Thomond, and had with him both his brethren Edward and Piers, and by far the most part of all the fighting men of both the counties of Tipperary and Kilkenny; for although some householders and principal gentlemen, more wary than the rest, went not, yet their sons, servants, and followers (as they term them there) went to him. And finally, all Ormonists, of what sirname soever they were, except Sir Theobald Butler, Lord of the Kaer (Cahir), and the Lord Baron of Dunboyne's people (who then was in England and under age), rebelled with him. James FitzMores, for his part, had gotten to him the Earl of Klankar, McDonagh, McAwley, OcKueefe, O'Swillivan Moore, and I think O'Swillivan Bere joined with him; and though the rest of the potentates of Munster remained (as they seemed) sound, yet their young and loose people went to him. And for that so virtuous an action as this rebellion was might be of more strength, both Butler and Garadyne (Geraldine), notwithstanding all former and most ancient enmity, joined together and spoiled those that would not go with them at their pleasures.
"I sent the good knight Sir Peter Carew and the valiant Malby to keep the frontiers of Carlo and Cavenoghe's country, and the hardy and politic Captain Collier into the good town of Kilkenny, the people whereof I did not very soundly trust. Sir Peter Carew and Captain Malby gave Sir Edmond Butler a shrewd blow, after a bloody bickering and slaughter of his men, and chased them, and wan his house at Kloghgrynan, and hanged the ward, Sir Edmond returning to James FitzMores. And both they with their forces encamped and besieged the town of Kilkenny, where the Earl his brother hath a strong castle, and the town is well closed and defended with gates, walls, and river; but had not the soldiers been, the town had been sacked and many of the people ransomed, as I after in truth found. But Captain Collyer so vigilantly attended his charge, as well in guarding the gates and walls against the rebels, as in preventing the practice of the townsmen, as the rebels were forced to go away with shame, against whom I advanced with as much diligence as I could, leading only with me the garrison men, which were but 600, leaving all the men of the country to guard the Pale northward, and Sir Barnaby FizPatrick to guard the Pale southward, who was the most sufficient man in counsel and action for the war that ever I found of that country birth; great pity it was of his death.
"I came to Kilkenny, where, after I had allowed of some with thanks, and checked others with rebukes, I marched into the county of Tipperary, where the rebels went afore me, burning their own houses and villages. Some of their castles I won, but so many as I would. I could not tarry to win, for that I daily was advertised of the great distress the city of Corke was in, where at that time lay a full noble and virtuous lady, the wife of Sir Warham Sentleger, whom the citizens were sometimes in consultation and consideration to deliver to James FitzMores, which he earnestly and with great threats required; for whose rescue I sent forth a ship furnished with mine own menial servants and others, who, by reason of contrary wind, could not come thither in due time; but there arrived in very good season (so directed by me) 400 footmen, sent with great diligence out of England, led by Captain Sute and Captain Ward, two very sufficient men, whose coming not only comforted the poor desolate lady, but the whole city, before sore afraid.
"So marching through the county of Tipperary, I encamped by Chlomnell (Clonmell), a walled town, standing upon the river of Sure, the people good and loyal. During mine encamping there, the rebels being dispersed all over the country, there was libels or chattels thrown into my camp, signifying that I should not so soon dislodge, but that I should be fought withal; yea, and peradventure in my camp itself. I sent to the mayor and his brethren of Waterford to send me some relief of men furnished for the war; they flatly answered me they would send none. Albeit some particular men, namely, Piers Ayellward, who had been mayor of Waterford, John Wise, and Antony Poore, and some others very well appointed, of their own good wills came to me." There came also to me certain seamen, led by Marshall, servant to my Lord of Warwick. The city of Waterford alleged they might so do by their charter; but at my coming home I made their corporation pay for it, as Mr. Tremayne, then my secretary, can testify.
"I sent forth proclamations of pardon to all such as would desist from rebellion (certain exempted), but it prevailed not. I sent also Commissioners to parle with the principal gent' of the county of Tipperary, to dissuade them from that furious, unnatural, and traitorous actions they were in, but nothing took place, the gent' answering thus, as followeth:--'We are of this county more ancient inhabiters and freeholders than any Butlers is, and were the first conquerors of this soil from the Irishry; and in our ancestors' days it was made of a country called Earthmound (as much to say as East Munster); but since that time (though a good many years past) England gave us away (I use their own phrase) to a Butler, and created him Earl of Ormond, [and] made him, by letters patents, Lord of the Liberty of the county of Tipperary, where, as a county palatine, he keepeth courts regally by himself or his officers, to which courts we do, and our ancestors did ever since that grant from the Kings of England, yield suit and service; and where all actions for goods, lands, or life are tried, very few except, and those being but four capital offences, seldom or never committed there. Thus have we and our ancestors acknowleged him as our Lord and Captain, and indeed know no other Sovereign but him, whose lieutenant Sir Edmond Butler, his brother and heir apparent, is. Him we follow, and him we will follow, and do as he commandeth us.'
"This was all I could get of them. And Sir Edmond Butler being demanded (for so was I directed out of England that he should be) what the cause was that he rebelled, he said it was my hard dealing with him. 'Wherein?' said he that examined him. 'Marry,' qd Sir Edmond, openly in the Star Chamber, 'he said that he would sit on my skirts, and that hereafter came not yet, and that he would make my heart-strings ache;' where, in truth (Sir) I used no such words." ....
"To his complices in rebellion he would say that the cause of his stir was that the Earl of Leicester, enemy to his brother and house, should marry the Queen, and be King of England, and that I should be King of Ireland, their mortal foe, and brother to the Earl of Leicester, of whom I should hold Ireland (as might appear) by bearing the ragged staff continually in my pensill before me, which indeed I did. This did the Earl of Klancar and others tell me that he said unto them.
"And lastly, that blessed babe, Edward Butler, a page of my own bringing up, talking with some servants of mine, his old and familiar fellows, whom of purpose I sent with the Commissioners to understand of him what they could, for they were well acquainted with the young man's humour, and he, pretending great goodwill and love to me for the sundry benefits and favours he had received of me, wished them, and prayed them even with tears, that they would persuade me to return back, affirming that if I went forwards I was but undone, for overthrown I should be.".... He said also "that he nor they did anything without the privity and direction of the Earl of Ormond, then in England."
When my Commissioners were returned and brought no submission from the rebels, the Council and captains persuaded me to return, affirming they found great faintness in the soldiers. But Sir Thomas Cusake and Sir Lucas Dillon animated me to go forwards. Sir Lucas is a faithful and loyal servant to the Queen.
"I went into the market-place of my camp, and with trumpet and drum sounded to the standard. The soldiers and all the rest of the camp readily came, in hope I would forthwith have returned. I showed my resolution to the contrary, and some words I spake, and somewhat it prevailed, for they with the drinking of a tun of wine, which, during the consultation, was provided and laid in the market-place; and after my speech ended, very diligently applied both by drawing and drinking, all my men's cowardish coldness was turned into martial heat, and then nothing but 'Upon them! upon them! Lead you, and we will follow to the land's end, or die by the way; and let us go by and by!' 'Nay, fast, ["Soft" in the copy in MS 628.] sirs,' qd I, 'it is Sunday, and it is afternoon; we will go hear evening prayer, sup and rest; and you shall be called, I warrant you, betimes in the morning; and so, in the name of God, we will advance forwards.' That evening and all the night there was nothing but singing, casting of bullets, drying of powder, filing of pikes' heads, sharpening of swords, and every man thinking himself good enough for five rebels."
As soon as it was day I dislodged, marching through sundry straits into the White Knight's country, the owner of which was in actual rebellion with James FitzMores, and not long after in his service slain. Here I left the Butlers' dominions, and entered into the Garradynes', at the entry of which met me the Viscount Barrie, the Viscount Roch, MacKarte Reogh, and divers other gentlemen of the province of Munster, all pretending loyalty to the Queen and enmity to the house of Desmond.
"I went to the principal castle of the White Knight's country, called the Old or the New Castle, I know not whether, and summoned the ward by sound of trumpet, who answered they held that castle of none but of God, James FitzMores, and the White Knight, and unless one of them would come (or send St. Peter or St. Paul) they would never render it." Finally, after an obstinate resistance I won the castle, and delivered it to James Roch, son of the Viscount Roch, and sundry other castles and lands to Sir Theobald Butler, withheld from him by the White Knight.
I then dislodged towards Cork, wasting and spoiling the country. There I found the above-written captains and soldiers, revived the poor afflicted lady, and comforted the citizens. I there heard of the arrival of the Earl of Ormond, whom I addressed to meet me at Limerick.
"I departed from thence, and encamped in a country of the Earl of Desmond's called Kerrywherie, and destroyed the same, winning the principal castle thereof, called Carreg Ilyn, and left in it a ward. From thence I marched into Mack Donoghe's country, which confineth with Desmond, the Earl of Clanckare's country, and there I wan and pulled down castles, burned and spoiled the villages and fields; which while I was in doing the Lord of the country, OcKueefe, McAulie, the eldest son of O'Swillivan Moore, the father for age and corpulency not being able to travel, and O'Swillivan Bere, without protection, came to me and submitted themselves, lives and lands, and there taking of them oath and hostage for their fidelity without pardon, I dismissed them to expect the Queen's mercy.
"I then turned into a great territory of land of the Viscount Barrie's, the name of the country I have forgotten, but the principal castle thereof beareth a French name called Bowte de Vawne [Boutez en avant--Buttevant], which I took, and repossessed the right owner in it; so did divers landlords and freeholders whose lands and castles had been taken and withheld from them, some of long time by the Earl of Desmond, and some of late time by James FitzMores.
"Then and there I heard that the rebel James (with his associates) went afore me, wasting and destroying the Queen's good subjects, as well of the county of Cork as the county of Limerick, and therefore was constrained to alter my former intention of going into Desmond, and turned towards the county of Limerick, but I could not get so far as Kilmallock but that the rebel had by scale surprised the same town, not without vehement suspicion of falsehood in many of the townsmen, for some he saved, many he sacked, some he ransomed, and many houses of base building he burned, which afterwards were reedified, the walls heightened, and the town made better than ever it was."
Here I received answer from the Earl of Ormond that he could not come to me without convoy of good force to conduct him. I sent him the Viscount Desyes and the Lord Poore, who brought the Earl to me safe, I lying in camp hard by Limerick. The Earl delivered me the Queen's letters containing confident opinion in his loyal devotion to her. He besought me that he might work the retreat of his brethren from their vile actions, and brought me his brother Edward, my late page, who submitted himself. The Earl said he would do his best to bring in his other two brethren, but I saw them not all that journey. He made most earnest suit to me that he might have his brother Edward in custody, affirming that he was more able to work with his other two brethren than he himself. I granted his request, but since that time I could never set eye of my old servant Edward.
"During my abode in Limerick there came to me divers principal personages of the same county of Kerry and of Conelogh, as the Lord FitzMores, William Burgh, captain or owner of Clan William, a man of great lands, whose eldest son after (being my man) with his own hand killed James FitzMores and James him at one only encounter, Lacy, Pursell, and Suppell, with many moe whose names I have forgotten, being all descended of English race; all sware allegiance to her Majesty and faithful service in that action against James. There came to me also Rorie MacShee, captain general of the Earl of Desmond's galloglas, sirnamed Chlanshee; he likewise submitted, sware allegiance, and delivered pledges as before. This man was counted one of much might among them; he procured to come to me a great many more of the Irishry."
I constituted Captain Gilbert Commander and Colonel of all Munster. He brought James FitzMores to a very base estate. "So, enjoying great victory of the suppressed rebel, he came to me with great joy to Tredath, bringing with him sundry personages of good account. "I made him knight. After Sir Humphrey Gilbert's departure to England the rebel got force again until Sir John Parott was sent to be Lord President of Munster, who (though not in my time) brought him to make a very lowly submission, with very vile conditions; "under which the rebel lived a small time there, and ran away with wife and children first into Brittany, then into Portugal, lastly to Rome, and got to him the association of that good man Thomas Stukelie."
Then departed I from Limerick to Dublin, and was advertised of the Earl of Tomond's revolt and adherence to James FitzMores, alleging the cause of his rebellion to be the hard dealing of Sir Edward Fitton, Lord President in Conagh and Tomond. I practised by all peaceable means to appease him, and went to the Queen's house of Laghlyn Bridge, where I sent for the Earl of Ormond, and commissioned him and Mr. Rauf Rugby, then Chief Justice in Conagh, to parlewith Tomond. He affirmed that he had done nothing but by Ormond's counsel. I was forced to send forces against Tomond, who was defeated by Sir Edward Fitton at a place called the Shrowre in the confines of Clanrickard and McWilliam Eughter's country, whither came to the aid of Tomond a great many Scots. Teg Mack Morogh O'Breene and Teg Mack Conoghor O'Breene forced the lubber to leave the land and creep into a French bark that lay in the river of Shenen; and so he went into France.
"I, thus lying in Dublin, long looked for the coming of the Butlers, who at last came, Sir Edmond and Piers, but my pretty and foregrown page would never come at me, notwithstanding the Earl his brother's band. I had the two brothers indicted of high treason, which they humbly and publicly confessed at the bar. Then weighing the great mercy of the Queen's Majesty before mentioned, and her Highness' direction expressed by letters, I stayed any further proceeding with them by ordinary course of law, but detained them in prison. Shortly after this the Earl of Ormond, according to her Majesty's large licence that he might return into England without further leave or passport obtained of me, went thither, pretending his going was to obtain pardon for his brothers.
"Then I summoned, according to the laws of that realm and authority granted by letters patents, a Parliament, and before the first day of the session of the same I went northward to Armagh, and there had meeting with Turlo Lenogh, who then brought his wife with him, before mentioned to be in Scotland at the time of my arrival. And truly, Sir, I found her a good counsellor to him, a well willer to peace, and a reverent speaker of the Queen's Majesty. She would still persuade him to content himself to be a subject, and to contain him in all his actions like a loyal subject, alleging many examples of her own country of Scotland, where there was many as great potentates as he was, and her own brother or nephew the Earl of Argyle (I wott not whether, but daughter she was to an Earl of Argyle), who challenged as much jara regalia and other sovereignties as he could, and yet contented themselves to submit their causes to the laws of the realm, and themselves to the King's pleasure. In truth, Sir, she was a grave, wise, and well-spoken lady both in Scotch, English, and French, and very well mannered. To be short, with him I concluded even as I desired." I then, returning to Dublin, went southward, peaceably keeping sessions in the counties of Kildare, King's County and Queen's County. I went into Upper Ossory and stayed at Kilkenny, where above 60 persons were executed, and many of them of the stoutest of the Butlers' gallowglas. I came to Laghlyn Bridge, where I had before me the principal gentlemen of the county of Washford. Kaer Mackedo O'Moore and Lyssagh Mackedo O'Moore were hanged.
Sir Edmond Butler made his escape from the castle of Dublin, and by the help of Hugh Mack Shane's children he was conducted into the county of Kilkenny. Before his escape I had enlarged Piers. He said it was told him that undoubtedly I would kill him.
"Now approached the Parliament, in which what acts were made may appear and be extant in the printed book of statutes, of which printing I was the first author, I am sure to the benefit of the subjects of that land."
"I caused to plant and inhabit there above forty families of the reformed churches of the Low Countries, flying thence for religion' sake, in one ruinous town called Surds (Swords). And truly (Sir) it would have done any man good to have seen how diligently they wrought, how they reedified the quiet spoiled old castle of the same town and repaired almost all the same, and how godly and cleanly they, their wives, and children lived. They made diaper and ticks for beds, and other good stuff for man's use, and excellent good leather of deer skins, goat and sheep fells, as is made in Southwark." But Sir William Gerrard obtained a licence of her Majesty to transport a number of packs of yarn unwrought, though I had by an Act restrained myself and successors for ever to grant any like licence.
I might have had 2,000l. in ready gold, to have opposed the act respecting the custom for wines.
During this session the Earl of Klanckar came to me and confessed his rebellion, alleging that Sir Edmond Butler was the cause thereof, in that he reported to him those foolish and frivolous speeches of the Earl of Leicester and me. He submitted himself, goods, lands, and life to her Majesty. "Towards the end of this Parliament came the Ox. I should say Earl of Tomond; having found that he could find nothing in France, but according to his worth suffered to live there without relief, he made such mean to the then Lord Ambassador in France as he obtained of her Majesty over-great grace." He made his submission. I kept him in prison, and his castles warded by my men.
"The Earl of Ormond (my professed foe) sometime with clamour, but oftener with whispering, did bitterly backbite me, saying that brethren were driven by my cruelty to rebel, and that he nor his could have any justice of me." I once again procured my revocation and came to the Court, where, after more acceptation than I hoped for, it was said "that the Butlers' war was made by my malice borne to them, and that else there was nothing done."
A third time I took upon me that thankless charge, and departed from the Queen at Dudley Castle, passed the seas, and arrived the 14th of September 1575 as near the city of Dublin as I could safely, for at that time the city was grievously infected, and so was the English Pale, with the pestilence. I went to Tredath and received the sword of the then Deputy. [Sir William FitzWilliams.] Taking some order for the government of the English Pale, after conference had with the Earl of Essex for the best possession that I could put him in of his country of Farney, parcel of the attainted lands given to him by her Majesty, I journeyed to Carregfargus, from whence I went through Clandboy, the Glynnes, and into the Rowte. I there had interparlaunce by commissioners with the Scot Sorley Boy, who had defeated a company of the Earl of Essex's regiment, led by Captain John Norreys. His men were commanded by a lieutenant of his, a certain Italian. He was desirous of peace, offering to hold the Glynnes and Rowte of the Queen by rent and service. As I was not well assured of Turlo Lenogh, I made peace with him. He humbly desired to have again the island of Raghlyns, which his ancestors had occupied 140 or 160 years before, wherein the Earl of Essex had planted a garrison.
I left Carregfargus in very good quiet, intending to go to Dublin, but by that time I came to the Newry, Sir Nicholas Bagnall's house, Turlo Lenogh sent a trusty agent to desire me that I would come to Armagh, where he and the lady his wife would meet me. Albeit I heard the Earl of Desmond was grown somewhat insolent, I went to Armagh, where the former peace was ratified. Turlo desired to be nobilitated by the title of an Earl, and to hold his land of the Queen by rent and service. The Scots craved to enjoy their lands, and to yield rent and service; "the lady, Turlo's wife, as earnestly sueing that she might have the same lands assured to her children, which she had by James MacKonnell, ["McDonnell" in the margin.] Sorley's eldest brother, and would give more for it than he would." I settled the MackGwillims of the Rowte in their country. Within one month after Turlo killed a great number of Sorley's men and his eldest son.
I then journeyed towards Dublin, doing justice in the counties of Louth and Meath. From Dublin I wrote of my proceedings. Turlo was thought too base to receive such nobilitation; and it was deemed too dangerous to grant the Scots plantation in Ireland.
Albeit it was in the deep of winter I travelled towards Cork, keeping sessions in the counties of Kildare, Carlo, King's County and Queen's County. From thence I went to Waterford. In that county I had constituted an Englishman to be sheriff. I went to Dungarvon, where then ruled Harry Davells, and took order for the fortifying of the town. From thence I went to Lessmore and Lessfynen, where at that time dwelt Sir John of Desmond, then in all appearance a good and loyal subject. At Cork I lay from Christmas till Candlemas. I was well entertained at the Viscount Barrie's house, called Barrie's Court. The people of the city said there was never such a Christmas kept in the same; for there were with me the Earl of Desmond, the Earl of Klankar, the Viscount Barrie, the Viscount Roch, and many others. They were willing to live under English law, and to bear soldiers.
The Seneschal of Imokelly, a Garraudyne, boasted that he would keep his strong castle of Ballymarter against me, which I besieged and took. The cannonier, old Thomas Eliott, (now a suitor at the Court) was stricked through the thigh. There I left a ward, which continued long after, and went back again to Cork. From thence I went to the Viscount Roche's, and from thence to Kilmallock. The best and principallest gentlemen of those parts submitted to my taxation for bearing of soldiers. Thither came "3 or 4 bishops of the provinces of Cashell and Thewme (Tuam), which bishops (albeit they were Papists) submitted themselves unto the Queen's Majesty and unto me, her Deputy, acknowledging that they held all their temporal patrimony of the Queen's Majesty, and desired humbly that they might (by her Highness) be inducted into their ecclesiastical prelacy. Here was some hold between the bishops and me, too long here to be recited, for they stood still upon Salvo suo ordine, &c., and I of the Queen's absolute authority." This done I went into Tomond, where the Earl met me. "I there subdued a rebellious race of the sirname of the Earl, the O'Breens. Their captains were called the Bishop's sons ["Mac Anaspig" in the margin.]; and indeed the bastards they were [of] the Bishop of Kilallowe, [Maurice O'Brien.] which Bishop was son to an O'Breen, captain of Tomond. Of these wicked generation, some I killed, some I hanged by order of law, but all I subdued." O'Shaghne's country was all in garboil and violent wars, the captain whereof I settled in bis due room.
I then went to Gallowey, in the way to which met me the Earl of Clanricard. All the potentates of Connaught came to me with most humble submission. The Earl of Clanricard caused his two most bad and rebellious sons, Ulick and John to come to me with humble submission. "I committed them, and in the chief church of the town had a sermon preached of them and of their wickedness by a countryman of their own, called Linch, sometimes a friar at Greenwich, but a reformed man, a good divine and preacher in the three tongues, Irish, English, and Latin. The young men publicly in the church I rebuked very sharply, and they as humbly submitted, and again to prison I committed them." I then departed from Galway.
I was convited by the Earl of Clanricard to his house of Balie Logh Reogh, still leading with me his two sons as prisoners in my marshal's ward. I offered to make him Governor of Connaught if he would suppress the extortion of coyne and livery, but he would not accept it. I returned to Dublin, and licensed his sons to dwell with their friends, provided that they should never pass the Shenen or come into Conunaght.
I had not been long at Dublin, but I heard of some disorders by the Cavenaghes, and some of the good county of Washford. Having gone one day's journey southward, I was credibly advertised of the revolt of the two young Clanricardines. "Albeit they were mortal enemies (though brethren), yet in odium tertioe, nempe, the Queen, and English government, they conjured and joined in actual rebellion, shaking off and cutting in pieces their English garments upon the river of Shenen, saying that those should be their pledge for the remaining by East Shenen." They went to Balieaurhie, where was the sepulture of their fathers, and the natural mother of the same John buried; the chief church of which town they most violently burned. I had there some workmen whom they killed; and, indeed, I had begun some fortification there.
Thus advertised, I directed my course from the south into the west, and was there before they looked for me. I went to the Earl of Clanricard's chief house, and took it and him. I proclaimed the sons traitors and rebels, detained the father, and planted there Thomas Le Strainge and Captain Collier with 250 men. I sent for the Earl's followers to come to me to Gallowey.
"There came to me also a most famous feminine sea captain called Grany Imallye, and offered her service unto me wheresoever I would command her, with three galleys and 200 fighting men either in Ireland or Scotland; she brought with her her husband, for she was as well by sea as by land more than Mrs. Mate with him; he was of the nether Burkes, and now as I hear Mack William Euter, and called by nickname Richard in Iron. This was a notorious woman in all the coast of Ireland. This woman did Sir Philip Sydney see and speak withal; he can more at large inform you of her.
"Here heard we first of th'extreme and hopeless sickness of the Earl of Essex, by whom Sir Philip being often most lovingly and earnestly wished and written for, he with all the speed he could make went to him, but found him dead before his coming in the castle of Dublin."
From thence I marched in prosecution of the rebels, and wan divers castles. I delivered Castle Barry to Mack William Euter. And so I departed, leading the Earl with me, and leaving Balye Logh Reogh well stuffed with men and munition. The two gentlemen before named did sundry notable exploits against the rebels. I caused a bridge to be begun over the Sowke, hard by the castle of Balislough, which since was perfected by Colonel Sir Nicholas Malby. After I had settled him in that province, I had no cause to have care of it. If he had continued longer in the charge of Munster, the crown of England had not spent so much. He so well governed the good subjects of Connaught as they were contented to yield him service, victual, and wages.
Leaving Dublin, I journeyed through the counties of Kildare, Carlogh, Kilkenny, and Wasshford, holding sessions. I came home by the seaside through Base Leinster, the countries of the Kavenoghes (ruled by Captain Thomas Masterson), the O'Moroghes (governed by Richard Synod), the Kynchilaghes (where Thomas Masterson was Captain), the O'Byrnes, and the O'Tooles (governed by Captain Francis Agarde), and so home to Dublin. All these Irish people lived as loyally as any people in the shire ground. There was "no waste land, but, as they termed it there, it bare corn or horn."
Some of the barons and principal gentlemen of the English Pale grudged greatly at the bearing of the soldiers, and made divers grievous complaints in the name of the Commons. But they looked to exact all that of the poor Commons which they yielded to the finding of the soldiers. They impugned the Queen's prerogative, saying the Queen had no right to impose any charge upon her subjects without consent of Parliament. There were few in the English Pale thoroughly sound for the Queen's prerogative and profit, saving Sir Lucas Dillon and his whole lineage, far the best of that country brood.
The chief opposers of them against the Queen were the Baron of Delvin, the Lord of Howth, the Lord Trymbleston, the Lord of Killeyne, and divers knights, principal gent' and lawyers, among whom Nicholas Nugent, then Second Baron of the Exchequer, and since executed for treason, was one. All the principal landlords of the English Pale confederated against me and the prerogative. The only noblemen on the Queen's part were the Lords of Slane and Upper Ossory. Agents were sent to the Queen, exclaiming upon me for my cruel and unlawful exactions. "Then was I driven to search old records, and so did I many; the which records, many years before, I myself, being Treasurer there, had laid up and dressed a house for the conservation of them and others." It appeared that cesse had been used from the time of King Edward III. In this search the Chancellor, then William Gerrard, did well assist me, but afterwards joined with the country.
I offered to discharge them for 3l. 6s. 8d. the ploughland, but still they repined at my charge; while many townships, cantreds, and baronies thanked me for it, accepted the same, and readily made payment thereof to the hands of Robert Woodford. The same came to 2,400l. "But still and almost weekly I received [letters], to my hearty grief, that I was a costly servant, and alienated from her Highness her good subjects' hearts." I gave over all cesse for my household, and paid ready money for everything, to my undoing.
"To return to the commonwealth men (for so they called themselves), I mean the messengers of the repining malcontents of the English Pale, who then were at the Court." I sent over the Lord Chancellor with matter of ancient record. Two of the three learned legates, Burnell and Newterffield, were committed to the Tower, and the third, the oldest and craftiest of the three, named Barnaby Shurlogh, submitted himself in Dublin. But the Chancellor brought me nothing back again but speech delivered (sic) that it was a thing intolerable and dangerous, and might breed universal rebellion. In my absence he enlarged the repinants, whom I held prisoners in the castle of Dublin. As soon as I was gone he made Nicholas Nugent (displaced by me from the Second Baronship of the Exchequer and committed to the castle of Dublin for his arrogant obstinacy against the Queen) Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.
I would have left the sword and gone over without leave, had not an obscure and base varlet called Rorye Oge O'Moore stirred, and claimed authority over the whole country of Lesh. Daniel, the Earl of Ormond's secretary, confessed to me that Ormond had counselled him never to submit himself to me, prognosticating my disgrace with the Queen, and the revolt against me of the English Pale. I went into his fastest places, but never would he fight with me, but always fled and was secured in the county of Kilkenny, and under and with the Butlers. I retired myself and the army, leaving in Maryborough Sir Harry Harrington, my sister's son, and lieutenant of the King's County, in old time Ofaley. When he had brought the rebel Rorye to a low ebb, he came to a parley with him undiscreetly, for there was he taken and carried away. I sought his enlargement, "but nothing prevailed without such conditions as I would not have enlarged Philip my son." Then made I war upon the rebel, and my men prevailed, but still he kept my nephew. But through Robert Harpoole I beset his cabanish dwelling.
"The rebel had within it 26 of his best and most assured men, his wife, and his marshal's wife, and Cormagh O'Koner, an ancient and rank rebel, of long maintained in Scotland, and at last (but too soon) reclaimed from thence by the Queen our mistress, and with stipend as a pensioner sent into Ireland, who, returning to the vomit of his innate rebellious stomach, went to Rorye Oge and took part with him in his rebellion, and in that place and time was by a man of mine called John Parker killed. There were also killed his wife and all his men; only there escaped himself and his marshal, called Shane Mack Rorye Reogh, in truth miraculously, for they crope between the legs of the soldiers into the fastness of the plashes of trees. Rorye Oge confessed, and so did the wife of his marshal, whom the soldiers saved, that the skirts of his shirt was with an English sword cut from his bare body; but in this assault and conflict, being done in the dark night, the villainous rebel fell upon my most dear nephew, being tied in chains, and him most shamefully hacked and hewed with my nephew's own sword, to the effusion of such a quantity of blood as were incredible to be told. He brake his arm with that blunt sword and cut off the little finger of one of his hands, and in sundry parts of his head so wounded him, as I myself in his dressing did see his brains moving. Yet my good soldiers brought him away, and a great way upon their halberts and pikes, to a good place in that country, where he was relieved, and afterwards (I thank God) recovered.
"During his service, and before his unhappy apprehension, I went to the Newrye, and thither came to me Turlo Lenogh (the lady his wife not being able to come through a hurt she had), but well had she counselled him, as it appeared, for most frankly and familiarly used he me, coming to me against the will of all his counsellers and followers, protesting he so much trusted and loved me as he would not so much as once ask hostage or protection. He brought above 400l. sterling to the town, and spent it all in three days. He celebrated Bacchus' feast most bravely, and as he thought much to his glory, but as many hours as I could get him sober I would have him into the castle, where he would as reverently (as his little good manner did instruct him) speak of the Queen, craving still, and that most humbly, that he might be nobilitated by the Queen, and to hold his lands and seigniories of her Majesty by rent and service, and there ratified all former peace made between me and him, and the Earl of Essex and him."
I returned to Dublin, where "I understood that the Earl of Desmond, still repining at the government of Sir William Drurye, and upon a short message sent him by Sir William, fell into a frantic resolution, and whereas he purposed to have kept his Christmas at Yoghill, he suddenly brake off that determination and went into Kerry, and straightwar assembled forces; and had I not taken the ball at the first bound, he had undoubtedly used violence against Sir William Druery and his people, who were not many. I straightways addressed me to Kilkenny, and thither I sent for Sir William Druery, the Earl and the Countess his wife. They came all to me. The Earl was hot, wilful, and stubborn; the Countess at that time a good counsellor; Sir William Druery confessed some fault; but finally (though with much ado) I made them friends, and a sound pacification of all quarrels between them, and sound it continued as long as I continued governor there. But not long alter (as you know), upon like occasion as before is noted, he and his two brothers Sir John and Sir James fell into actual rebellion, in which the good knight Sir William Druery, then Lord Justice, died, and he as a malicious and unnatural rebel still persisth and liveth.
"The Christmas ended, wherein I entertained the Earl and the Countess as well as I could, and presented them both with silks and jewels, not a little to my costs, I fell then into holding of sessions by commission of Oyer and Terminer, but in person I would never be on the Bench, for that the Ormonists should not say that I was there by speech or countenance to engrieve any matter against them. And though I were as much thwarted by some of them as might be, yet had I a great number of that county orderly indicted, according to the laws, arraigned, judged to die, and executed for abetting, favoring, and aiding Rorie Oge. This matter remains of record.
"Divers of the principal gentlemen would in the night, and as it were, disguised, come to me, protesting they durst not in the daytime be seen to do so for fear of the Earl of Ormond. They did give me good information of matters of weight, and I them the best instruction I could. The Earl in England still exclaimed that I lay there to no other end but to make myself rich by the spoil of his country, saying that I paid for nothing that I took, which was utterly untruly; for not only my household officers, but all others that followed me, paid ready money for everything they took in any town where I came. And when the Earl of Ormond was so said to by Mr. Edward Waterhowse, sometime my secretary, he answered that his officers had written so to him."
After the taking of my nephew Harrington from the rebel (Rorie Oge), I placed a garrison to persecute the rebel under Sir Nicholas Malbye, Captain Collyer, Captain Furres, Captain Mackworth, and others; lastly, and most effectually, under the Baron of Upper Ossory, my particular sworn brother. "The vile Rorye was killed by a household servant of the Baron's, his marshal the forenamed escaped, and the rebel's body, though dead, so well attended and carried away, as it was the cause of the death of a good many of men on both sides, yet carried away he was; but not long after his head was sent to me, and set upon the Castle of Dublin, for which I had proclaimed 1,000 marks to be given to him that would bring it me, and 1,000l. to him that would bring him me alive." The Baron of Upper Ossory (who was nurtured under Edward VI.,) would take but 100l. to give among his men.
I loathed to tarry any longer in Ireland, and yet before I went I invaded MacMahon's country, and totally destroyed the same, in revenge of a shameful murder committed by him in killing the Lord of Louth, and the son and heir to Sir Hugh MackGennys. Within short time after my departure he came to the Newrye to Sir William Drury with a wyth about his neck, and obtained his pardon.
The Queen made so little accompt of my killing that rebel (Rorie Oge), and was persuaded that there was no more difficulty to kill such a rogue than to kill Mad George, the sweeper of the Queen's Court. He had burned all the good towns in the counties of Carloghe and Kildare, as the town of Carlogh and the Naas, ["Mash" in MS.] &c. It grieved me not a little that her Majesty rejected those bills which I sent to be allowed to be made laws. I was weary any longer to live among the gentlemen of the English Pale. It irked me not a little to see the ambitious dealings of Chancellor Gerrard, who would not let to say "that he had brought over such warrant for himself and restraint for me, as I could do nothing without him," and that when I were gone, and the new Justice (Drury) ruling by his direction, Ireland should be governed with a white rod.
I passed the seas and came into England, carrying with me the old archrebel the Earl of Clanrickard and a son of his called William, who since for treason and rebellion was as a traitor executed. At the Court I was not entertained so well as I had deserved. The archrebel whom I brought, you know by whom he was countenanced. He was enlarged and sent home, to my small credit. I was accompted servus inutilis, for that I had exceeded a supposed composition. A conference indeed there was that 20,000l. should defray all the charges of Ireland. I had spent nothing but profitably for the Queen. I too far exceeded in spoiling my own patrimony. Since, being curious to know what the charges were in the time of my government, by Sir Edward Fitton's accompts it appears that I am within the bounds of 20,000l. a year. This accompt was sent to my Lord Treasurer (Burleigh) and to me by Thomas Jennyson, auditor. Write to him to signify the charges in my time; and use his information to my advantage.
In my great and high office of [President of] Wales I have served full 23 years. A better people to govern Europe holdeth not. I have been twice into France, once into Scotland, and twice into Kent to the seaside, to receive the Dukes John Casimir and Adolph, Duke of Holstein. I was sent to Portsmouth to superintend the victualling of Newhaven. Oftentimes I was sent for to Court for Irish causes, to my great charges.
Further details respecting his Presidentship of Wales, the illness of his wife, ["As foul a lady as the small-pox could make her, which she did take by continual attendance of her Majesty's most precious person, sick of the same disease."] his burdensome expenses, &c.
The Queen has made me one of her Privy Council. I have been a Companion of the Order of the Garter now full 19 years.
"When I was but 10 years of age, and a while had been henchman to King Henry the 8th, I was by that most famous King put to his sweet son Prince Edward, my most dear master, prince, and sovereign, the first boy that ever he had; my near kinswoman being his only nurse, my father being his chamberlain, my mother his governess, my aunt by my mother's side in such place as among meaner personages is called a dry nurse, for from the time he left sucking she continually lay in bed with him, so long as he remained in woman's government. As that sweet Prince grew in years and discretion, so grew I in favour and liking of him, in such sort as by that time I was 22 years old he made me one of the four principal gentlemen of his bedchamber." Sundry times he bountifully rewarded me. He sent me into France and Scotland. Lastly, he died in my arms. "After I had spent some months in Spain, ["Note.--My going to Spain for the liberty of the Earl of Warwick and his brethren."] neither liking nor liked as I had been, I fancied to live in Ireland, and to serve as Treasurer, and had the leading both of horsemen and footmen, and served as ordinarily with them as any other private captain did there under my brother-in-law, the Earl of Sussex, where I served during the reign of Queen Mary and one year after; in which time I had four sundry times, as by letters patents yet appeareth, the government of that country, by the name of Lord Justice, thrice by commission out of England, and once by choice of that country; such was the great favour of that Queen to me and good liking of the people of me."
In the first journey that the Earl of Sussex made I killed James Mack O'Nell, a mighty captain of Scots.
"The second journey the Earl of Sussex made into those quarters of Ulster, he sent me and others into the Island of Raghlyns, where before in the time of Sir James Croft's deputation, Sir Raulf Bagnall, Captain Cuff, and others sent by him landed little to their advantage, for there were they hurt and taken, and the most of their men that landed either killed or taken, but we landed more politicly and safely, and encamped in the isle until we had spoiled the same, all mankind, corn, and cattle in it."
During my government I had sundry skirmishes with the rebels, always with victory. At the very time that Calais was lost, I invaded Firkaol, otherwise called O'Meloy's country.
Other particulars respecting his family, debts, and decline in wealth. [He states that he is 54 years of age and 5,000l. in debt.]
Commend me to my good lady, cousin, and sister, your wife; bless and buss our sweet daughter; and bestow a blessing upon the young knight, Sir Philip.
Ludlow Castle, 1 March 1582. Signed.
Here follow several memoranda, for insertion in different places in the preceding discourse. Among them are the following:--
"The coming to me thither (Carrickfergus) of Sir Arthur Champernoune, Mr. Henry Champernoune, his eldest brother's son and heir, Mr. Philip Butside, and divers other gentlemen, yeomen, and seamen of the west of England, desirous to take lands and to inhabit in the north parts of Ireland.
"The taking of lands by Sir Thomas Smith, then secretary, the possession whereof is held to this day."