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Reference MSS
Covering dates 9th century-20th century
Held by Lambeth Palace Library
Extent Over 4,000 volumes or files
Conditions of access Access conditions are displayed on the Library's website:
Creators Lambeth Palace Library
Supplementary information The Manuscripts are described in a series of catalogues and indexes (fully listed on the Library website

Administrative history:
Lambeth Palace Library is the historic library of the Archbishops of Canterbury, founded in 1610. It is the principal library and record office for the history of the Church of England, holding, in addition to the Archbishops' archives, material acquired from other sources.

The Manuscripts sequence at Lambeth Palace Library comprises a collection of material created by a diverse range of individuals and organisations, both within and outside the Church of England. The material has been accumulated by acquisitions made over several centuries, including some material which strictly forms part of the archive of the Archbishops of Canterbury. The contents, both single volumes and collections of material, cover not only ecclesiastical history but other subjects, ranging for instance through architectural, colonial, political and social history. Numbered from MS. 1, the series continues to accrue beyond MS. 4500. The manuscripts date from the 9th century to the present day, including some 600 medieval manuscripts.

Carew Manuscript  MS 601  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 601

ABUSES in the CITIES and TOWNS. [This document is inserted among those relating to the siege of Kinsale without any apparent reason; but it is retained here because its exact date is unknown.]  MS 601, p. 203a  1601

Former reference: MS 601, p. 203a

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 197.

"The Inconveniences that grow unto her Majesty's Service by granting the ample and large Charters unto the Corporations of the several Cities and Towns of Ireland.
"That the cities may be made counties and have two sheriffs. Hereby they will prevent the executing of her Majesty's writs; whereas now oftentimes a 'non omittas propter aliquam libertatem' is directed to the sheriff of the county, who thereby entereth into their liberties, etc. The fear of fines or amercements (as may be objected) cannot urge the mayors and bailiffs to perform their duties therein; for that the corporations, by her Majesty's grant, have such fines and amercements. Hereby they shall not be subject to the sheriff's mandamus for returning of juries. Hereby they would be enabled to inquire of riots, which cannot be done by the statute without the assistance of the sheriff, so to promise Protestants, though free Papists escape.
"The mayor and sheriffs may hear and determine treasons, whereby Papists that maintain Jesuits, seminary priests and proclaimed traitors, and such as buy and sell with the rebels, by the partiality of such judges may be emboldened in their offences and escape due punishment; whereby all occasion of finding out treacherous practices may be taken away from governors and upright judges, that they may with more security contemn law, justice, and the governors of provinces. That if an Englishman or Protestant should commit manslaughter or kill (se defendendo) a town's Papist, that a jury of papistical Judases (who hold it high zeal to betray Protestants and violate their oaths with them) might convict such an offender of wilful murder, being here treason, and that the mayor, a like judge, might give like judgment.
"That the corporations might have of her Majesty fee-farms of attainted lands. Hereby they would be better enabled to resist her Majesty's laws and injunctions, to oppress with their common charge in suits of law any that will withstand wrong offered him by any private citizen. That the laws to them may be but as spider webs. That they may boldly despise all higher powers, and use all knights and captains at their own pleasures. They sue for payment of cess for soldiers, where in these cities many have died for want of food and lodging. In brief, they sue only for two things: for authority, but not to do justice; for riches, but not to pay subsidy or give tribute.
"The consequences of granting the premisses may be judged by these matters precedent hereunder written.
"The mayors are here escheators, whereby goods and lands that ought to be escheated are concealed and detained from her Highness; for did any mayor find any concealments by office?
"The mayors are here coroners. Murder is manslaughter, manslaughter killing in defence, and the violent death of an English or Irish man (the townsmen only excepted), unless they find him felonem de se, not to be found at all, and sometimes not inquired of.
"Their mayors are searchers, but never seize prohibited wares, neither inform against transporters of such, nor any way exercise that office, unless it be to get some fees of Englishmen and others of the country and strangers that do traffic with them.
"The mayors are admirals from their quays to the main sea. What pirate have they taken, or what booties of rebels, or what other service they have done, is unknown. We see none, hear, nor read of any.
"The mayors are justices of peace, but they never apprehend or commit any traitors, though many in their times have been committed by others; but their service consisteth in bailing, in enlarging, and rescuing prisoners. They have now the Queen's writ 'de excommunicatis capiendis' for many persons, but apprehend none, although specially willed by the Lord Chancellor's letters. For example, the Bishop of Limerick was rescued of a Jesuit, the whole town for the most part rising and taking the prisoner perforce as he was going to jail.
"They will imprison a Protestant for breach of a private covenant, and suffer traitors breaking the bond of their allegiance to live in their cities unpunished; and divers citizens and townsmen themselves are in actual rebellion, being the most dangerous men in all the kingdom."

SIEGE of KINSALE.  MS 601, p. 198  1601

Former reference: MS 601, p. 198

11 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 198.

"Collections, by way of Journal, of the difficulties and impediments in our proceedings since the discovery of the Spanish fleet and forces before their entry into Kinsale, to the very great hindrance of the service." [Note by Carew:--"Copied out of the original sent into England."]
1601, 21st September, Monday.--The Lord Deputy (Mountjoy) met the Lord President (Carew) this day at Laughlin, where he found the Lord President not well, and went that night to Kilkenny, where they sat in Council with the Earl of Ormond and the Council the next day.
22nd.--"News from the mayor of Cork, by post, that a Spanish fleet was discovered near to the Old Head of Kinsale."
23rd.--"Another post from Sir Charles Willmott and from the mayor of Cork, advertising the Spanish fleet to be come into the harbour of Kinsale; whereupon Captain Roberts was despatched into England with letters to [the] Lords, and agreed that the Lord Deputy.. should draw to Clonmell."
24th.--Mr. Marshal was despatched into the Pale and to the Council at Dublin for companies and necessaries. Sir Henry Davers was sent for the companies about Armagh, and Sir John Barkely for those about Navan. The Lord Deputy went to Kiltenan, a castle and dwelling house of the Lord of Dunboine's, being a great day's journey. Letters from the mayor of Cork, that the Spaniards had landed and entered into Kinsale.
25th.--His Lordship left Kilkenny and went to Clonmell, where Sir Nicholas Walshe came to him. Resolved that his Lordship should go on to Corcke.
26th.--From Clonmell to Glonowrie, Lord Roche's castle.
27th, Sunday.--From Glonowre to Corcke, with the Lord President, Sir Robert Gardener, and Sir Nicholas Walshe.
29th.--"His Lordship and those councillors with some horse went to Kinsale to view the town and harbour; found the Spaniards to be possessed of the town, and that the greatest part of the shipping was out at sea returning into Spain."
October 3rd.--Sir William Fortescue and Sir Benjamin Berry came to Corcke with the Lord Deputy's and other companies.
8th.--Mr. Marshal (Wingfield), Sir George Bourcher, and Sir John Barkely came with companies.
10th.--Sir Henry Davers, Sir Henry Folliett, Captain Blany, and others came to Corcke. Mr. Marshal and Sir John Barkely, serjeant-major, went to Kinsale to view a fit place to encamp in.
13th.--"It was resolved to take the field, but nothing yet come to enable us thereunto." The weather extremely wet.
16th.--"The Lord Deputy left Corcke, and encamped with the army at a place called Owny Buoy, five miles from Kinsale, rather choosing to take the field in that sort unprovided than the country should discover those wants, and fall away to the Spaniards."
17th.--"The army rose and marched within half a mile of Kinsale, where they encamped under a hill called Knock Robin, having not means to entrench. Captain Morgan came this day out of England, and Jolly, the master-gunner, from Waterford."
22nd.--"Captain Button, who had the wafting of the munition and victuals from Dublin, with the Queen's pinnace The Moone, arrived at Corcke and came to the Lord Deputy at camp, signifying that the rest of the shipping was coming."
23rd.--The shipping reached the harbour of Cork, and were ordered to the Oister Haven to unlade the artillery and munitions.
26th.--The provisions coming, we encamped on a high hill on the north side before Kinsale called the Spittle, and there entrenched.
27th.--At night Sir John Barkelye, Sir William Godolphin, and Captain Bodly were sent down to view the most commodious place to plant the artillery to batter the castle of Ryncorren, commanding the harbour.
28th.--"Two culverins were landed and all means used to mount them, but it could not be done till the next day, so ill was everything fitted by reason there had been no use of them of a long time."
November 1st, Sunday.--After a long battery we took the castle, upon promise of their lives only to the Spaniards. The enemy still had 4,000 men within the town, we being hardly so many.
5th.--Four barks with munition and victuals from Dublin arrived this day in the harbour of Kinsale. Intelligence that Tyrone was coming with a great army to join with the Spaniards. Resolved that the camp should be entrenched on the north side, and that the Lord President, with 2,100 foot and 325 horse, should draw down to the border of the province to stop, or at least hinder, his passage; the Lord Barry and the Lord Bourke with the forces of the country to join with him.
10th.--The Spaniards, having notice that a great part of our army was gone with the Lord President, attempted to do somewhat upon us. They were "very well repelled, and that readily, with a good killing upon Captain Soto and divers others." News of the Earl of Thomond's landing at Castle Haven with 100 horse and 1,000 foot; and that Sir Anthony Cooke and Patrick Arthur had arrived at Waterford with the other horse and foot that embarked at Barstable.
12th.--Sir Richard Leveson arrived at Corke harbour with the ships and 2,000 land soldiers, and had direction to come to Kinsale.
14th.--"The wind still contrary, yet with much ado they warped in; and Sir Richard Leveson [Admiral] and Sir Amyas Preston [Vice-Admiral] came to the Lord Deputy at the camp."
15th.--The 2,000 soldiers landed. The Earl of Thomonde came to the Lord Deputy.
16th to 18th.--We were fain to send Thomond's horse and 1,000 of the foot to Corke to be refreshed for a week, "the weather being at that time so extreme, and they coming so newly from sea, as they began to die in good numbers that night."
18th.--The Lord Deputy called a council. Resolved, that the soundest course would be to invest the town at once, and to plant our artillery.
20th.--A castle called Ny Parke, "on the other side in the island," taken.
22nd, Sunday.--"Resolved, that three culverins should be placed in that island, for that the Lord Deputy had advertisement, by one that came to him out of the town, that Don John most feared annoyance from that place, though to us it seemed far off."
24th.--"This night it was resolved to begin their nearer approaches; and although the night was very light, and the ground extreme hard with frost, and the enemy continued all night upon such as digged with great volleys of shot, yet we brought the work to very good perfection, with very little hurt done us. This evening the Lord Deputy understood from the Lord President that O'Donnell with his forces were stolen by him."
25th.--The 1,000 foot returned from Cork. The Lord President returned to the camp. "At his departure O'Donnell was in O'Carroll's country, towards whom the Lord President made all possible haste, and by that time he was come near to the Holy Cross in Tipperary the enemy was in O'Magher's country, lodged in a strong fastness not above six miles from him, but not daring (according his promise) to make his passage by Cashell, as he pretended, fearing the Lord President's forces, which in the way [were] increased with a regiment of foot and some horse which Sir Christopher St. Lawrence brought out of Leinster;" the way over the mountain of Slew Phelim being impassable by reason of the late rain; and from thence into Limerick there is no other passage but by the Abbey of Ownhie, a narrow strait, distant 20 Irish miles. But there suddenly happened a great frost, which enabled the enemy to march over the mountain in the night. The Lord President pursued the enemy as far as the said abbey, where O'Donnell made no stay, and never rested until he came to a manor house of the Countess of Kildare's called Crome, adjoining to the fastness of Connologhe. To overtake the enemy the Lord President next day marched 25 miles, but lost his labour. The morning after O'Donnell lodged in the straits of Connologh; and the Lord President hastened to the camp, bringing with him the Earl of Clanricard, with his Connaught regiment, and the Earl of Thomonde, who had been sent after him with his 100 horse.
27th.--"Our endeavours from this time, and the several services done then and before, are of purpose here omitted, for that they are set down elsewhere; and this collected chiefly to make it appear that by the slow coming in of our victuals, munition, and other necessary provisions we have been forced to a more slow proceeding in this business." Owing to the coming up of O'Donnell, Tyrone, and the forces of the North, besides 1,000 other Spaniards landed at Castlehaven with great store of victuals, munition, and artillery, they in the town are resolved to hold out. "We saw that by venturing anything precipitately we should not only have hazarded this army and our own lives, but absolutely and apparently the whole estate of the kingdom, which would not [have] happened by a mere defeat only, but by every little disaster; so easily are the dispositions of this people weighed down to a general defection."
Signed: Mountjoye; George Carew; R. Wingfelde; Ro. Gardener.

SIEGE of KINSALE  MS 601, p. 204a  1601

Former reference: MS 601, p. 204a

9 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 199.

"Journal into Munster upon intelligence that the army of Spaniards were landed at Kinsale."
1601, September 27th.--"The Lord Deputy (Mountjoy) came this night to Corcke accompanied with the Lord President (Carew), Sir Robert Gardener, and Sir Nicholas Walshe, councillors.
29th.--The Lord Deputy and the councillors went to view Kinsale. [The particulars given in the previous journal, and repeated in this, are here omitted.]
October 11th, Sunday.--Some horse and foot sent forth to keep the Spaniards from victuals.
12th.--"Two Frenchmen were voluntarily taken that ran away from the Spaniards; who confessed their numbers to be 3,500, besides those that were not yet come in."
18th.--The enemy attempted to disturb the camp at night, but were soon repelled.
19th.--Some slight skirmishes in viewing the town. Sir John Barkely this night gave an alarm to the town.
20th.--"This night 1,000 of the Spaniards (or, as some that came from them say, 1,500) were come to the top of the hill near the camp, to cut off some of the scouts or guards, or to attempt somewhat upon that quarter; but being discovered by a party of ours not much exceeding 200, that were of purpose sent out to lie between the town and our camp, commanded by Sir John Barkely, who had with him Captain Morris, they set upon them, killed four dead in the place, divers hurt, took some arms and other good spoil, and beat them back to the town, without loss of any one of our men, and not above three hurt.
21st.--Cormock McDermonde, chief lord of a country called Muskry, coming with his country "rising out" to show them to the Lord Deputy, was in his return directed to march hard by the Spaniards' trenches, which they had made upon the hill without the town for their guards, that the Spaniards might see the Irish serve on our side. "The Irish at first went on well and beat the Spainards from their ground to the townward, but, according to their custom, soon fell off, by which means a horseman called Coursye [This name is inserted in Carew's hand.] of the Lord President's, who had charged one or two Spaniards upon some advantage, was engaged and unhorsed before he espied himself in danger;" but he was rescued by Sir William Godolphin and Captain Henry Barckely.
22nd.--Captain Button arrived. He was sent away to bring his ship into the harbour of Kinsale, and with Captain Ward's ship (which had been guarding the victual and munition in Oyster Haven) to annoy the castle of Rincurrane.
24th.--"That day was spent in despatching into England and making all things fit for to remove. This night Captain Blany and Captain Flower were sent out with 500 foot, upon discovery that the Spaniards were drawn out of the town; and so lay ready for them if they had come towards our quarter. But they came not on."
25th, Sunday.--"Four natural Spaniards came this day from the enemy, choosing rather to put themselves upon the mercy of the State than to live under the tyranny of their own commanders; who the next day were sent to Corcke. This night Sir John Barkely went out with some 300 foot, having with him Captain Flower, Captain Morris, and Captain Bostocke. Out of these were chosen 60 pikes and targets to be the better undiscovered, who fell into their trenches, beat them to the town, and fell into the gate with them. They killed and hurt above 20 of the Spaniards between the inner and the outer gate, and returned having but three hurt."
26th.--"The army dislodged early and encamped on a hill on the north side before Kinsale called the Spittle, somewhat more than musket shot from the town, and there entrenched strongly." The Spaniards had gotten a prey of 200 or 300 cows and many sheep, but Captain Taffe by hot skirmish recovered the prey, "save only some 200 cows that the Spaniards had killed," although they were under the guard of a castle called Castle-ny-Parke.
29th.--All things put in readiness to batter the castle of Rincurran. The Spaniards essayed to relieve the castle by boats, and were valiantly repelled by Captain Button's ship.
30th.--The two culverins began to play, but soon became unserviceable. "The same day they (the enemy) gave an alarm to our camp, drawing artillery out of the town, and with it played into our camp, killed two near the Lord Deputy's tent with a demi-cannon shot, and, through the next tent to it, brake two hogsheads of the Lord Deputy's beer, and every shot that was made fell still in the Lord Deputy's quarter near his own tent. Don John de l'Aguila, perceiving the castle would be distressed, attempted to relieve it by boats, but Sir Richard Piercie beat them back, who had the command of the Lord President's regiment, that this night was appointed to guard."
31st.--One of the culverins and the demi-culverin were mounted, and a cannon planted; they played without intermission. 500 of their principal men drew out of Kinsale, with show to go to relieve Rincurran by land. Sir Oliver St. John sent Captain Roe, his lieutenant-colonel, and Sir Arthur Savage's lieutenant with 100 men, and took 30 shot of his own company. He found Captain Roe and Carbrie, lieutenant to Captain Thomas Butler, skirmishing. The Lord Audley also came up. The enemy were forced to retreat. "Notwithstanding, they played upon them with their small shot out of every house in that quarter of the town, being full of towers and castles." Sir Oliver, Lord Audley, and Sir Garrett Harvie were wounded. Captain Butler's lieutenant was slain with four others, and 30 wounded. "The enemy left 10 or 11 dead;.. and, as one reporteth (that came the next day from Kinsale, and had been in the guest house amongst them), 70 were brought thither hurt, whereof eight died that night. In this skirmish was taken prisoner Juan Hortenssio de Contreres, that had been serjeant-major of the forces in Brittany, and divers very good arms and rapiers gotten from the Spaniards. All this while the three pieces played upon the castle until six of the clock at night, at which time they in the castle sounded the drum, and prayed admission of parley; which the Lord President (whom the Lord Deputy had left there, himself returning to take care of the camp) accepted. There came with their drum an Irishman born in Corcke, who prayed, in the name of the rest, that they might be licensed to depart to Kinsale with their arms, bag and baggage. This being denied by the Lord President, who would not conclude with any but the commander of the place, he returned the messenger, willing him to tell the commander that no other but himself should be heard, and that he had no commission to grant them any other composition than to yield unto her Majesty's mercy. Then immediately they sent the drum again, and with him a serjeant, whom the Lord President refused to speak withal; upon whose return, the commander himself, called Bartholomew de Clarijo, an Alfeero, came unto the Lord President. But not agreeing upon the conditions, for he still insisted to depart with their arms to Kinsale, (being put safe into the castle,) the battery began afresh, and the defendants bestowed thicker volleys of shot than at any time before. At length, about 2 of the clock, when they found the weak estate the castle was grown into by fury of the battery, they sounded again their drum for another parley, which not being accepted of, many of them endeavoured to escape under the rock close to the water-side; which being spied by us, our men ran presently close to the castle walls, and, if the Lord President had not forbidden them, (although the breach was not sufficiently assaultable,) they would have entered the house. Of those which attempted to escape there were 23 Spaniards taken, and of this country birth a great multitude of churles, women, and children. There was likewise slain of the Spaniards towards 30. All this while the enemy shot not a shot, but, as men amazed, lay still. Of the Irish there was not a man taken that bare weapon. All of them, being good guides, escaped; only one Dermod McCarty (by them called Don Dermuchio) was taken, who was then [These words "was then" are substituted by Carew for "is now."] a pensioner to the King of Spain, and heretofore a servant to Florence McCartie.
"Towards the morning the Lord President went to the Lord Deputy to make relation of that night's proceeding; and upon deliberation it was thought convenient, if the Spaniards would quit their arms and render the place, with promise of life only to be sent into Spain, that they should be received to mercy. The consideration whereof grew upon these reasons: the one, because, in forcing a breach, it was likely many good men should be lost; and also to entice others that are in Kinsale to leave the place (wherein they felt misery) by the example of this merciful dealing with those of Rincurran; but especially because expedition in the taking of this castle had many important consequences."
November 1st.--"About one hour after day the commander sent word to the Lord President that he would render the place and quit all their arms, so as they might be sent to Kinsale; which being refuced, he entreated only that himself might hold his arms and be sent to Kinsale; which also being denied, he then resolutely determined to bury himself in the castle, and not to yield. His company, seeing his obstinacy, did threaten him to cast him out of the breach, so as they might be received to mercy. In the end it was concluded that all his people should be disarmed in the house, which was done by Captain Roger Harvie, captain of the guards that night, and himself to wear his sword until he came to the Lord President, and then render it unto him; which being performed upon his knee, [These words "upon his knee" are inserted by Carew.] they were brought prisoners into the camp, and from thence immediately sent unto Corcke."

SIEGE of KINSALE.  MS 601, p. 209  1601

Former reference: MS 601, p. 209

12 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 200.

"A Note of Services done since the last despatch into England."
The former journal was sent with our letters of 7th November, on which day the President left this camp to make head against the Northern rebels.
10th.--Account of an unsuccessful sally by the Spaniards. "We heard by divers that Don John committed the serjeant-major who commanded them in chief presently after the fight, and threatened to take off his head, commended highly the valour of our men, and cried shame upon the cowardice of his own, who, he said, had been the terror of all nations, but now had lost that reputation. And he gave straight commandment upon pain of death, which he caused to be set up on the town gates, that from thenceforth no man should come off from any service until he should be fetched off by his officer, though his powder were spent or his piece broken, but make good his place with his sword. Captain Soto, one of their best commanders, was that day slain, for whom they made very great moan, and some 20 more." Mr. Hopton, a gentleman of the Lord Deputy's band, was sore hurt, and has since died.
16th.--Some of the Queen's ships began to play upon Castle-ny-Parke, and brake off some part of the top. That day and the two next were so stormy that the ordnance could not be landed.
"The 17th being the most happy day of her Majesty's coronation, which we meant to have solemnized with some extraordinary adventure, if the weather would have suffered us to look abroad, we sent at night, when the storm was somewhat appeased, the Serjeant-Major and Captain Bodly with some 400 foot to discover the ground of Castle-ny-Parke, and to see whether it might be carried with the pike; which was accordingly attempted, but the engine we had gotten to defend our men while they were to work being not so strong as it should have been, they within the castle, having store of very great stones on the top, tumbled them down so fast as broke it; so as they returned with the loss of two men, and proceeded no further in that course."
19th.--A demi-cannon, being unshipped, played upon the castle. In the night they of the town attempted to relieve the castle by boat, but were repelled by Captain Tolkern and Captain Warde, who lay with their pinnaces between the island and the town.
20th.--The demi-cannon, and a cannon with some ordnance out of the ships, played on the castle. Captain Yorke and Captain Smith were sent to view if the breach were assaultable. The Spaniards hung out a sign for parley, and surrendered, being in number 17. The Spaniards in the town made divers shot at Captain Tolkerne's pinnace with a piece of ordnance which they mounted a day or two before, close to the gate of the town. A platform was made upon a ground of advantage, and a demi-cannon mounted upon it, with which some shot was made at the town. "A sentinel, taken anon after, affirmed that the first piece shot off went through the house that Don John was in."
21st.--Another cannon planted by the demi-cannon. The Lord Deputy went over into the island to view how from thence the town might be best annoyed and invested.
22nd, Sunday.--Four other pieces planted. One shot killed four men in the market-place, and struck off a captain's leg, called Don John de St. John, who is since dead.
23rd.--The six pieces did great hurt to the town. While the Lord Deputy, the Marshal, and the Serjeant-Major were viewing the ground where the approaches were intended, a private soldier of Sir Francis Barkelie's attempted "to steal (as he had divers times before) a Spanish sentinel, who was seconded with four that he saw not," and fought with them all five, whereof one was the serjeant-major, whom he wounded. The Lord Deputy this night began to make his approaches nearer to the town, and for that purpose caused some 1,000 foot to be drawn out by Sir John Barkeley, Sir Benjamin Berry, and Captain Bodly. His Lordship sent direction to Sir Richard Leveson to land three culverins and to plant them in the island about Castle-ny-Parke. Sir Richard drew in the Admiral and Vice-Admiral between the town and the island, from whence he did great hurt in the town the next day.
25th.--"All the artillery still played, but, because the shot from the ships did little hurt (save only upon the base town), the Lord Deputy gave direction to make very few shot, except it were at the high town." The Lord President, the Earls of Thomonde and Clanricarde, Sir Thomas Bourke, and others returned to the camp. This night direction was given to have a platform made for the artillery upon the trench. Somewhat after midnight the Spaniards made a sudden sally to force that trench, but were repelled by Sir Francis Barkely.
26th.--The companies that went with the Lord President returned, and with them two other regiments of the Earl of Clanricard's and Sir Christopher St. Lawrence's. They were quartered upon the west side of Kinsale, to keep the Spaniards and O'Donnell from joining. The Spaniards played with a demi-cannon upon the Admiral and the Vice-Admiral; "and, shot being made from those ships, they dismounted the Spaniards' piece within, and hurt their chief gunner, so as it played no more."
27th.--Three pieces, planted on the point of the hill near the water, played upon the town, doing great hurt.
28th.--"In the morning a trumpet was sent to summon Kinsale, who was not suffered to enter into the town but received his answer at the gate, viz., that they held the town first for Christ, and next for the King of Spain, and so would defend it contra tutti inimici. Upon his return with this answer, the Lord Deputy gave direction to begin the battery with all the artillery; who continued in shooting upon the gate till towards night, and brake a great part thereof. During the time the ordnance played, Sir Christopher St. Lawrence drew out from the other camp some [ ] foot, and gave upon the Spaniards' trenches."
29th, Sunday.--Most part of the gate broken down.
30th.--The Marshal (Wingfield) went to the wall of the town to view which was the best place to make a breach, and found the wall close to the gate on the right hand to be the fittest. The artillery beat upon that place, and brake down a very great part of the wall, which the enemy attempted to make up in the night, but were beaten from it by our guards. A Spaniard who ran away reported that our artillery had killed divers captains.
December 1st.--2,000 foot under Sir John Barkeley and Captain Blany drew near the walls of the town, and skirmished with the Spaniards in a trench close to the breach. They found the breach was not assaultable. Captain Guest's horse killed under him. "This night the Marshal, Sir John Barkely, Captain Blany, and Captain Bodlye (the Lord Deputy, leaving the President in the camp, [The words in italics are interlined in Carew's hand.] being almost all night present) drew out 25 of every company, and entrenched themselves on a hill on the west side of the town," and cast up a small fort. The Spaniards about midnight began to play upon our men from the walls, and from a trench close to the west gate.
2nd.--Our men continued still in that work, though the Spaniards from their high castles sought to annoy them. A serjeant of Captain Blany's, with seven or eight shot, killed nine or ten Spaniards in a trench. "The enemy sallied about eight of the clock in the night (being extreme dark and rainy) with about 2,000 men, and first gave slightly towards the new trenches upon the west side, and presently after, with a great gross, upon the trench of the cannon, continuing their resolution to force it with exceeding fury, having brought with them tools of divers sorts to pull down the gabions and trenches, and spikes to cloy the artillery." Succours were sent from the camp, and repulsed the enemy, who at one time obtained possession of the trenches. They left behind them above six score dead bodies, besides such as were killed near the town; and we took nine prisoners. We have since heard that they lost above 200 of their best men, two captains, two alfeeroes, the serjeant-major (second commander to Don John), and Don Carloes Carty (McCarty); and above 200 hurt. "Of our part were hurt, Captain Flower, Captain Skipwith (slightly in the face), the Earl of Clanricard's lieutenant, Captain Dillon killed, Captain Spencer, Captain Flower's lieutenant, and some 25 private soldiers." [The following captains, besides those above, are mentioned in connexion with this affair:--James Blunt, Sir Thomas Bourk, Sir Benjamin Berry, Rotheram, Hobby, Nuse, Roger Harvy, Sir Arthur Savage, Sir John Dowdall, Masterson, Sir William Warren, the Earl of Thomond, Sir John Barkely, Sir William Fortescue, Sir Francis Rushe, Roe, Sir Oliver St. John, the Marshal, Sir William Godolphin, Clare, Boise, and Thomas Bourke.]
3rd.--Intelligence that six Spanish ships were put into Castle Haven, and that six more were sent with them from the Groine. In these were said to be 200 Spaniards, with great store of ordnance and munition, and that 20,000 more were coming presently after.
4th.--A confirmation of the Spaniards being at Castle Haven, and that they were landed. "A drum was sent to Don John to offer him to bury his dead bodies, which he took thankfully."
5th.--Sir Richard Leveson went with part of the fleet to seek the Spanish fleet at Castle Haven.
6th, Sunday.--"A Scottishman that had some 80 of those Spaniards aboard put into Kinsale harbour in the morning, and, getting a boat, acquainted Sir Amyas Preston, the Vice-Admiral, therewith, and put them into his hands; whereupon the said Scottishman and four of the chief Spaniards (being officers) were brought to the Lord Deputy, and examined before his Lordship and the Lord President and divers other of the Council. Their examinations were sent into England. The ships were heard to be in fight that day. This day our ordnance was drawn from the old platforms into our camp, the better to intend the service of the field, and to place them more commodiously towards the west side of the town if we should see cause. News came this evening that O'Donnell was joined with the Spaniards landed at Castlehaven, and that Tyrone with his force was very near us."
7th.--"The other camp strengthened their trenches; and a resolution to make two small forts beyond the camp westward wholly to invest the town."
8th.--"The artillery was planted in the several places of the camp for the best defence thereof, and a fort almost made near the town. A slight skirmish towards night, wherein Sir Francis Barkely's ancient and some other were hurt. In the evening the rebels' horse were descried about two miles off, and after supper all the army drawn into arms, upon notice (given us by the scout) that the rebels were discovered."
9th.--"This night, late, Sir Richard Leveson returned into the harbour of Kinsale, and the next day came to the Lord Deputy; unto whom he imparted that the 6th day, with The Warspite, The Defiance, The Swiftsure, The Marlyn, one merchant, and a carvill, he arrived at Castlehaven about 10.. in the forenoon. Before 4.. the same day one ship of the enemy was sunk; the Spanish Admiral, with nine foot water in hold, drove to the shore upon the rocks; the Vice-Admiral with two others drove likewise aground; most of the Spaniards quitting their ships."
"Since, we are informed by the Lord Coursie that they are all sunk but one ship, and great harm done both to their provisions and men."
Signed: Mountjoye; George Carew; R. Wingfielde; Ro. Gardener.
Copy, corrected by Carew.

SIEGE of KINSALE.  MS 601, p. 215  1601

Former reference: MS 601, p. 215

8 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 201.

"Journal of such Services as were done since the 13th of December, when Sir Oliver St. John left the camp."
"From the 13th until the 20th the weather fell out so extreme foul and stormy, and our intelligence concurring so fully of Tyrone's drawing near with all his forces, as we neither could nor thought it fit to attempt anything to any great purpose more than the removing of some pieces of artillery to a new platform we had made on the west side close to the town, which played upon the castles on that side." Only some slight sallies were made by them within.
20th, Sunday.--The ordnance brake down a good part of the wall. Another great trench was made beneath the platform, "though the night fell out stormy with great abundance of thunder and lightning." Intelligence that Tyrone would be the next night within a mile and half of us.
21st.--"Towards night Tyrone showed himself with the most part of his horse and foot on a hill between our camp and Corke, about a mile from us, and on the other side of the hill encamped that night, where he had a fastness of wood and water. Two regiments of our foot and some horse, being drawn out of our camp, made towards them, and when they saw our men resolved to go forwards they fell back towards the place where they encamped. This night the Spaniards sallied again."
22nd.--"Tyrone's horse and foot kept still in sight in the place where they showed themselves the day before, and many intelligences affirmed unto us that they had a purpose to force our camps. That night some of their horse and 500 of their foot were discovered searching out a good way to the town, which was not made known unto us until the next day. The Spaniards sallied this night hotly."
23rd.--Our artillery still played upon the town, but we had no meaning to make a breach until we might discover what Tyrone meant to do. We intercepted letters of Don John's, advising Tyrone to set upon our camps.
24th.--"Tyrone, accompanied with O'Donnell, O'Rourke, Maguire, MacMahound, Randoll McSourlie, Redmund Bourke, O'Connor Sligoe brothers, and Tirrell, with the choice force, and, in effect, all the rebels of Ireland being drawn into Munster and joined with Spaniards that landed at Castlehaven, who brought to Tyrone's camp six ensigns of Spaniards, and the greatest part of the Irishry of Munster, who, being revolted, were joined with them and entertained into the King's pay in several companies and under their own lords, resolved to relieve the town of Kinsale, and to that purpose sat down the 21st of December a mile and a half from the town, between the English camp and Corke, and on that side of the army kept from them all passages and means for forage, the other side over the river of Ownybuoy being wholly at their disposition by reason of the general revolt of those parts. It seemed they were drawn so far by the importunity of Don John de Aquila, as we perceived by some of his letters intercepted, wherein he did intimate his own necessity, their promise to succour him, and the facility of the enterprise, our army being weak in numbers and tired, as he termed us; with assurance from himself that whensoever he should advance to our quarter he would give the blow soundly from the town. During the abode of the rebels in that place we had continual intelligence of their purpose to give alarms from their party and sallies from the town, but to little other effect than to weary our men by keeping them continually in arms, the weather being extreme tempestuous, cold, and wet.
"On the 23rd of December, late in the night, Captain Taffe informed the Lord Deputy that one of the rebels, that had been sometimes belonging unto him, sent him word (and confirmed it by a solemn oath to the bearer) that the resolution of the rebels was, either that night or between that and the next, to enterprise their uttermost for the relief of the town, with some particulars in what sort they intended to give upon our camp. Whereupon the Lord Deputy gave order to strengthen the ordinary guards, to put the rest of the army in a readiness, but not into arms; that, about the falling of the moon, the regiment volant (commanded by Sir Henry Power, and appointed only to answer the first occasion, without doing any other duties) should draw out beyond the west part of the camp, and there to stand in arms not far from the main guard of horse.
"A little before the break of day, Sir Richard Greame, who had the guard of horse that night, sent word to the Lord Deputy that the scouts had discovered the rebels' matches in great numbers. Whereupon the Lord Deputy caused the army to draw presently into arms, sent a corporal of the field to cause the like to be done in the Earl of Thomond's quarter, and that from thence they should draw out 300 choice men between that quarter and the fort built upon the west hill, near a barracado made [a]cross a highway, to stop the enemy's sudden passage in the night; and himself, accompanied with the President and the [The words in italics are inserted by Carew.] Marshal, advanced forwards towards the scouts, and having given direction to Sir Henry Davers, who commanded the horse under the Marshal, for the ordering of those troops, sent the Marshal to take view of the enemy; who brought him word that horse and foot of theirs were advanced. Whereupon the Lord Deputy with Sir Oliver Lambert ridd to view a piece of ground between that and the town, which had on the back of it a trench drawn from the Earl of Thomond's quarter to the west fort, on the front a boggish glynn, and passable with horse only at one ford, which before he had entrenched.
"The ground whereupon the enemy must have drawn in gross to force that passage was flanked from the Earl's quarter by the cannon, and that which should have made good (sic) of great advantage for horse and foot both to be embattled and to fight. Upon view whereof the Lord Deputy sent the Marshal word that on that place he was resolved to give the enemy battle, and sent the Serjeant-Major, Sir John Barkely, to draw out Sir Henry Folliott's and Sir Oliver St. John's regiments to that place.
"O Campo, that commanded all the Spaniards that came last out of Spain, desired Tyrone that he might embattle his men and presently give on to join that way with Don John, for their purpose was at that time by that means to have put into the town all the Spaniards with Tirrell and 800 of their chief men, and the next night from the town and their army to have forced both our quarters; of the success whereof they were so confident that they reckoned us already theirs, and were in contention whose prisoner the Deputy should be and whose the President, and so of the rest.
"But Tyrone, discovering the Marshal and Sir Henry Davers to be advanced with all the horse, and Sir Henry Power's squadron of foot, retired beyond a ford at the foot of that hill, with purpose (as he feigned) till his whole army were drawn more close. Instantly the Marshal sent the Lord Deputy word by Sir Francis Rushe that the enemy retired in some disorder. Whereupon the Lord Deputy came up unto him, and gave order that all the foot should follow.
"When we were advanced to the ford, but our foot not wholly come to us, the enemy drew off in three great bodies of foot, and all their horse in the rear. The Lord Deputy asked of some that understood the country whether beyond that ford there were near any ground of strength for the enemy to make advantage of; but being answered that there was none, but a fair champion, he drew after the enemy, and then desired the Lord President to return from thence and secure the camp, and attend the sallies of Don John; which he did; with whom the Lord Deputy sent the Earl of Thomond's horse, Sir Anthony Cook's, and Sir Oliver Lambert's, and only took with him between 300 or 400 horse and under 1,200 foot. But being drawn out some mile further we might perceive the enemy to stand firm upon a ground of very good advantage for them, having a bog between us and a deep ford to pass, and in all appearance with a resolution to fight.
"The Marshal, being advanced with the horse near unto the ford, sent unto the Lord Deputy that he perceived the enemy in some disorder, and that, if he would give him leave to charge, he hoped to give a very good account of it. The Lord Deputy left it to his discretion to do as he should find present occasion out of the disposition of the enemy; whereupon the Earl of Clanricarde, that was with the Marshal, importuned him exceedingly to fight, and the Lord Deputy sent to draw up the foot (with all expedition) close together, who marched as fast as it was possible for them to keep their orders. The Marshal, as soon as a wing of the foot of the vanguard was come up unto him, and Sir Henry Power with his regiment drawn over the ford, advanced with some 100 horse, accompanied with the Earl of Clanricard, and gave occasion of skirmish upon the bog side with some 100 harquebusiers. The enemy thereupon put out some of their loose shot from their battle and entertained the fight, their three battalions standing firm on the other side of the bog.
"At the first our shot were put close to the horse, but with a second they beat the enemy's loose shot into their battle; and withal the Marshal with the Earl of Clanricard and Sir Richard Greame offered a charge on a battle of 1,000 foot, and, finding them to stand firm, wheeled a little about. By this time Sir William Godolphin with the Lord Deputy's horse and Captain Mynshall with the Lord President's horse (who were appointed to keep still in gross to answer all accidents) was come up, and Sir John Barkley with two of our three bodies of foot. Whereupon the Marshal with the Earl of Clanricard united themselves with Sir Henry Davers, Captain Taffe, and Captain Fleminge, charged again the horse and the rear of the same battle, who presently thereupon, both horse and foot, fell into disorder and brake.
"All this while the vanguard of the enemies, in which was Tirrell and all the Spaniards, stood firm upon a bog on the right hand, unto whom within caliver's shot the Lord Deputy had drawn up our rear upon a little hill, and willed them to stand firm till they received direction from him; but perceiving that gross drawing between our men that were following the execution and the other bodies of foot, he drew up that squadron (commanded by Captain Roe) to charge them in flank, whereupon they presently drew off in a great gross, marched to the top of the next hill, and there for a little time made a stand.
"The rear of the enemy being in the retreat, the van went off with few slain, but with the loss of many of their arms. Their battle, being the greatest body, was put all to the sword, and not above some 60 escaped. The vanguard, who went last off, were broken on the top of the hill. The Irish for the most part quit the Spaniards, who, making a stand, were broken by the Lord Deputy's troop and most of them killed; O Campo, the chief commander, taken prisoner by the cornet; two captains, seven allferoes, and 40 soldiers taken prisoners by such as followed the execution, which continued a mile and a half, and left there only tired with killing.
"There were of the Irish rebels 1,200 dead bodies left in the place, and, as we hear from themselves, about 800 hurt, whereof many of them died that night. They left about 2,000 arms, their powder, drums, and nine ensigns, which was more than ever they had together before. On our side only Sir Richard Greame's cornet was killed, Sir Henry Davers hurt with a sword slightly, Sir William Godolphin a little rast (sic) on the thigh with a holberd, Captain Crofts, the scout-master, with a shot in the back, and not above five or six common soldiers hurt; many of our horses killed, and more hurt.
"The Earl of Clanricard had many fair escapes, being shot through his garments, and no man did bloody his sword more than his Lordship that day, and would not suffer any man to take any of the Irish prisoners, but bid them kill the rebels. After the retreat was sounded the Lord Deputy did give the order of knighthood to the Earl of Clanricard in the field in the midst of the dead bodies, and returning back to the camp, drew out the whole army, and gave God thanks for this victory with their prayers.
"The enemy's army, as Alonso O Campo doth assure us, was 6,000 foot and 500 horse. There were some of the Irishry taken prisoners that offered great ransoms, but presently upon their bringing to the camp they were hanged."
Signed: Mountjoye.
Copy, corrected by Carew.

"A short RELATION of the SIEGE of KINSALE.  MS 601, p. 219  1601

Former reference: MS 601, p. 219

11 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 202.

"The Lord Deputy and Lord President, with other of the Council, meeting at Kilkenny, and there receiving certain intelligence of the Spaniards' landing at Kinsale, thought it their best course, with such forces as they could gather, to draw with all expedition towards the town."
Here follows an account or review of the siege, adding nothing of importance to the previous narratives until the defeat of Tyrone. [The following passage, however, deserves notice:--"In shorter time than is almost credible our new men were wholly wasted, and either by death, sickness, [or] running away those companies and supplies grown altogether unserviceable; so that our number were very little increased of that they were at our first sitting down."]
After the notable overthrow given to Tyrone, "the next day, by the Lord Deputy's commandment, the fort and platforms were again undertaken, and near approaches were cast out towards the town. But after five or six days' labour Don John offered a parley, sending the drum-major out of the town with a sealed letter to the Lord Deputy by an Alferes, by which he required (as by the copy thereof, conveyed in the despatch by Sir Richard Morrison into England, may appear) that some gentleman of special trust and sufficiency might be sent into the town for his Lordship to confer with him, whom he would acquaint with such conditions as he then stood upon; which being granted by his Lordship, Sir William Godolphin was employed in that negotiation...
"His first conference with Sir William Godolphin tendeth to this--that having found the Lord Deputy (whom he termeth the Viceroy), although a sharp and powerful opposite, yet an honorable enemy, and the Irish not only weak and barbarous, but (as he feared) perfidious friends, he was so far in his affection reconciled to the one and distasted with the other as did invite him to make an overture of such a composition as might be safe and profitable for the State of England, with least prejudice to the crown of Spain, by delivering into the Viceroy's power the town of Kinsale, with all other places in Ireland held by the Spanish, so as they might depart on honorable terms, fitting such men of war as are not by necessity enforced to receive conditions, but willingly induced for just respects to disengage themselves, and to relinquish a people by whom their King and master had been so notoriously abused, if not betrayed.
"That if the Viceroy liked to entertain further parley touching this point, he would first be pleased to understand them rightly, and to make his propositions such as might be suitable to men thoroughly resolved rather to bury themselves alive and to endure a thousand deaths than to give way to one article of accord that should taste of baseness or dishonour, being so confident of their present strength and the royal second of Spain, that they should make no doubt of yielding good account of themselves and their interest in this kingdom, but that a just disdain and spleen conceived against the nation dissuaded them from being further engaged for it than of force they must.
"Sir William Godolphin, being commanded by the Lord Deputy only to receive Don John's propositions and demands, having made his Lordship and [the] Council this relation, was by them returned with the answer following.
"That, howbeit the Lord Deputy, having lately defeated their succours, did so well understand his own strength and their weakness as made him nothing doubt of forcing them within a very short time, whom he did know to be pressed with inresistable difficulties, how much soever they laboured to cover and conceal the same; yet, knowing that her sacred Majesty, out of her gracious and merciful disposition, would esteem the glory of her victory to be blemished by a voluntary effusion and an obstinate expense of Christian blood, was content to entertain this offer of agreement so as it might be concluded under such honorable articles of her Highness as the advantage she had against them gave reason to demand, being the same which are sent with this despatch, signed by Don John,--the leaving of his treasure, munition, artillery, and the Queen's natural subjects to her disposition only excepted; all which points he did peremptorily refuse with constant asseveration that both he and all his would rather endure the last of misery than be found guilty of so foul a treason against the honour of his prince and the reputation of his profession, though he should find himself unable to subsist; much more now, when he might not only hope to sustain the burthen of the war for a time, but with patience and constancy in the end to overcome it. That he took it so ill to be understood in having articles of that nature propounded unto him, as, were they but once again remembered in the capitulation, the Viceroy should from henceforth use the advantage of his sword, and not the benefit of his former offers; adding that the Viceroy might rather think to have made a good and profitable purchase for the crown of England if with expense of 200,000 ducats he had procured Don John to quit his interest and footing but in Baltymore, to say nothing of Kinsale, Castlehaven, and Beerhaven.
"'For' (said he) 'suppose that all we with the rest of our places here had perished, yet would that peninsula (being strong in it[s] own nature), bettered by our art and industry, provided as it is of victuals, munition, and good [store?] of artillery, preserve unto the King of Spain a safe and commodious port for the arrival of his fleet, and be able to maintain itself against a land army of 10,000 until Spain (being so deeply engaged) did in honour relieve them; which would draw on a more powerful invasion than the first, being undertaken upon false grounds at the instance of a base and barbarous people, who, in discovering their weakness and want of power, have armed the King, my master, to rely upon his own strength, being tied in honour to relieve his people that are engaged, and to cancel the memory of our former disaster.
"'But this was spoken' (said he) 'in case the Viceroy were able to force this town, as I assure myself he cannot, having, upon mine honour, within these walls at this instant above 2,000 fighting men that are strong and able, besides those which, having been sick and hurt, recover daily; the greatest part of these composed of old soldiers, which fall not but by the sword; and those that were new, being now both trained to their arms and grown acquainted with the climate, are more able to endure than at the first; our means as good as it hath been any time these two months, such as the Spaniards can well away withal, and thereof to suffice us for three months more. We lodge in good warm houses, have store of munition, and (which is best of all) stand well assured that our succours will be shortly here.
"'To be plain, we preserve our men and reserve our strength the best we may, hoping to front you in a breach; which, if our hearts fail us not, we have hands and breasts enough to stop against treble your forces. Though I will give the Viceroy this right, that his men are passing good, but spent and tired out with the misery of a winter siege, which he hath obstinately maintained beyond my expectation, but with such caution and upon so good guard, as, having nicely watched all advantages, I could never fasten a sally yet upon him but with loss to myself; wherein I must acknowledge my hopes deceived that, grounding on some error in his approaches, promised myself the defeat of at least 1,000 men at one blow. But when we meet on the breach, I am confident upon reason to lay 500 of your best men on the earth, and rest hopeful that the loss of those will make a great hole in an army that hath already suffered so much extremity.
"'But to conclude our business. The King, my master, sent me to assist the Condees O'Neale and O'Donnell, presuming on their promise that I should have joined with them within few days of the arrival of his forces. I expected long in vain, sustained the Viceroy's army, saw them drawn to the greatest head they could possibly make, lodged within two miles of Kinsale, reinforced with certain companies of Spaniards, every hour promising to relieve us, and being joined together to force your camps, saw them at last broken with a handful of men, blown asunder into divers parts of the world,--O'Donnell into Spain, O'Neale to the furthest of the North; so as now I find no such Condees in rerum natura' (for those were the very words he used) 'as I came to join withal, and therefore have moved this accord the rather to disengage the King, my master, from assisting a people so unable in themselves that the whole burthen of the war must lie upon him, and so perfidious as perhaps might be induced in requital of his favour at last to betray him.'
"Upon relation made by Sir William Godolphin to the Lord Deputy and Council of these offers of Don John, which at several conferences had been brought to such heads as by the articles between them is more particularly specified, it was thought good for divers important reasons to proceed roundly to the agreement. For whereas in the propositions by him made there was not anything that admitted exceptions on our part but only that he required to carry with him his ordnance, munition, and treasure, that being no way prejudicial to the main scope or drift of our treaty, which chiefly respected the common good and safety of the kingdom, deserved not almost to be thought upon. Besides that the treasure, being at first but 100,000 ducats, with four months' payment of so many men and other necessary deductions, could not be but very near wasted, and that little remainder more fit for a prey to the poor soldier after his tedious travail than for a clause in the composition.
"Furthermore, how needful it was to embrace this accord may clearly be seen by whosoever considereth the state of our army, almost utterly tired,--how full of danger and difficulty it was to attempt a breach defended by so many hands,--how long time it might have cost us if we had lodged in the breach before we could have carried the town, that being full of strong castles,--how her Majesty's ships and others lying in the harbour should have been forced speedily to forsake us for want of victuals,--how ourselves were not provided for above six days at the time of this parley,--that we had neither munition nor artillery, but for one battery in one place at once, five of our pieces being before crazed,--and finally, that if we had missed of our purpose, the whole country had been hazarded.
"Furthermore, that which seemed of greatest consequence to induce his Lordship to this agreement was, that the Spaniards in Baltemore, Castellhaven, and Beerehaven, by virtue of this contract, were likewise to surrender those places and depart the country; which, how hard a matter it would have proved, and how long and dangerous a war it would have drawn on to root them out, they being strongly fortified, and well stored with victuals, munition, and artillery, may easily be conjectured; for that of necessity the army for some space must have rested, and in the end have been constrained after a new supply of necessaries, to her Majesty's intolerable charge, to transport themselves thither by sea, the way by land being unpassable; in which time their succours out of Spain in all likelihood would have been come unto them, the King being so far engaged in his honour to second his enterprise, and we barred of that prosecution of the rebels, which now by this agreement we may wholly intend."
Signed: Mountjoye, George Carew, R. Wingfelde, Ro. Gardener, George Bourcher.

SIEGE of KINSALE.  MS 601, p. 225  1602

Former reference: MS 601, p. 225

14 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 203.

"A letter from a soldier of good place in Ireland to his friend in London, touching the notable victory of her Majesty's forces there against the Spaniards and Irish rebels, and of the yielding up of Kinsale and other places there, held by the Spaniards.--London, imprinted for Symon Waterson, 1602."
This letter, which is addressed "to the right worshipful, my especial friend, Sir. W. D., knight," gives an account of the siege of Kinsale, from 19th December till its close. It commences thus:--"Sir,--In my last of the 19th of December, I wrote to you at large of the arrival of the new supply of Spaniards at Castell-haven, Baltemore, and Beerehaven, and of their intents and beginnings to fortify in all those three important places."
The writer, for his narrative of the defeat of Tyrone and the capitulation of the Spaniards, has evidently made use of the preceding document.

SIEGE of KINSALE.  MS 601, p. 231a  2 Jan 1602

Former reference: MS 601, p. 231a

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 204.

Related information: Pacata Hibernia, p. 438.

"The Articles of Composition between the Lord Deputy and Council and Don Juan de Aguila." [This document appears to have been printed at the close of the preceding letter.]
"In the town of Kinsale in the kingdom of Ireland, 2 Jan. 1601, between the noble Lords, the Lord Mountjoye, Lord Deputy and General in.. Ireland, and Don John de l'Aquila, captain and camp-master general and governor of the army of his Majesty the King of Spain; the said Lord Deputy being encamped and besieging the said town, and the said Don John within it; for just respects and to avoid shedding of blood, these conditions following were made."
(1.) Don John "shall quit the places which he holds in this kingdom.. to the said Lord Deputy, or to whom he shall appoint, giving him safe transportation and sufficient... of ships and victuals with the which" he and those under his command "may go for Spain, if he can at one time, if not in two shippings."
(2.) They shall not bear arms against the Queen "wheresoever supplies shall come from Spain," till they "be unshipped in some of the ports of Spain, being despatched as soon as may be by the Lord Deputy, as he promiseth upon his faith and honour."
(3.) "The Lord Deputy offereth to give free passport to the said Don John and his army, as well Spaniards as other nations whatsoever that are under his command, and that he may depart, with all the things he hath, arms, munitions, money, ensigns displayed, artillery," etc.
(4.) "They shall have ships and victuals sufficient for their money,.. at the prices which here they use to give."
(5.) If by contrary winds or any other occasions any of them arrive at any port of Ireland or England they shall "be entreated as friends, and may ride safely in the harbour, and be victualled for their money, and have moreover things which they shall need to furnish them to their voyage."
(6.) During their stay for shipping, victuals shall be given to them at just and reasonable rates.
(7.) Cessation of arms on both parts.
(8.) That the ships in which they shall go may pass safely by any ships of the Queen, and any ships of the Queen or her subjects may pass safely by them; "and the said ships, being arrived in Spain, shall return without any impediment;.. and for security of this, they shall give into the Lord Deputy's hands three captains, such as he shall choose."
(9.) "Don John.. will confirm and swear to accomplish this agreement, and likewise some of the captains of his charge.. in a several writing."
(10.) "He in person shall abide in this kingdom where the Lord Deputy shall appoint till the last shipping upon his Lordship's word," and if his people be shipped all at once, he shall go in the same fleet without any impediment, but rather the Lord Deputy shall give him a good ship.
(11.) The Lord Deputy shall swear and confirm in behalf of the Queen and himself to keep this agreement, "and jointly the Lord President, the Lord Marshal of the Camp, and the other of the Council of State, and the Earls of Thomond and Clanricard.. in a several writing."
Signed at the beginning: Mountjoye; at the end: George Carew, Thomond, Clanricard, R. Wingfield, Ro. Gardener, George Bourcher, Rich. Liveson.
"I do promise and swear to accomplish and keep these articles of agreement, and promise the same likewise on the behalf of his Majesty Catholic, the King my master. (Signed) Don John de l'Aquila."

EMIGRANTS to SPAIN.  MS 601, p. 235  1602

Former reference: MS 601, p. 235

4 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 205.

Related information: Pacata Hibernia, p. 424.

"Anno 1601. A List of the Names of so many of the Irish as have shipped themselves for Spain forth of Munster, since December 1601, besides divers depending upon these, and many others whose names I know not."
From Castlehaven in December 1601 with the Adelantado, O'Donnel, Redmond Bourke, Hugh Mostian, and their train, the number whereof I know not.
O'Sulyvan Beare's son, and with him one Traunt of the Dingle from Beare-haven, in February 1601[-2].
Donnel, son to Sir Fynnen O'Driscoyle, from Castlehaven with the Veedor Pedro Lopes de Soto.
From Kinsale with Don John in March 1601:--Teige MacDonnell ne Countey, a cousin-germain to Cormack Mac Dermonde, Lord of Muskrie; William McShane, the Seneschal's son of Imokelly; Dermot McConougher O'Driscoyle, of Castlehaven, with his brother and son; Thomas O'M[o]rhine, alias Thomas Keagh McEdmond, of Muskerry, a horseman (his father is with O'Callaughann); Richard Myagh, son and heir to James Myagh, of Kinsale; Domynicke White, of Kinsale, a carpenter's son; Melaughlin More, of Kinsale, born in Connought; Conoughor O'Menone, of Kinsale, born there; Edmond McThomas, of Kinsale; Dermot McShane, of Kinsale; Donough Deasagh, of Kinsale; Andrew Butler, born at Galway, a kearne; William Butler, brother to Andrew, a kearne; Mahowne McDonnough O'Lyne, dwelling under Barry Oge; Dermot McOwen, a shot; David Fitz Garrat Barry, his wife and children, dwelling at Rincorran in Barry Oge's country; Garrot, Nicholas, John, and David Oge Barry, sons to David FitzGerrat Barry abovesaid; William Hartluge, of Rincorran; John Hartluge, son to William; Dermot Oge O'Sulyvane, of Rincorran; Dermot O'Griffen, of Rincorran; John McDonnell Keady, of Rincorran; Dermot McDonnell Keady, brother to John; Morris Roche Fitz John, of Ellenfinchtowne in Kynallea; John FitzJohn Roche, a brother to Morrice; Conougher McDonnough, of Rathmore in Kynallea; Donnell Gowe, a Connoughtman, dwelling at Rathmore; Hugh O'Healy, a Connoughtman; Donnoug Moel McEnestlis, Dermot Moel McCartie's man; Owen McDonnough McFynnen Cartie, of Currowrane, Donnel Oge McDonnel McFynnen McCarty, brother to Don Carlos Carty, slain at Kinsale; Fynnen Oge Cartye, brother also to Don Carlos; Conougher O'Cullenane, of Rathmore in Kynalea; Donnell O'Griffen, of the same; William McCormock, Dermot McShane, Edmond O'Lavien, William McRichard, and Cormocke O'Lanehie, all Connoughtmen; Dermot Deasagh, of Carbry; Dermot O'Longie, of Muskry; Richard Gogaine FitzPhilip, of Barnehelly in Kyrrywhirry; Fynnen McDonnough Cartie, a cousin to Don Carlos; Dermott McFynnen Carty, of Skeath in Carbry, and Donnell McFynnen Carty, of the same, brothers; Donnell McTeige Carty, of the same; David Skemnehan, of Rincorran; John McDermott McShane, a Connoughtman; Dermot MacShane, a Connoughtman; Cormocke, the Lord President's footman, of the Birnes in Leinster; William McShane, of Rathmore in the county of Lymericke; Donnell McShane O'Cullenan, of Rathmore in Kynallea; John Oge O'Lensy, a Connoughtman; Teige Walsh, alias Teige Brennagh; Cormocke McDonnough ne Mroen O'Riordane, Dermot McDonnough ne Mroen O'Riordane, and Owen McDonnough ne Mroen O'Riordane, all of Muskerry, brothers; Donnell McShane O'Riordane, of Muskerry; John Feild FitzMorrice, of Tracton Abbey; John Roe McWilliam, of the county of Lymericke; Donnell O'Sisnane, of Kinsale; Teig O'Sisnane, son to Donnell;--Hugh Lassye, Walter Lea, of Kilkenny, Richard Stacboll, and one FitzJames, a pensioner, who came with Don Juan to Kinsale, and returned thence again with him.
From Ardea, in the Patache, the 7th of June 1602:--Donnough, bastard brother to Florence McCarty; Donough McMahon O'Bryan McEnaspicke, of Tomond; Bryan O'Kelly, a captain of Bowines, and a Connoughtman.
With Connor O'Driscoyle and James Archer, the 6th of July 1602:--Connor O'Driscoyle, eldest son to Sir Fynnen O'Driscoyle; James Archer, Jesuit; Colly McSwyny McEdmond, of the McSwynes, of Carbry (his son Owen was hanged at Donboye, in June 1602); Cormock McDonnough, Vic Donnell Rabbing, one of the Carties; Donoug McConnor Vic Vic Donnough, of Glanbarathaine, (in English called Castellhaven, and owner of it; he is of the O'Drischalls); Donnell McConnor Vic Dermodi O'Driscoyle; McCon McIffie O'Driscoyle, Teige McIffie O'Driscoyle, and Moriertaugh McIffie O'Driscoyle, brothers; Dermod McConnor Vic Dounes, of Kilkoe, one of the Carties, and Conor Oge, of the same, brothers; Shane McDermody Iholoughane, of Bantry; Shane McGyllycuddy Iholoughane, of Beare; Teige Oge, ne Mocklaughe, one of the Carties, and Owen McTeige ne Mocklaughe, brothers; Fynnen McBrowne, one of the O'Driscoyles; Connor O'Mahowny, of Lenicon, one of the O'Mahons of Ivaghe, one of the sons of Gulleduffe of Cleare, one of the O'Driscoyles; Dermott Oge McDermody O'Driscoyle; Connor McFynnen Roe, of Bonnane in Bantry; Terlaugh, son to Teige Keagh McMahowny, of Thomond (he slew his father when Donboy was besieged; his lands her Majesty hath given to the Earl of Thomond's brother); Shane O'Kahan, of Thomonde; Dowaltaugh McMorrough I Corromaine, a foster-brother to O'Donnell, and an Ulsterman; Ellyne ny Donnough, late wife to Dermot Moel McCartie, brother to Florence McCartie in the Tower; Fynnen Kearigh, of the Fyall, one of the Carties; Dermot McShanaughane, a Rymer; Gulleduffe, a Thomondeman; two soldiers of Thomonde, whose names not known, but serving under Connor O'Driscoyle; David McShane, servant to James Archer, the Jesuit (son to John Rice, of the Dingle); Shane McDermody Vic Donnough Oge I Cullaine, Archer's boy; Connor Oge O'Driscoyle, son and heir to Connor, son to Fitz Fynnen (nine years of age); Thomas, son and heir to the Knight of the Valley (14 years old); Donnell O'Mahowny, a mariner that came in company with Owen McEigan; five Frenchmen that were taken by Teige Keagh McMahowny, when he took the ship and merchant of Galway.
Signed: George Carew.
At the end in Carew's hand:--This note was sent into England to the Lords of the Council by Sir George Carew, knight, Lord President of Mounster.

SIEGE of KINSALE  MS 601, p. 239  1602

Former reference: MS 601, p. 239

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 206.

Copy of MS 607, p. 160


Former reference: MS 601, p. 237

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 207.

Copy of MS 607, p. 162


Former reference: MS 601, p. 242

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. IV, document 13.

"That whereas his grandfather, James Earl of Desmond, had lawfully, in the face of the Church, espoused Johan Roche, daughter to the Lord Roche, Viscount of Fermoy, by whom he had issue Sir Thomas of Desmond, knight, father to your said suppliant. And whereas also the said Earl during the life of his said lady presented to Sir Anthony Sentleger, then Lord Deputy, the said Sir Thomas as his son and heir, and as his best and most lawful pledge for his loyalty towards.. King Henry VIII., at whose charges he was brought up in England the space of five years. Nevertheless the said Earl, using the policy or rather ungodly custom too much used in Ireland, did, for the better strength and maintenance against his enemies, take a second wife, the first living; which second was daughter to Occarwill, a mere Irishman, and of the most bloody and vile race of Ireland, by whom he had issue Geratt, the now rebel, usurping the name of Earl, and his undutiful brother John; which name and title he held to him from the said Sir Thomas by strength and countenance of his friends, contrary to all equity in that behalf. In tender consideration whereof, and forasmuch as your petitioner's father and himself have dutifully served the Queen.. all their lives, not only without spot of their fidelity, but with many good services at their own charges, not putting her Highness to any expenses, to their great losses sustained by the traitors of five thousand pounds, as well in the Earl's former rebellion committed by James FitzMorish, wherein the said Sir Thomas had the charge and credit of his rightful inheritance of the Geraldines from all her Majesty's governors in Mounster, and have put the said James sundry times to flight, and killed divers and many of his men, and constrained the whole country to obey her Highness; and now, in this most perilous time; wherein they refer themselves to the report of Sir Henry Sidney, Sir John Perrott, and Sir William FitzWilliam, and to all the rest for their time being that hath been her Majesty's governors there; he most humbly beseecheth your Honour, for the advancement of justice and furtherance and short finishing of her Majesty's service, being the next way to overthrow the arch-rebel, to restore his father to his right and lawful inheritance and patrimony, not doubting but that, with her Majesty's countenance, and some small assistance, his said father and he shall not only withdraw the forces of the said pretended Earl, but also, by the help of their kinsmen and friends, do their uttermost endeavour shortly [to] bring him to confusion and foul end. And both his father and he shall perpetually pray."
Copy. Headed: James FitzThomas his petition to Sir John Perrot, Lord Deputy of Ireland, in October 1584.

Council of Ireland to Wolsey  MS 601, p. 18a  1522

Former reference: MS 601, p. 18a

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 21.

Copy of MS 607, p. 18


Former reference: MS 601, p. 1

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 46.

Related information: State Papers II. 203.

On Wednesday the 14th October, the Deputy of Ireland and we sailed from the haven of Graycort towards Ireland, and were sore beaten with storm and tempest all that night. Next day we were driven under the isle of Lambay, ten miles northward from Dublin, and lay there all that night. On Friday we were informed by one John Darcy, that the false traitor Thomas Fitz Gerald had won your city and castle of Dublin. The Deputy and we and all the Council took counsel together what was best to do. As it was the chiefest city of all Ireland, and many letters came to us from thence for aid and succour, it was concluded that we should go thither. So we sailed straight to the haven of Dublin, and the Deputy and all the other fleet purposed to go to Waterford. On Saturday we landed at Dublin, and were gladly received by the Mayor and all the city.
Immediately after our landing, the Mayor and the chief men brought us to their council house, and showed us that they had taken truce with Thomas Fitz Gerald for six weeks, but he broke it within 24 hours; for the next night after we landed, he burnt the corn of the Prior of Kilmainham. "The covenant of the truce also was that the said city of Dublin should get to the said traitor his pardon of your Highness, and a deputation of all Ireland for term of his life, or else to deliver him the said city at the said day; and upon the same he had three pledges of the best men of the said city." He has also sixteen or more of the sons and heirs of the best men. We therefore set great watches both day and night to keep the gates and walls, and keep the keys of all the gates in our custody within the castle.
A sevennight after our landing, "for lack of wind to Waterford," the Deputy landed at Dublin. On the 27th October, a friar came from Tradaff (Drogheda) to the Deputy and us, and showed us that he had met that morning Thomas Fitz Gerald with 300 or 400 horsemen, going to lay siege to Traghdaff. On the morrow, Simon and Jude's day, we went with the Deputy to defend the said town, and arrived there that night, "being 20 long miles from Dublin." We found there was no siege. We lay there 7 days, and many lords and gentlemen of the country resorted to us daily. "And when the said lords and gentlemen were put in an (sic) keep the said countries, the said Deputy and we came to Dublin." Desire to know how we shall order ourselves with respect to the said city and castle. Dublin, 4 November. Signed.
P.S. The bearer, Francis Herbert, has done good service this war time. He is a good gunner and has slain 24 persons, and one great captain of Thomas Fitz Gerald's company. But for the good speed he has made, both the town and the castle would have been given up.
Copy. Addressed.


Former reference: MS 601, p. 2

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 47.

Related information: State Papers II. 205.

"I, with your army, that took shipping at Chester, Lyrpole and in those parts, are arrived at your city of Dublin, where was landed at the first Sir William Brereton and John Salisbury with their company, and I, your Treasurer, and the Northern captains kept the sea, abiding wind that would a served to Waterford, which was contrary to us." We learnt that the traitor, Thomas Fitz Gerald, had made proclamation that all his power should be in their "most fensable array," to wait upon him at a place called Skeris by 7 o'clock in the morning, thinking I should land there, but I had knowledge of his intention, and made sail to the said place, "to the intent that the captains that went to Dublin might the more safelier go a land, for the haven there is of no less danger than I wrote" to Master Secretary (Cromwell). When we came thither we saw divers men, both on horseback and on foot, but no army. I armed the ship-boats with ordnance and men; put a certain number ashore; burned in that haven four vessels which could not be carried away, and spoiled them of all their tackling; and brought certain small boats away. We were then driven by dangerous weather to harbour at Lambay, where on the morrow after we perceived Brode, the pirate, under sail. I sent two ships after him, which chased him to Drougheda, "and, at the passing in of the bar of the same, bowged him, so that he ran his vessel a land, and went himself to the shore," and our ships could follow him no further.
At their return, letters came to me from the Mayor of Dublin and Chief Justice, stating that the Earl of Ossory had sent a messenger to them with credence, "which was, that he would not fail within two days after to be at Dublin." Moreover, the said Mayor and Justice, with both the captains there landed, wrote to me that, unless I landed there with the horsemen, the country would be utterly undone. The Treasurer and I consulted together, and considering the coming of the Earl of Ossory, the destruction of the English pale by the rebels, that divers of our horses had died on ship-board, and that the wind was contrary, we thought best to land there, and did so.
When we were landed at Dublin, by the advice of the Council, I sent a letter to the Mayor of Drougheda and his brethren, commanding them to apprehend Brode and his company. Notwithstanding the great dread which they had of the rebellion, they obeyed, and took Brode with 9 of his mariners, and put them in sure jail. I sent a ship to bring them to the castle of Dublin, where they now remain. The rebel, hearing thereof, sent word to the Mayor of Drougheda, that he would besiege the town and utterly destroy it, naming a certain night to be there. The said Mayor and his brethren sent a messenger to advertise me of the same. The Council agreed that the whole army of horsemen and footmen should march forward to give battle to the said rebel, or remove the siege if he kept his appointment. We continued there from Wednesday till the Tuesday following, and he never came near us. "I and your Council that was there, as Sir William Breerton and John Salisbery," proclaimed the said Thomas Fitzgerald at the high cross on the market day "as the most notorious rebellion and arrant traitor that ever was born." We intended to have had him denounced accursed by your Chancellor there, but he demanded leisure "to have counsel of them that were about him learned;" and he and they made answer that it might not lawfully be done by him, till the Dean of St. Pulcars and the Prior of Christchurch of Dublin, who are Vicars General, sede vacante, had solemnly declared the sentence first, and then he would follow the same.
After this, the said captains and I sent letters to all the gentlemen of Uriell and Meath, commanding them "to come in and show themselves as the King's true subjects, and to renounce untruths and misdemeanors, which with their wills or against their wills had followed the said traitor." Very few have refused, and even they excused themselves because the way was so dangerous. We have also written letters to all the captains in the north parts, "which, at my being here, bear their good wills and service to your grace and me." From divers of them I have good answers. The rest have not yet answered, because the way is very dangerous to messengers, and there are many waters through the great rains. The said rebel so shifts from place to place that as yet "we cannot come to give none adventure." I dare not make many privy to secret counsels, besides the Treasurer and the said [two] captains.
Dublin, 11 Nov. Signed.
Copy. Addressed.

SKEFFINGTON to CROMWELL.  MS 601, p. 32a  [13 March] 1535

Former reference: MS 601, p. 32a

4 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 50.

To the same effect as MS 607, p. 14. Undated.


Former reference: MS 601, p. 3a

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 51.

Related information: Printed in "State Papers," II. 236, from the original in the Record Office.

On 14th March 1, your Deputy, with your army, besieged the castle of Maynuth, which Thomas Fitzgerald so strongly fortified with men and ordnance, "as the like hath not been seen in Ireland since any your most noble progenitors and (had?) first dominion in the land." Within the same were about 100 able men, of whom more than 60 were gunners. On the 16th "your ordnance was bent to the north-west side of the dungeon of the same castle, which did batter the top thereof on that wise, as their ordnance within that part was dampned." Then your ordnance was bent upon the north side of the base court of the castle, "at the north east end whereof there was new made a very strong and fast bulwark, well garnished with men and ordnance; which the 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, and 22nd days of the said month did beat the same by night and day on that wise, that a great battery and a large entrance was made there." On the 23rd, being Tuesday next before Easter day, a galiard assault was given, and the base court entered. About 60 of the ward of the castle were slain, and of your army only John Griffin, yeoman of your guard, and six others.
We next assaulted the great castle, which yielded; "wherein was the Dean of Kildare, Christopher Paris, captain of the garrison, Donaugh O'Dogan, Master of the Ordnance, Sir Simon Walshe, priest, and Nicholas Wafer, which took the Archbishop of Dublin, with divers other gunners and archers to the number of 37, which were all taken prisoners and their lives preserved by appointment, until they should be presented to me your Deputy, and then to be ordered as I and your Council thought good." We thought it expedient to put them to execution as an example to others. Accordingly on the Thursday following, in the morning they were examined, and their depositions written, and in the afternoon they were arraigned before the provost marshal and captains, and upon their own confessions adjudged to die. Immediately 25 of them were beheaded and one hanged before the gate of the castle. Divers of the heads of the principals were put upon the turrets of the castle. We send their depositions enclosed. Amongst them was a priest who was "privy with the traitor," and deposes that the Emperor promised to send hither 10,000 men by the 1st May, and that the King of Scots also promised to give aid to your rebel. The inhabitants of this land do no believe that the rebel will hereafter obtain your pardon as his ancestors divers times did, and say that, if he did, it would be their undoing. Therefore divers of them adhere to him.
Praise the circumspect demeanor of Mr. Paulett since his coming hither. "He not only pronounced your pleasure after such sort and fashion to the captains here, that they have ordered and demeaned themselves since, and done your Grace better service than they did before, but also the said Master Paulett hath taken such diligent pains and labours in the field for the setting forth of this last enterprise of Maynuth, and all other things for your Grace's honour, as we have considered so much forwardness to grow by him, that we have made instance unto him to tarry here for a season for the quieting of the army." On the coming of Sir John Sentlowe, he shall return with further answer to you of the state of affairs.
Manor of Maynuth, 26 March. Signed: William Skeffington; [J. Lord] of Trymleteston, Chancellor; J. Rawson, Prior of Kyllmaynam; Willm. Brabazon; Patrick Fynglas, Justice; Thomas Luttrell, Justice; Gerald Aylmer, Baron; John Allen, Master of the Rolls; Patrick White, Justice.


Former reference: MS 601, p. 19

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 53.

Related information: State Papers II. 247.

Since my last writing by Thomas Paulet, it has been bruited here that your traitor, Thomas Fitz Gerald, "abiding in the Great O'Brene's country under his succour," and the McWilliams and Kelleis, intend to enter, with all their power, into O'Chonour's country called Ofayleigh, then to join with O'Nell and Manus O'Donell, and invade the English pale, about midsummer next. I trust with your army to give them battle ere they enter the pale. I was ascertained from Limerick, by letters which we have sent to your Chief Secretary, that the said traitor had sent into Spain James Delahide, the parson Walsh, and four more. I have kept O'Donell, "with divers other captains of his," here still with me, to the intent I and the Council might be ascertained from his friends in the Irishry of the purposes of the said traitor and his maintainers, and also to hear his advice what is best to be done for your honour and profit. He acts as a true and loving subject.
On the 13th inst., Neale Connelaugh came to me at the castle of Maynoth, having credible information of the crafty intent of O'Nell and Manus O'Donell. He showed me and the Lord O'Donell how, ever since my arrival in this land, they have endeavoured to draw the Scots of the out isles of Scotland to their country, to fortify Thomas Fitz Gerald, pursuing daily to have a treaty for peace, only to delay the time till their aid come, when the traitor with the said O'Brennes, McWilliams, and Kelleis would join together to invade the pale. The said Neale Connelaugh and McGuire desire to have the advice of me, the Lord O'Donell, and the Council what is best to be done for the destruction of the said O'Nell and Manus O'Donell. If they do not come in and keep the day appointed to parle with me and the Council, Connelaugh and McGuire, with Claneboy, and others of your band of Ulster, will, with the strength of the Lord O'Donell, prevent their malicious purposes. This land is now at your pleasure. You may have not only sufficient revenues to maintain your Deputy, "to be of England born," with a retinue, but also great profits besides. My advice is to send hither, at your next Parliament to be holden here, some of your Council of England, for the good ordering of this country and the revenues.
Manor of Maynoth. 17 June. Signed.

CONATIUS O'NELL.  MS 601, p. 21  1 July 1535

Former reference: MS 601, p. 21

3 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 54.

Writing made at the castle of Moynoth 1st July 1535, 37 Henry VIII.--Gillaspike McDonyll, constable of the Lord Conatius O'Nell, and principal captain of his nation, being the special nuncio of O'Nell, and having full powers to conclude a peace, promised, (1.) that O'Nell will be a faithful and liege subject of the King and serve the King and his Deputies against the King's enemies. (2.) That, for arrangement of all damages and injuries done to the King's subjects and all those who are of his peace by O'Nell, and of all disputes between the Lord Deputy and the Lords Odo O'Donell and Mallachi O'Raileigh, Lord of Brenigh, O'Nell shall come to the presence of the Deputy and Council on the 16th July, or within two days after, to "villam Pontanam" (Drogheda) or to Trym. For his security there shall remain in the hands of Gillaspike, Master Anthony Collie, son of the said Lord Deputy, and two other men to be chosen by O'Nell, excepting Matthew and Thomas Skeffington, sons of the Lord Deputy, on account of the custody of the castle of Moynoth and the youth of the said Thomas. (3.) The said Conatius shall receive his usual stipend, and all persons coming from his country with merchandize during this peace shall have free ingress and regress in the parts of the English, who shall have ingress and regress in O'Nell's country. (4.) Gillaspike promises that if the said Conatius shall not fulfil the articles of this treaty, he will aid the Lord Deputy with all his adherents against the said Conatius. Present, Odo O'Donell, James Preston, Viscount Gormanstone, Thomas Cusake, Secondary Justice of the Common Pleas, McSwine and many others, and Hugh Holgrave, notary public (?).
Mem.--On 25th July the Lord O'Nell affixed his hand and seal to this indenture at Droedagh.
Signed: William Skeffingtone, William Brabason, Patrick Fingles, Justice.

GERALD AYLMER, Chief Justice, and JOHN ALLEN, Master of the Rolls, to CROMWELL.  MS 601, 22a  21 Aug 1535

Former reference: MS 601, 22a

7 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 57.

Related information: Printed in "State Papers," II., 263, from the original in the Record Office.

We landed here the 1st inst., and the Lord Leonard (Grey) two or three days before us. Since our departure six of the eight hundreds or baronies in Kildare have been burnt, and many burnings and wastes have been done in Meath. If Mr. Treasurer had not fortified the Naas "with part of the army, Thomas Ewstace, and such horsemen and kerne as he retained," the Naas and the rest of Kildare, and the county of Dublin, would have been destroyed to the gates of Dublin. While he was defending these parts, the Tholes razed Powers Courte, a fair garrison, the building whereof cost the old Earl of Kildare and the inhabitants of the county of Dublin 4,000 or 5,000 marks. Four or five days before our arrival, the traitor, with the aid of O'Chonnour, assaulted again the court and castle of Rathangan, wherein was the retinue of Sir William Bre[re]ton, who yielded the castle. This was brought to pass by the tradiment of Felom Boy O'Chonor, whom, after he was arraigned of divers treasons, murders, and felonies before us at Kildare, before our last coming into England, my Lord Deputy put in trust for the victualling and oversight of the said garrison. On Mr. Treasurer's proceeding thither, Thomas [Fitz Gerald.] and his company fled. Sir James Fitz Gerald took upon him the keeping of the castle.
The Tuesday after our arrival, Mr. Treasurer, intending a journey into Allon and those parts where the traitor was succoured, sent for O'More and his company. "There went with him William Sentlow and all his brother's company, (for Sir John lieth sick,) Sir William Brerton's company, Dacres and Musgrave, Thomas Ewstace, Sir James Fitz Gerald, his brother Walter, and divers other of the gentills of the county of Kildare. After they had entered into Allon, and burnt and rifled the country, O'More caused all the Englishmen to depart as though they were going homeward, and assigned every of the companies, both horsemen and footmen, how they should divide and keep standings in the valleys and strites (straights), and he sent a certain of his kerne to skirmish upon the moor's side with Thomas and his company, and they followed the train into the plain. And in the meantime O'More lighted afoot with all his men and came on the backside of them, betwixt them and their fastness, so as he and our company had him and all his to the number of 3 or 400 in the plains amongst them, that they could never have escaped man if our party had done their devours; for our Northern men, whilst the train was making, left their standings, and ran away with the booty, leaving their gap at large; and in that way escaped the most of them; and as for Sir James, Walter, his brother, and all the Geraldines, suffered them to pass by them. O'More would kill never one of Thomas's men, but of O'Chonnor's; yet many was killed, and the most of them by Master Treasurer and such of his own company as stood with him; and by Thomas Ewstace divers prisoners were taken, and let go again by the said Geraldines and by the Dempcies, being in O'More's company; among whom the traitor himself was taken (as the common report is) and let go again. Burnell, of Balgriffen, and the said Felom Boy O'Chonor with O'More, (which Felom is delivered to the custody of Thomas Ewstace,) William Ketinge, captain of the Ketinge kerne, and divers other were taken prisoners."
On the 3rd inst. we repaired to Mr. Treasurer, sending to the Lord Deputy to know his pleasure, where we and the Council should wait upon him for delivery of the King's letters and declaring the King's pleasure. He appointed us the Monday following at the hill of the Lions, for all the towns of this country are sore infected with the pestilence, and especially Dublin. My Lord Leonard and we attended upon him. If we had not come, this land had been as nigh lost as ever it was, for my Lord Deputy had appointed 1,000 kerne, many horsemen, and galloglas, "to be in an holding upon the country for a quarter of a year; the charges thereof and other impositions would have surmounted 3l. 6s. 8d. every six score acres of land, besides the lord's rent, which either [should] have been occasion of universal rebellion" or the desolation of the country. In common assemblies of the country we pacified the people and showed them that the King's mind was not to have them so to be undone, "for if he had, he would never have so relieved them with this money." [Evidently a mistake for army.] They granted to find a 1,000 kerne during this journey into O'Chonnor's country. "No doubt this war against O'Chonor and Thomas must be most excellent by kerne, and yet, as my Lord of Norfolk knoweth, O'Chonor and Thomas of themselves, besides the succour of the Brenes, cannot make a 1,000 kerne; and besides them, yet is there 300 kerne found at the King's charge in the county of Kildare."
We have delivered William Ketinge at large upon hostages and sureties. He has undertaken to drive Thomas Fitz Gerald out of the fastness of the county of Kildare, and has allured from him most of the Ketinge kerne. "Since the said good day which Mr. Treasurer had upon him, and the delivery of the said William, the said Thomas hath not done any hurt, neither dare tarry in the county of Kildare, but the poor people resort again to their corns to reap and gather them that be left."
On Saturday last my Lord Leonard, Mr. Treasurer, and we, met with O'More, by Kildare, "and have acquainted and bound my Lord and him togethers." Chaire O'Chonor, O'Chonor's brother, came thither, and is sworn and bound by sureties and "slauntiaghs" of O'More and others, to take the King's part against his brother and Thomas, upon certain conditions mentioned in writing. One is, that he shall have at the King's wages 12 horsemen and 160 kerne. "On Tuesday my Lord Leonard, Mr. Treasurer, and we, went to Rathangan, as well to view the keeping of the said garrison, as meet the said Chaire O'Chonor, for the view of his company, with whom and our own we entered the wood in the marshes besides Rathangan, wherein Thomas had a strong house made all of earth," which we burnt.
The Deputy is as evil and worse in his health than he was at our departure from thence. [Qu., mistake for hence.] At his last being in Drogheda for the conclusion of peace with O'Neile and others of the north of Ireland, "sitting in the Council, he was almost dead among them." If the Treasurer had not set to his hand, the land had been destroyed. The lordship of Mainoth, which was worth 400 marks by the year, where the Deputy lies, is made waste to the gates of the castle. "If he rise before 10 or 11 of the clock, he is almost dead or noon." He was appointed to set forth toward O'Chonnor's country on Monday last, this day being Saturday, but is not gone, and my Lord Leonard and the army lie in the field spending their victuals. My Lord Butler, with six score horsemen and 500 footmen, O'More, and Chaire O'Choner, do likewise. As the winter is drawing nigh, and the King is determined that Lord Leonard shall be Deputy, the King, at the return of Mr. Agard, should send for the other home, and a patent for Lord Leonard, with a clause for the holding and continuing of the Parliament, which will be summoned as soon as this journey is finished. Mr. Treasurer and we will endeavour ourselves that the King's causes shall take effect.
The journey southward for the breaking of O'Breene's bridge will probably not take effect this year, as the summer is so far spent, and the Deputy will not allow any other to execute such an enterprise. "Carriage cannot well pass," in consequence of the continual rains, and all the artillery which came hither will not furnish this army for such a far journey. "Of 1,600 men being here at the landing of the same, there were not 400 of them furnished with weapons, the lack whereof they object for their excuse, both of the destruction of the country, and the dishonesty they took in O'Choner's country." Above all, there is lack of money, which has hindered the doing of much good service. The army is a month's wages behind. Master Agarde, in the muster and payment of the army, has used himself like an honest man. We beseech you to give him credence touching the premises.
The 100 Welsh horsemen have been discharged out of wages. We beseech you, according to the King's appointment at our being there, that the bearer may bring with him in their steads 100 horsemen to Mr. Treasurer. If he have them not, the Earl of Kildare's tributes cannot be levied. The Lord Chancellor has delivered me [The last six lines in the original were written by Allen, to whom Lord Trimletiston delivered the Great Seal.] the Great Seal, to be kept until the King shall appoint a meet Chancellor.
The Naas, 21 August.
Signed: Gerald Aylmer, Justice; John Allen, Master of the Rolls.


Former reference: MS 601, p. 20a

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 58.

Related information: State Papers II. 273.

"I, by the advice of your Council, with your army was determined to march forward and [Sic.] hostings," the 18th inst., upon O'Chonor, the traitor Thomas FitzGerald and others succored by him in Ofaileigh. O'Chonor came in and surrendered himself, and offered to put in his pledges to perform the saying of four indifferent persons. Thomas FitzGerald with others his complices in like manner submitted, without condition of pardon, life, lands, or goods, but only submitting himself to you, and his desire is, to be conducted to your Highness by Lord Leonard Gray. The Lord O'Donell has diligently used himself for the furthering of your affairs, and sent substantial aid to this hostings, with the Lord McSwyer. He would have come himself, but for the war of Manus O'Donell his son. I intend to repair into those parts for the subduing of your traitor the said Manus.--From the Camp at Castle Jurdayne, 24 August. Signed.

THE COUNCIL OF IRELAND to HENRY VIII.  MS 601, p. 9a  27 Aug 1535

Former reference: MS 601, p. 9a

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 59.

Related information: Printed in "State Papers," vol. II. p. 275, from the original in the Record Office.

Your Deputy and army, as you have been lately ascertained, repaired to the borders of O'Chonour's country, for invading the same, and persecuting of him for the receiving, maintaining, and succouring of your traitor and rebel Thomas FitzGerald and his complices. Both he and the same Thomas offered to commune with the Lord Leonard (Grey), "me, James Butler, and me, your Chief Justice." After communication, O'Chonour delivered hostages for redress of his offences, according as certain persons shall order. FitzGerald, in the presence of Sir Rice Maunsell, John Salisbury, and William Sentlowe, finally confessed his abominable offences towards you, and yielded himself into the hands of Lord Leonard, to be presented to you by Lord Leonard and Butler, and to be ordered "concerning his life and otherwise" as should please you. Lord Leonard repairs at this season to you for that purpose, bringing with him the said Thomas. We beseech you, "according the comfort of our words spoken to the same Thomas to allure him to yield him," to be merciful to him, "especially concerning his life."
"Your Council here, for such causes as the Master of your Rolls (whom we have appointed to repair to your Highness at this season) shall show your Grace, hath willed me, James Butler, to tarry here for defence of your land until the return of the said Lord Leonard, and not to resort to your Grace according my promise aforesaid." The Master of the Rolls will advertise you of the causes of the peace taken with O'Chonour, and [...] the state of this land.
We also beseech you to give your thanks to Lord Leonard for his notable service at this season, for the said Thomas would yield to no other but him, and to return him hither again with speed, for the captains of your army, and the nobles and gentlemen of this land are contented gladly to be governed and led by him.
"From the camp of your host," 27 August. Signed: James Butler, J. Rawson, P. of Kylmaynam, R. B. of Delvyn, R. Manxell, John Salisbury, John Sentlowe, William Brabason, Gerard Aylmer, Justice.
Copy. Addressed.

STEPHEN AP HARRY to CROMWELL.  MS 601, p. 29  6 Oct 1535

Former reference: MS 601, p. 29

7 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 61.

Related information: Printed in "State Papers," II., 281, from the original in the Record Office.

"Upon my Lord [Lord Leonard Grey.] my master's departing with Thomas Fygh Garret out of Ireland into England, he commanded me, being captain of a 100 of his men," to go into my Lord of Ossory's country with my Lord James Butler, till my master's return. On entering Ossory's country at Leklyn Bridge, we were appointed to lie there that night. The people were glad of us. The morrow after we rode to Callayn, and there remained a se'nnight and two days. Then we were commanded to go to Clonmel, where we remained three days and three nights. "There came to us one Thomas Buteler, brother-in-law unto my Lord James, now Sir Thomas Buteler, knight, made at the Castle Dungarvyn, and so did conduct us over the mountains to Dungarvyn ward; and by the way met with us another brother-in-law of my Lord James's, called Garret MakShane, the which is a man that can speak never a word of English," and made us very good cheer. He is sworn to be the King's servant, and has put in pledges "to abide whatsoever the King and his Council will admit him to do." Sir Thomas Buteler is a strong man in his country, and can speak very good English.
As for the winning of Dungarvyn, my Lord James, perceiving that they within the castle were not disposed to surrender it, and the charges that the King would be at in beating down the house and rebuilding it, "found the means to set in two gentlemen of his own to be pledges for the constable, and the constable to come and to speak with him." The constable was very well content to yield it up. My Lord James's pleasure was that I should prepare to go with him to commune with a young gentleman [who] challenges to be the Earl of Desmond, Cormak Oge and many others, and to see O'Breyn's country; but my Lord Deputy would not let us have one of the battering pieces with us. From Dungarvyn we went to Youghhall, where we had very good cheer, and where they sold a gallon of Gascon wine for 4d. ster. The second night we camped by a castle called Cahermon, and there my Lord James mustered his host. He had with him 202 horsemen and 312 galoglas, and 204 kernes, besides followers. I had 78 spearmen, 24 long bows and 5 handguns; every man well horsed.
Next day, upon a hill half a mile this side Cork, my Lord James commanded me and all his captains to put the men into array. "Upon a hill half a mile or more, Cormak Oge was with his host, and so down came Cormak Oge into the valley with a certain, and my Lord James with a certain with him, as then [...] ["Ther" in State Papers.] was appointed; and so they met together and fell to parelying;" after which my Lord James went into the town with all his host, and the Mayor and his brethren received him. On the morrow Cormak Oge came to my Lord James, and brought with him the young gentleman who challenges to be the Earl of Desmond. This young man speaks very good English, and "keepeth his hair and cap after the English fashion upon his head." He said he had never offended the King; that his lands "came by the King's gift, and that he was a true Englishman born, and would be content with all his heart, if Sir John A Desmond his uncle would come and submit himself unto the King and his Council, and to open his title, as he would do, then he would be content to come into England;" and even if his uncle will not come, he is content to go into England. Moreover there came in to my Lord James, one called my Lord Barrowe, who can speak very good English, and is of not more than 17 or 18 years. He "is a great inheritor and if he had right, and laid very sore to Cormak Oge and to one Makerte Ryaghe, the which is son in-law to Cormak Oge, and is my Lord of Kildare's sister's son; and so the answer of Cormak Oge was this, that he would be sworn to do the King true service, and to put in his pledges to abide the judgment" of the Deputy and Council between him and any man. Macarte Ryagh came in upon a safeconduct, and his answer was, "that he hath won with his sword he will hold it with his sword." My Lord James would fain have been in hand with his country, but could not meddle with any man until he had brought in the Desmondes and Cormak Oge, to have bond of them according to their promise.
We removed from Cork to a place called Malaghe, and there camped by a river side. On the morrow we went to Kylmalok, and next day to Lemeryk. "O'Breyn was come down and lay within three mile of Lemeryk, and (as the saying was) with a great host, and had hurled down the woods in the way as we should have gone into his country, and had forsaken two of his castles hard by Lymericke; and heard that we were so nigh, he went into the mountains from us, for fear of ordnance; and when he heard tell that we had no ordnance, then he restored his men into his castles again with such ordnance as he had of his own; and without ordnance to beat the one pile we could not enter well into his country. Therefore my Lord James thought best to recoil back again, and to bring the Descemontes and Cormak Oge with his company to a stay, or that he would [pass] any further. And so in Lymericke we had very good cheer, but not nothing like the cheer that we had in Corke. And so we departed an eight mile off to a place of religion, the which is after the order of Grenwyche, and my Lord of Kildare was the founder of it, for he hath castle and lands even there fast by; and there met with my Lord James his brother-in-law, which is O'Bren's son, and his saying is this to my Lord James:--'I have married your sister; and for because that I have married your sister, I have forsaken my father, mine uncle, and all my friends, and my country, to come to you to help to do the King service. I have been sore wounded, and have no reward, nor nothing to live upon. What would ye have me do? If that it would please the King's grace to take me unto his service, and that you will come into the country and bring with you a piece of ordnance to win a castle, the which castle is named Carygoguyllyn, and his Grace to give me that, the which never was none Englishman's this 200 year, and I will desire the King no help nor aid of no man but this English captain with his hundred and odd of Englishmen, to go with me upon my father and mine uncle, the which are the King's enemies, and upon the Irishmen that never Englishmen were amongst; and if that I do hurt or harm, or that there be any mistrust, I will put in pledges as good as ye shall require, that I shall hurt no Englishman, but upon the wild Irishmen that are the King's enemies; and for such lands as I shall conquer, it shall be at the King's pleasure to set Englishmen in it, to be holden of the King as his pleasure shall be, and I to refuse all such Irish fashions, and to order myself after the English laws, and all that I can make or conquer. Of this I desire an answer.'"
That day came in Sir John A Desmonde. He is a very old man, and speaks very good English. He has been full of mischief. "His answer is this:--'What should I do in England to meet a boy [Note in margin:--"His nephew, the young Earl of Desmond, called James."] there? Let me have that Irish whoreson Cormak Oge, and I will go into England before the King.' But he concluded at this day fortnight to be at Yowgholl, and there to be the young gentleman that challenges to be the Earl of Desmond, and Cormak Oge, and there they to parley, and to put in their pledges to my Lord James, and to other that shall be there of the Council.
That night we came to Kilmaloke, and the next day to Casshell, "and so forth to Clonmell, and there to leave my company, and I for to ride in all the haste for Master Treasurer and the Chief Justice to come to my Lord of Ossory and to my Lord James, to set their heads together at that day that they be appointed to parle in."
"All this journey from Dungarvyn forth there is none alive that ever can remember that ever Englishman of war was ever in that parts. Some day we rode 16 mile of waste land, the which was Englishmen's ground, yet saw I never so goodly woods, so goodly meadows, so goodly pastures, and so goodly rivers, and so goodly ground to bear corn; and where the regges were that hath borne corn, to my thinking there was no beast did eat it, not this 12 year; and that it was the moster part such waste all our journey." I beseech to you give my Lord James thanks for the kindness that he has shewed to us. If the King let him have some battering pieces and some aid of men, he will do his Grace better service than any man, "by reason he is so called [Altered by Carew to "followed." In the "State Papers" it is "calyd."] by the marriage of his sisters and by my Lady his wife, that either by fear or love he is like to do the King service, and put him to less charge than any alive."
Waterford, 6 October. Signed: Stevyn Ap Parry.
Copy. Headed: "A letter," &c. "unto Mr. Th. Cromwell, his Matie's principal Secretary."

HENRY VIII. to [SIR WILLIAM SKEFFINGTON.]  MS 601, p. 28  [Oct] 1535

Former reference: MS 601, p. 28

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 63.

Related information: Printed in "State Papers," II. 280, from the original in the Record Office.

Have perceived by your letters and the advertisements from our Council the manner of the apprehension of Thomas FitzGerald in your last journey against him and O'Chonour. If he had been apprehended, the same had been much more to our contentation; but, nevertheless, we give you hearty thanks for your pains. We are not so much moved in respect of your age, sickness and debility as to remove you from your office, "but for your comfort be contented to tolerate your said sickness and debility, permitting you to continue therein." We desire that our Parliament there be summoned with all convenient diligence, and that you use such policy "that the causes to be moved there for us may take effect," according to our former letters, and the relation of the Treasurer of our Wars, the Chief Justice and the Master of the Rolls.
Copy. Headed by Carew, erroneously: "A letter from King H. 8. unto the L. Leonard Gray, 1536."

THOMAS ALEN to CROMWELL  MS 601, p. 16a  1536

Former reference: MS 601, p. 16a

4 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 83.

Copy of MS 607, p. 16

WILLIAM BODY to CROMWELL.  MS 601, p. 10a  9 Aug 1536

Former reference: MS 601, p. 10a

5 pages + 2 pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 86.

The 20th of July last my Lord Deputy removed out of Dublin with the retinue of Englishmen "towards his pretended voyage" into Munster and into O'Bryne's country, and on the 24th entered into Kilkenny, where the Parliament was kept on the 25th. Thence he removed towards a strong castle of James of Desmond, called Lokkere, distant from Kilkenny about 36 miles Irish, which the Lord Treasurer, captain of the van-ward, took on the 31st "without any hand stroke, because the said James of Desmond left it desolate and unwarded." It is now warded by the Lord Treasurer at his own charges. The army at that time commonly reported that the same castle was the chief fortress of the said James in the county of Limerick. It "standeth very pleasantly upon the foot of an island, containing 80 acres, environed with a great water, and mountains and rocks without the same, munyted and warded more by nature than by man's hand."
From thence, on 1st August, the army marched to a very strong castle called Carek Ogunyell, "in English, Candell Rokkes," which was delivered to my Lord Deputy on the 2nd by one Matthew O'Bryne, "without any hand stroke," on condition that it should be warded only by Englishmen. It stands upon a high rock about four miles from Limerick, and half a mile this side the water of Shenon, and "is the key of all the county of Limerick a this side the same river, upon the border of Decemond's lands." With the manor thereto pertaining, it belongs to the King, as parcel of the Lord Clerre's lands, "and by report of the Chief Justice it is (if it were inhabited) in yearly value of 1,000 marks, but after mine opinion esteemed of less value."
On the 5th August we departed from Limerick to break Morowgh O'Bryne's bridge, on the confines of Tomound. Morowgh O'Bryne, as I am informed, is brother to Great O'Bryne. The bridge was of old timber and in length 300 paces, with two fortresses at either end, which were broken down with bills, swords, daggers, stakes, and mattes, "made there with great travail and labour of poor men, because that lacked which should have been provided by my Lord Deputy, mattocks, pickaxes, crows of iron, spades, shovels, and other ordnances necessary for the breaking down of such manner works; which fortresses, edified after the manner of blockhouses, were of hard stone, strongly builded, not thoroughly finished, in such wise that neither one culverin nor yet six falcons and a sacre of brass could very scarcely perish them, but at certain lopes, and that was very little; and when guns little prevailed then assault of men was prepared by my Lord Deputy, which was chosen chiefly out of William Seyntlowe his retinue, and scaling ladders prepared, but the activity of William Seyntlowe his soldiers so appointed for the same assault was such that both fortresses were taken by them before the scaling ladders could be set up or any other could enter; and whether this enterprise and feat of arms came to good success so suddenly by reason of fame to be gotten, or else for lack of victuals, because they would be gone, I am in doubt; but I am well assured that a halfpenny loaf was worth 12d., and yet there was none to be sold. And this fault is to be objected against my Lord Deputy, who would not suffer the the same army to bring their carts with their provision from Limerick to the bridge. And so I, amongst others, lay in my harness without any bed, almost famished with hunger, wet and cold, from Friday inclusive unto Tuesday exclusive, and then we returned to Limerick, where I remained at the mak[ing] of this letter."
My Lord of Ossory and my Lord Treasurer with their affinity and friends have done diligent service in this voyage, used very circumspect policy, and "saved us from blows." My Lord Treasurer recovered into our amity Donoth O'Bryne, son to Great O'Breen, whom my Lord Deputy had lost, because he broke promise with the same Donoth. "The band of my Lord of Ossory and my Lord Treasurer were well appointed with horsemen and gallowglasses, by interpretation footmen, all armed in mail, the certainty whereof shall appear" in a schedule enclosed; "whose band did far exceed in number the band of Englishmen, which was in number but 700,"-- a very small company for my Lord Deputy "to pass so great a journey, when he might have had many more out of the English Irishry, unless peradventure he had given them leave to dance at home, and he himself played upon the harp."
My Lord Deputy, upon surety of my Lord of Ossory and my Lord Treasurer, directed his letters to the ward of the forenamed castle of Carek Ogunyell to deliver it to Donoth O'Breene, son-in-law to my Lord of Ossory, until the King's pleasure were known, according to promises long before made by my Lord Deputy to the same Donoth; but the same castle by crafty policy, and by reason of a former letter written by my Lord Deputy, was delivered by the ward put in by him to Matthew O'Breene, who had it before, and will not, without a new siege, deliver it to my Lord Deputy or any other. Lord Ossory, the Lord Treasurer, and Donoth O'Breene, who is a good stay, "think themselves not only to sustain a great mock, but also to bear a great shame, to the minishing and hindrance of their credence, so slenderly to be esteemed in this behalf;" yet they cease not to do good service to the King, trusting, as heretofore, to your Lordship's favour, and that you will report their service to the King. "It smelleth not very sweet, when my Lord Deputy suffereth George Woodwarde, his own servant, and other whose names shall appear in a schedule inclosed in this letter, who were put in by my Lord Deputy to ward the said castle, to go abroad unpunished for the giving up of the same castle to the said Matthew O'Breene." It were better for the King to lose a great sum of money than to be without it, for the ease and wealth of that country, when the same shall be inhabited.
"If Ireland were well inhabited and in good order, the fertility and commodity of the ground is such that within short space, after my poor opinion, would be to the King's high profit." "As for the praise of (sic), as far as I have seen it, that is to say, the counties of Dublin, Kildare, Carlow, Kilkenny, Tipperary, Ormond, Ossory, Desmond, Limerick, and Thomond, if there be any paradise in this world, it may be accompted for one among them, both for beauty and goodness. The town and castle of Kilkenny is well walled and well replenished of people and wealthy. The city of Limerick is a wondrous proper city, and a strong, and standeth environed with the river of Shenon, and it may be called Little London for the situation and the plenty, but the castle hath of need reparation.
"And as touching some honest aid at this time to be levied amongst the King's loving subjects, I do perceive little diligence in my Lord Deputy, in the Master of the Rolls and the Chief Justice in this matter, who take upon them to be ringleaders, and do not or will not perceive and seriously understand the King's pleasure by me declared, albeit I have put the same in writing to them at their request, to the intent they should be the more ripe therein. Thus I write, because [they] delay me from day to day, and will point me no nearer day to consult on this matter than the 14th day of September or thereabout, alleging to me for their feigned excuse, as they have done oftentimes before, that my Lord of Ossory and my Lord Treasurer would hinder and let as much as they could the King's profit, in such wise that it should take little effect or none; but I know the contrary in seeing the demeanour of my Lord Treasurer, to whom I have opened this matter, to the intent to boulte out the juggling, specially of the Master of the Rolls, who never, after my judgment, speaketh as he thinketh, nor thinketh as he speaketh; and there is no man, as far as I can perceive, that is so willing as my Lord Treasurer in this matter to take effect for the King." Am preparing to return to Dublin to survey the accounts, accordingly as Master Treasurer and I have appointed. At my return into England I shall declare more to you.
Limerick, 9th August. Signed.
Copy. Addressed: Lord Privy Seal, &c.
II. "A remembrance of my Lord Deputy his band, and of such Irishmen as repaired to his Lordship."
The Lord Deputy brought of English horse and foot scant 700. O'More, horse and foot, 137. Lord Roche, horse, 12. MakMurg, O'Karell, Cayre O'Konour, White Knight, Olyke A Burgh, the Sheriff of Iryell, gentlemen of Washefourd, and gentlemen of Kyldare, horse and foot, 174. Total, 1,023.
III. "A remembrance of my Lord of Ossory and my Lord Treasurer his band, and of their friends."
Lord Ossory, Lord James [Butler], Treasurer, Doneth O'Breene, Myghell Phathryke, Sir Thomas Botler, Gerald MkShane, my Lady Power, and my Lord Cassell, brought 361 horse and 920 foot.
IV. "A remembrance of those names that was put into the castle of Carek Ogonyell by my Lord Deputy, to ward the same, who delivered up the same again."
George Woodward, David Flode, Harry Sower, Thomas Sawch, Robert Browne, William Gryce, John Tomkins, John Olderch, Robert Parker, Robert Davy, Yvan Osbynow, Harry Gre, Edward Taylour, John Cottingham, Harry Sotton, John Sotton, Philip of Powell.

THE COUNCIL OF IRELAND to CROMWELL.  MS 601, p. 14  22 Aug 1536

Former reference: MS 601, p. 14

5 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 88.

Related information: Printed from the original in the Record Office, in "State Papers," II. 361.

We advertise you of our proceedings in this journey, now finished, since our other letters sent to you by your servant Thomas Allen. The other battery piece, with the necessaries for the ordnance, were brought to Limerick on the Sunday before the Assumption, by me James Butler and Donaugh O'Breene. On our Lady Day we marched with all the army and ordnance to Karyckogynnell, which castle was fortified, and manned with the gunners and men of James, the pretended Earl of Desmond, and the Brennes, late possessors of the same, who would in no wise surrender the castle. The ordnance was bent upon one of the gates of the base court, which court was won by the Deputy. The ordnance was then bent upon the dungeon of the great castle, and divers assaults were given by the Englishmen. The next night following a company of my Lord Deputy's retinue entered into a tower of the castle, and kept the same until it was daylight, when others of the army entered it, and so won the whole castle, with all the persons therein, to the number of 46. 13 had been slain with our ordnance and 4 with arrows, whom the others had burnt. As the Lord Deputy, before the siege, had summoned them to surrender, on pain of being put to death, if they killed any of the army, all the said persons were put to death accordingly, except certain of the chief of them, who were gentlemen of the Brenes, and for redemption of whose lives great intercession was made and good sums of money offered. These gentlemen were conveyed to Limerick, where the Lord Deputy caused them to be arraigned, and after to have execution as traitors. In this enterprise there were killed and wounded about 30 Englishmen. The keeping of the castle is committed to us the Earl of Ossory and James Butler, as is mentioned in our other letters.
In this mean season, and whilst the ordnance was in conveying to us, we had divers communications both with O'Brene and the said pretended Earl of Desmond. Notwithstanding O'Brene's letters and promises of subjection, "we could neither get him to condescend to any conformity according to the same, ne yet to deliver the Earl of Kildare's plate and goods, but having the same and the Earl of Kildare's second son, with divers traditors of the servants of the said Earl and Thomas FitzGerald, and retaining them (as it were under his protection), both therein, and otherwise in his communication and deeds, useth himself after that sort, as he thinketh it not to be his duty to recognize the King's Majesty, neither yet to abide any indifferent or reasonable order upon any wrong by him done to the King and his subjects."
The Earl of Desmond showed himself very reasonable, and consented that his two sons should be delivered as hostages, and divers sureties be bound for his obedience, and to perform the order of the Deputy and Council "about the right of the earldom." Nevertheless he would not finally accomplish the same, pondering his oath to O'Brene, that the one of them should not make an agreement with us without the assent of the other, "and peradventure suspecting his title to the earldom, and also perceiving that we could not demore in the country there." We therefore purposed to advance the army and ordnance over the water for the destruction of O'Brene's country, but the army refused to go further without their wages. "Albeit that no shift could be made for money to pay them, we offered unto them to leave them in the cities of Limerick and Cork, and the town Kilmahallock, in which places, upon our bands and sureties, they should have had meat and drink until the King's money had come;" which offer they rejected. Thus "the castle of Loughgyr (being in the midst of the strength of the said pretended Earl of Desmond, wherein I, James Butler, kept a garrison twenty days together before,) is left void, for that none of my men ne any others of this country (except James FitzMorice had been here to have received the same,) would in no wise take the custody thereof, unless the Englishmen had demored in the places aforesaid."
As we do not write to the King, we beseech you to advertise him thereof, and to signify to us his further pleasure, for, unless the rebellion of O'Brene and Desmond be suppressed, great commotion will grow thereby; nor will the King be able to recover the lands which lately belonged to the Earl of Kildare. The King's Deputy with a great part of the army must continue in Limerick, Cork, and other places in those parts for a quarter of a year at least. James FitzMorice should be sent hither to the Lord Deputy and Council, that the King may have assurance of his fidelity, and that he may be made, with the aid of the Deputy and army, an instrument for the suppression of the said pretended Earl.
The Parliament is adjourned to Dublin, there to begin on the 15th September. We have left the demi culverin and much of our artillery in Limerick, and the demi curtall with other ordnance in Clonnell, [Clomell in "State Papers."] to the intent that, as soon as money comes, we may again advance into the parts aforesaid--Would you had seen the countries we have seen in this our journey, and then you would say, you had not seen not the like, and think it much pity that the same were not in subjection.
Cashell, 24 miles from Limerick, 12th [Sic. "22nd" at the beginning, and in the original in the Record Office.] August.
Signed: J. Lord Trymeleteston, Chancellor; P. Ossery; James Butler; Edmund of Cassall; Gerald Aylmer, Justice John Allen, Mr. of the Rolls.
Copy. Addressed: Lord Privy Seal, &c.

THOMAS ALEN to CROMWELL  MS 601, p. 42  1537

Former reference: MS 601, p. 42

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 100.

Copy of MS 607, p. 20.

THE COUNCIL OF IRELAND to CROMWELL.  MS 601, p. 5  26 June 1537

Former reference: MS 601, p. 5

4 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 101.

Related information: Printed in "State Papers," II. 442, from the original in the Record Office.

We have divers times advertised the King and your Lordship of the hardy acquittal and diligent demeanour of the Lord Deputy in the King's service. Of late he has done a notable deed. Upon the continual wilfulness of O'Chonour, the most rank and seditious traitor, the Lord Deputy prepared a journey upon him, and, accompanied by the Lord of Delven, the Treasurer of the Wars, the Chief Justice, and others of the Council, marched towards his country on the Tuesday after Trinity Sunday. Conducted by the Lord of Delven, the Lord Deputy invaded the countries of O'Mulmoy, MacGoghegan, and O'Mulaghlyne, next adjoining to his country, who were O'Chonour's adherents and chief strength; whereby he constrained them not only to forsake him, but aid our part against him.
That done, the Lord Deputy invaded O'Chonour's country, "where no English host hath been known to enter, through the conduct of the said Baron. And after he had taken certain piles in the frontiers and passages of his border, he besieged his new castle called the Dengen, which, being builded in a great maresse, by reason whereof, and great ditches and waters about the same, was of such strength, as we have not hitherto seen the like in this land. There was within the castle about 40 persons, the most of them gunners. Nevertheless, by great provision and labour of men, a way was so made that by night a battery piece was conveyed so nigh, that she made battery at the castle, and after by assault the same was won, and the ward which was in it had the same grace and pardon that such men deserved, so as a good company of gunners be well dispatched." With all our assents the Deputy caused the castle to be prostrated, and committed the governance of the country to Cahir O'Chonour, who, for taking the King's part against Thomas FitzGerald and the said O'Chonour, was banished by the latter, "so as ever sithence he hath tarried among his subjects, doing his Grace service." The same Cahir, with the aid of the Lord Deputy and the King's subjects, keeps the said O'Chonour out of his country. We beseech you to obtain the King's thanks for the Lord Deputy. As touching O'Chonour's country, which is called Ofaylye, the King has been informed of its strength and situation, and of "the great hurt which groweth to his Grace's subjects by the same." The King should therefore either reward the gentleman who now has the governance thereof, "with some other convenient thing," and inhabit the same with Irishmen, or else, if that is too chargeable, "make this man denizen and create him Baron of Offaley, and he to have the same of his Highness' gift, after English laws and inheritances." If he received it of the King's gift, he would be constrained to be a good subject, for that Irishmen would hate him.
Of late the King's castle of Athlone, "which is a great garrison, standing in the midst of this land upon a passage betwixt Connaught and these parts, is obtained unto his Grace's possession" from the usurpation of Irishmen, who have kept the same from him and his progenitors these many years. "Before this journey here was but one battery piece of ordnance, which, at the making of the said battery at O'Chonour's castle, was broken;" wherefore we beseech you to request the King that another may be sent hither with speed.
Dublin, 26 June.
Signed: [J.] Lord of Trimleteston, Chancellor; Georgius Dublin.; Edwardus Miden.; J. Rawson, P. of Kyllmaynam; Willm. Brabason; Patrick Finglas, Baron; Gerald Aylmer, Justice; Thomas Houth, Justice; Thomas Lutrell, Justice; John Allen.
Copy. Headed: To the L. Cromwell, L. Privy Seal.

THE LORD DEPUTY and COUNCIL to HENRY VIII. [Their letter to Cromwell of the same date is printed in "State Papers," II. 468.]  MS 601, p. 41  12 Aug 1537

Former reference: MS 601, p. 41

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 102.

Related information: The original letter is in MS 607, p. 22.

Since our other letters concerning our proceedings against O'Conner, upon the wilful proceedings of the Kevanaghes ("of whom we have made so oft mention to be exiled, and that place to be inhabited by your Grace"), I your Deputy marched towards them with 14 days' victuals, and took two piles of the O'Nolans their adherents, which we prostrated. Thus the Kevanaghes were constrained to put in their pledges. Remembering that O'Carrell received and succoured O'Conner, your outlaw, we sent for the Earl of Ossorie to us, and marching through O'More's and McGillipatricke's lands, and with their assistance on the one side, and the aid of Cahir O'Conner, governor of O'Conner's country, O'Maloy, and McGoghagan on the other side, we invaded O'Carrell. Notwithstanding the comfort he had of O'Brien and of Connaught, we constrained him to deliver hostages; and after we had won a castle in O'Magher's country, and taken the gentleman owner thereof and all that were therein prisoners, we forced O'Magher to deliver hostages. O'Conner, upon safeconduct, came and spake with us, and for 300 marks of money redeemed his son, who was in hostage with us. He made humble supplication to be restored to his country, promising that he would never demand tributes or black rents of your subjects, but yield out of his country a certain sum yearly to your Grace. Our answer was that we would never grant it, until he obtained your pardon. Our advice is that you should not grant it, for you shall never find him true. So much has never been done with 14 days' victuals, but if your army had been furnished with money at all seasons in due time since their coming hither, it had proceeded after a far higher sort. "We begin to come to such knowledge of Irishmen and their countries, that we consider no such difficulty to subdue or exile them as hath been thought."
O'Donnell is deceased, whose place Manus his son has obtained by the assent of that country and the favours of O'Neale, "whose two strengths joined together is a great power and to be feared of your subjects." The Chief Baron of the Exchequer [Patrick Fynglas.] is departed this present life, and if you appoint your Sergeant at Laws [Patrick Barnewall.] to his room, it will be requisite to appoint as Serjeant a man of good honesty and learning. We beseech you to furnish us with a battery piece and artillery.
Kilmaynham, 12 August, 29 Hen. VIII.
Signed: Leonard Gray; John Lord, of Trimleteston, Chancr.; Edward Miden.; John Rawson, Prior of Kilmaynham; William Brabason; Gerald Aylmer, Justice; John Allen; Thomas Hothe, Justice.

LORD LEONARD GREY, LORD DEPUTY, to CROMWELL. [Printed in "State Papers," II. 559, from the original in the Record Office.]  MS 601, p. 27  17 March 1538

Former reference: MS 601, p. 27

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 118.

After the first submission of Bryan O'Chonour to the King in Offaly in the open field, Kayr O'Chonour, his brother, sent to me that he was contented to submit himself likewise, yet, notwithstanding his promise and pledge, he did not come to Dublin. By the advice of the Commissioners here "I practised so with the said Bryan and with my servant Stephen Apparye that they hunted the said Kayr and [had] such espial upon him where he was in a strong house environed about with water, marshes, and great deep ditches, with strong hedges upon the top of them, and there had certain hagbushes and handguns; howbeit he was so hard beset about that he was driven to run away in his shirt, and took a boat and fled into O'Dempsye's country, insomuch that he scaped narrowly with life; and after spoiled the said house and took such horses and cattle as they found, and brake down his ditches, and made smooth work." On the morrow he came upon safeconduct to my said servant into the castle of Rathangan, and with him from thence to Dublin, where he made his submission. I beseech you to remember my late suit to you concerning my repair to the King, and to be good lord to my poor nephew Dudley, this bearer.
Dublin, 17 March.
Copy. Headed: "A letter," &c. "unto the Ld. Cromwell, Privy Seal."

LORD LEONARD GREY to HENRY VIII. [Printed in "State Papers," III. 57, from the original in the Record Office.]  MS 601, p. 7  26 July 1538

Former reference: MS 601, p. 7

5 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 127.

It was concluded by your Council at Dublin that I should set forward a journey for 8 days' victuals to commune with James O'Desmonde according to your letters. I set forward towards Ofaley the 17th June last, accompanied by the Lord of Gormo[n]stowne, Thomas Nugent, son to the late Baron of Delvyn, John Darcye, and William Brymyngham, O'Chonour, the late O'More's sons, and other Irishmen, 25 of Mr. Brabazon's company, 6 with Renyll O'Bruton, and my own company, and lay in Ofaley that night. On the 18th I camped in the borders of O'Molmoy's country, and there took a castle called Eglys. On the 19th I went into O'Karrell's country, who came to me; and there I camped and remained till the 23rd. During that time I took, "in the said country of Ely O'Karell," the castles of Birr and Modrynnye, in the hands of others of the Karrells that would not be ordered. One of my men was slain, and 4 wounded. On the 24th I removed into O'Kennedye's country, called Ormonde, and there Dermonde O'Kenedye, chief captain of the same, submitted himself to your Grace. On the 25th I removed into McO'Bryne Aray's country; called Ara, who likewise submitted. On the 26th "I removed into the country of Dermond, called Owne, Dermond O'Morean, chief captain thereof, who likewise submitted." Ullycke O'Burgh, now chief captain of Clanricard, also came in and submitted. James O'Desmond came with a good band of men, who diligently served under me. Tybott Burgh, "chief captain of his [country,] called Clan William," also submitted to you.
On the 28th I removed, accompanied by "the said Earl," till I came within three miles of Limerick, and there the said Earl departed; and I went to Limerick, and remained there a week. I called the mayor and his brethren before me, and had them sworn to you according to the statute of supremacy, and sworn further to refuse the usurped power of the Bishop of Rome. I commanded the Mayor to have all the commonalty of the said city likewise sworn, and to certify their oaths into your Chancery. Then I had the Bishop of Limerick sworn, and commanded him to have all his clergy sworn.
After this, O'Bryne concluded to be at peace with you for a year, and to do you service "in going to break O'Bryne's bridge, which is with Morogh O'Bryne, brother to the said O'Bryne." He put his son into my hands, conditionally that he should be left at my departure in the custody of James O'Desmond. On 4th July I set forwards from Limerick towards the said bridge, "and by the way thitherward the said Morogh, being a great band of men, bickered with my men, who was beaten so that I had not one man hurt, and so came to the said bridge, where was re-edified one of the castles, and the other builded strongly, 15 or 16 foot high above the water, and 7 arches of the said bridge, which I brake down, both castle and bridge, hand smooth, and there camped two nights.
"Upon the next morrow I came to the said bridge, came to me the said James O'Desmond and O'Bryne with their retinue;" and on the 8th [I] removed with them into the country of Morogh O'Bryne, took his castles of Ballycolome and Clare, and burnt and destroyed his country, because he would not conform to any good order. Camped that night at the castle of Clare. On the 9th James O'Desmond and O'Bryne departed, and so I repaired to the Burghs' country, called Clanricard, and camped there that night. On the 10th I repaired to a castle called Bally Clare, belonging to Richard Ogh Burgh, who did much hurt to the town of Galway. I took it, and delivered it to Ullycke O'Burgh, lately made chief captain of that country, and a great friend to the town of Galway.
On the 11th I removed to Galway, where I was well received by the Mayor and his brethren, and remained there seven days, during which time the Mayor and his brethren would take no money from me or your English retinue, for meat, drink, or lodging; and Ullyck O'Burgh gave the same to my Irish retinue in his country. With the Mayor of Galway and his brethren and the Bishop I took like order as at Limerick. To the same town there came to me Hugh O'Flart, chief captain of his country, called Oyle, and also Hugh O'Madyn, chief captain of his country, called Sylamghnee, Molaghlyn O'Madyn of Silamghnee, and Thomas McYoris, chief captain of his country, called Athenry, and there submitted themselves to you.
On the 19th July I returned from Galway into Clanricard, 8 miles from Galway, and I took and brake two castles of the said Richard Ogh Burgh, and camped there two nights On the 21st I removed to the borders of O'Kelly's country. O'Chonour Roe, chief captain of his country, called McHenry, came in and submitted. On the 22nd I removed thence through O'Madyn's country, and so into Machoglan's country, who, after his submission, would not perform such things as he had agreed upon. I took a castle of his, which remains in my custody till he finish his promise; and there I camped that night. On the 23rd I removed into O'Molaghlyn's country, who did not perform his duty, as he promised by his last peace, for the security whereof I had his second son as pledge in my hands. Therefore at this time I caused him to put his eldest son into my hands as pledge. On the 22nd I removed thence with the ordnance through O'Mageochagan's country, and so to Terrell's country, where I left your ordnance safe, and so came to your castle [of] Mainuth the 25th July in the morning by 2 o'clock. All the aforesaid Irishmen have bound themselves by their indentures "both to yield you tribute yearly, and to "bear certain men of war yearly, and to cut certain passes in every of their countries;" and I have received a pledge of each of them, as will appear in a book which I send to my Lord Privy Seal.
While I was at Limerick, certain merchants of the same were "appeached of treason," for victualling and maintaining your Irish rebels, Morogh O'Bryne and others; sc., Stephen Harrolde, treasurer of Limerick, Perse Harrolde, Walter Harrold, James Harrold, Robert Lewes, Thomas Strich, Barthol. Stryche, and Edmund Harrold of Limerick, merchants. I took and examined them. Part of them confessed the matter laid to their charge. I have put them all and their goods in safeguard till your pleasure be known.
"In all my [proceedings] with the Irishmen in the said journey O'Chonour stake as fast unto your Grace and of [your] part against every of them, even as he had been one of your English subjects, and followed my advice in every point; for he and Stephen Appary was they whom I appointed to tract and commune with all the said Irishmen for your Majesty in all the premises."
Manor of Maynuth, 26 July. Signed.
Copy. Addressed.

LORD LEONARD GREY, LORD DEPUTY, to CROMWELL.  MS 601, p. 26  31 Oct 1538

Former reference: MS 601, p. 26

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 130.

Since my last the Council and I assembled at Tryme the 7th October, where we concluded a journey for eight days' victuals upon O'Reaille, who kept not his appointments with me. In case O'Reile conformed him to a reasonable order, the Council referred it to my discretion to go for the spending of the said victuals where I thought best. On the 8th I repaired from Tryme to Kenlys, where I appointed the host to meet me. On the 9th O'Reile came to me there, and we came to an agreement. On the 10th I went to Dundalk, and sent to O'Neile to have communication "with his" (him?), who appointed to meet with me at Carrick Bradagh, near Dundalk, but broke his appointment.
Mr. Treasurer came to Dundalk with his company. As my purpose touching O'Neile was letted, and as Savage, chief captain of his nation, would not pay his farm to Mr. Treasurer, who was farmer of the country of Lecayle, and had brought into that country divers Scots, who had much of that country in their subjection, it was concluded between Mr. Treasurer and me that we should go to Lecayle. I took all the castles there and delivered them to Mr. Treasurer. I also took a castle in McGuinous' country called Doundrone, which is one of the strongest holds in Ireland, and most commodious for defence of the whole country of Lecayle both by sea and land, for Lecayle is environed by the sea, and there is no way to enter it by land, but by the said castle. The said Scots fled, and left much "corn, butters, and other pilfery" behind them. I also took a castle which the said Scots had, and other castles in Ards, bordering on Lecayle. The Treasurer has warded them all, 8 in number. I never saw a pleasanter plot of ground than Lecayle "for commodity of the land, and divers islands in the same environed with the sea, which were soon reclaimed and inhabited, the King's pleasure known."
Though I openly reported this journey as before is mentioned, my purpose was this. I had sure knowledge that my nephew young Garrat was with O'Neill, and I used all the means I could to allure him into my hands, "and hath at divers times practised the same, so that at this time I thought that O'Neill and I should have met, and the said Gerald would have come with him; and if the case had so a chanced, I would surely have taken him, and if not, by the oath that I have made to my Sovereign Lord and Master, I would have taken the said O'Neile, and a kept him till he had caused the said Gerald to have been delivered to my hands;" and "when this matter failed me, then I proceeded further as I have before declared" to you. If I had been furnished with ordnance, I should have fought the strongest hold that O'Neill has ere this, for the said purpose. If once I might speak with you, I have some secret things to utter to you touching the apprehension of my said nephew and the subduing of the Irish rebels. I beseech you, considering the quiet state of this land, to "be so good unto me to get me hence to repair thither for as short time as ye shall think convenient."
Castle of Manoth, 31 October, Signed.
Headed by Carew: "A letter from the L. Leonard Grey, L. Dep. of Ireland, unto the L. Cromwell, L. Privy Seal."

LORD LEONARD GREY.  MS 601, p. 35  Oct 1540

Former reference: MS 601, p. 35

10 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 149.

"An Information against the Lord Leonard Grey, Lord Deputy of Ireland, in anno 32 H. VIII., mense Oct." [Note in margin:--"This Information was presented unto Sir Anthony St. Ledger, Kt., Lo. Dep. of Ireland, upon the oath of John Darcy, the examinat."]
"Here ensueth the gests and progress of the Lord Leonard Grey, the King's Deputy of Ireland, from day to day, of the journey that he made into Munster, Thomond, and Connaught, and of his demeanour and proceedings in the same; noted by John Darcy, Esquire, and gentleman usher to the King's Grace, the same John being then present."
The Lord Deputy began his journey out of the English pale the 19th June, accompanied with 100 Englishmen of the King's retinue, including the Treasurer's men, and of the King's English subjects of this land, 30 horsemen, 24 kerne, and 200 gallowglasse. He lodged that night with O'Conner at Monaster Oris, where he had sumptuous cheer, and we were lovingly entertained.
On the 20th O'Conner caused a great number of the working men of his country to mend the way over Togher Croghan, and the Lord Deputy passed over Togher Croghan, and so marched further through O'Conner's country, having O'Conner with him, without any fear or danger, and camped that night at Ballinvallaghe, above Killeghe.
On the 21st the Lord Deputy "passed forth out at a strong and a very dangerous pass," called Balleighgeran, and camped that night at the abbey of Killcormoke, where he was victualled by O'Moloy and his friends. In the morning he went from thence to a castle in O'Moloy's country, in the possession of Donnell, O'Moloy's son, who was married to the late O'Carrell's daughter; which O'Carrell served the King truly under the Earl of Ormond all the late rebellion. The Deputy took the castle and delivered it to O'Moloy, who had served the contrary part all that rebellion time. For the castle O'Moloy gave to Stephen Ap Harry 20 kine, besides what he gave to the Lord Deputy and the rest of the army.
On the 22nd the Lord Deputy, by the conduct of O'Conner and O'Moloy, removed from thence and marched to O'Carrell's country, where he lodged that night near a place called Suerkarran. On the morrow they went to the castle of Birre, expulsed the true inheritors of the same, who had taken the King's part with the said late loyal O'Carrell, and delivered it to the disloyal O'Carrell that now is, who took open part with the Geraldines in all the said rebellion, and who had to wife the late Earl of Kildare's daughter. They then marched through the Earl of Ormond's lands of Ormond, and there left neither church nor village unspoiled, until they came to the castle of Moderherne, which is the said Earl's inheritance. They took and delivered it to the said disloyal O'Carrell, and camped there three nights, cutting and destroying all the corn of the town; "and for the same there must be paid to the Lord Deputy 140 kine, and to Stephen Ap Harry and other my Lord Deputy's officers 40 kine, besides a black hackney that was given to Gerald McGerrott."
On the 26th, by the conduct and leading of the said O'Carrell, they passed through the rest of Ormond, robbing and spoiling all the country; and these hurts notwithstanding, his Lordship took 40 kine of O'Kennidie, the Earl of Ormond's tenant there, who was also compelled to give his son as hostage. They camped that night at Bealathagoyn, in the further side of Ormond.
On the 27th they removed through Billineshelly and divers other strong and dangerous passages by the conduct of the said Irishmen and their friends. "We camped two nights at Garrennegrallaghe, in O'Molrien's country, waiting for the coming of James of Desmond, against whom O'Conner and Stephen Ap Harry were sent for his safeconduct to and fro, which came unto them with a good band of men the 29th day; and my Lord Deputy, and as many of his army as were then with him, set on their harness and were in array at his receipt, my Lord Deputy putting a part from him the Lord of Gormanston and all other gentlemen of the Englishry, and took no man with him but Stephen Ap Harry and Gerald McGerrott of his party, and such as the said Lord of Desmond listed to bring unto him of his council. And after long entertainment of him there, the said James departed from the Lord Deputy and his army, and camped in another place there besides him that night. And being so camped, my Lord Deputy went peaceably in his night-gown, without any company, saving that my Lord of Gormanston followed him unasked, to the same James' cabin, where he lay, and were there together sole alone a long while in the night, and the said Lord of Gormanston wist not what they said or did. And after they had drunken a cup of wine together, the said Lord Deputy returned in like manner to his own camp and lodge again.
"And in the morning, being the 30th day, the Lord Deputy being at mass in the abbey of Owney, which payeth the 20th part to the King as other houses did, while the army was pilfering and spoiling the same houses, the abbot, seeing that, for saving of his abbey from utter spoil and breaking down must have given the Lord Deputy 40l. sterling, as the deponent credibly heard, besides that was given to intercessors that interceded for him. And there came in McIbrien Arragh, and paid 30 kine, and put in his son. And then came Ulicke de Burghe, and covenanted with the Lord Deputy, that if he would have made him McWilliam, and deliver him the castle of Balliniclere, he would send an Irish galley to Limericke, to convey the King's ordnance from thence to Gallway, and that he would give his Lordship 100 marks sterling; and so that covenant was granted and concluded between them there. And so they marched forth to Theobald de Burghe's country, and have undone him all to Limericke ward.
"And when James of Desmond brought them thither, he returned from them, and would not trust to go in with them to Limericke. Howbeit, he was content that certain moneys should be levied and taken of the county of Limericke, to be delivered among the army, they lacking victuals for their refreshing. And Gerald McGerrott, being collector thereof, gave 100 marks sterling, and gave no part thereof to the army. And so they lay in Limericke; and my Lord Deputy, in performance of his said covenant with Ulicke de Burghe, sent from thence the foresaid half culveringe, sakre, and double falcons, and divers other habiliments from thence in a small Irish galley to Gallway, which was no small jeopardy to the King's ordnance in so slender a vessel, and so for all the land, and for the charges of the carriage thereof, the men of Gallway must have paid 34l. sterling. And there the treasurer of Limericke was attached, and all his goods taken away, and one James Herald and Bartholomew Streche impeached of feigned treason, and so were committed to gaol there. And other our proceedings there is to be examined of the citizens of the same. The fault of the Lord Deputy's misdemeanour therein is much referred to Edmond Sexton.
"Item, there was sent from my Lord Deputy in a boat from Limericke Stephen Ap Harry and Edmond Sexton down the river of Limericke, and there met them O'Brien on the one side of the river and James of Desmond on the other side; and whatsoever the matter was moved there between them, it was concluded by the Lord Deputy at their return unto him, that they should meet together and make their journey to Moroghe O'Brien's bridge. And the day of their removing out of Limericke, which was the Thursday the 5th of July, the said James came to the gates of Limerick, and sent his excuse to the Lord Deputy that his army was so great that he could not conveniently go through the city, and that he would ride over the river of the Shenan in a ford above the city, and meet his Lordship at the said bridge that night; which, notwithstanding, came not till the next morrow. And my Lord Deputy, with no small danger, but with extreme peril (without the help of God) being upon the only trust of Irishmen in their own countries, and as it was thought by all the King's subjects that accompanied him there, to be a great cause of fear and dishonour to see the King's Deputy, being in that plight, take his journey on the further side of the river through O'Brien's country and greatest fastness, and so to the bridge, where he camped that night in no less danger, except God had preserved him; and there Donoghe O'Brien played an honest true part. His chief and privy councillors in all these proceedings were Stephen Ap Harry, O'Conner, Gerald McGerrott, Prior Welshe, Owen Keughe, that blasphemed against the King, and Thomas Albanaghe, who were the chief notable fellows in all the last rebellion.
"Item, the next morrow, being the 6th day, the said James of Desmond with all his people came to the bridge aforesaid, and there came to them the men of Limericke with boats and victual, having with them the said Donoghe O'Brien for their safeconduct, and brake down such part of the castle as was reedified again, and some arches of the bridge, which the flood, when it did cast down the residue, did leave standing; and camped there two nights.
"Item, they removed from thence the 8th day, and marched forth into Moroghe O'Brien's country, my Lord Deputy being in the forward, and O'Brien and the said James of Desmond (with such of the King's ordnance as was left unsent in the said Irish galley out of Limericke to Gallway) in the rearward, till they came, through many dangers and fast passes, to a town of the said Moroghe's, called the castle of Balliconnell, and took the same, and delivered it to O'Brien to be delivered to his son Tirloghe, begotten of his wife that now is, the Earl of Desmond's daughter; and there camped that night. And on the morrow being the 9th day, we went to a castle or manor called the Clare-more, and took it, and delivered the same to the said son and to his said mother; but what my Lord Deputy's reward from O'Brien was (for his kindness herein) no man knoweth it (but the said O'Brien's wife, James De La Hide's wife that waited upon her, which James De La Hide's wife hath a protection of my said Lord Deputy to come home among her friends), except two chief horses, which were given to Stephen Ap Harry and Gerald McGerrot for their parts. And as for Donoghe O'Brien's reward for returning them from them, for the safe conducting of them of Limericke, and for being left for dead in the King's service in the late rebellion, all his country in his absence then was burned and destroyed by the said James of Desmond. And we camped at Clare two nights, and received of the two McNeMaroghe's 80 kine. And at Donoghe's return from Limericke, he sent to the said Deputy to desire to have amends of James of Desmond for the burning of his country, he being in the King's service, that he durst not put his own person in jeopardy with his Lordship in any place in the said James his company where his Lordship could not remedy him.
"Item, at the removing from Clare the 11th day, in the entering on a marvellous unready way, there began a great schism and a dangerous fray between the said James of Desmond and the Lord Deputy for Desmond O'Molrian's hostage, insomuch as the said James put all his men and himself in array, ready to have given the Lord Deputy the battle, were it not that Sir Thomas Butler, which, being very familiar and bold upon the said James of Desmond, with great pain and difficulty took up the matter between them. And during those treaties part of the said James his men, willing then to go together by the ears (rather than otherwise), made a quarrel to some of my Lord Deputy's company before himself and in his presence, and took four horses from one Richard Tuit, and led them with them sithence. And the said James, so half pacified by the said Sir Thomas Butler, returned home again. And the said Lord Deputy having O'Brien's promise to have been conducted by him to Ulicke de Burghe, in the end he deceived him, sending but one gallowglasse with a silver spear or ax, and the hilt thereof hanging full of silk, to be his guide, and so went with them to Gallway. All we the King's subjects that were there sorrowfully bewailed the King's Deputy to put himself so slenderly, at such a dangerous hazard, in the King's enemies' hands. Albeit, it was thought he had much favour for his sister's sake, for that she was the Earl of Kildare's wife, and otherwise. And we camped that night in the edge bordering between O'Brien's country and Clanrickard, watching all that night in their harness. And there came Ulicke de Burghe to his Lordship with about 24 men on horseback. And the said Ulicke, marvelling that my Lord Deputy would come so slenderly in so dangerous a passage, demanded of him how he durst come in that manner; and he pointed, saying, 'Lo! seest thou not yonder standing before me O'Brien's ax for my conduct?'
"Item, the next morrow, being the 12th day, the Lord Deputy marched in the foreword, and left the said Ulike with the King's ordnance in the rearward, and went that day to Ballin Clare, and took the castle, and delivered it to Ulike according his former promise, and rifled the abbey of friars there, and left neither chalice, cross, nor bell in it. And on the morrow, being the 13th day, went to Gallway, and there continued six days, and there received the rewards of many Irishmen, and made the said Ulike knight, and created him (being a bastard) McWilliam, and expulsed his uncle Richard de Burghe. And his further proceedings there is to be referred to the mayor and his brethren of the town.
"Item, the said Lord Deputy departed Gallway, the 18th day, and marched with the said new McWilliam to Leakaghe and Derriviclaghnye, two castles belonging to Richard Oge's sons, which proffered to become the King's faithful subjects, and to do his Majesty daily service, and to yield and pay yearly to the King as much rent and tribute out of their castles as the said Ulike would give, so as, by reason of their ancienty, they would not be bound to be under the hand and subjection of the said Ulike, being their younger, unless the King's Council (to whom they were contented to put the indifferent ordering of that matter) would award them; which the Lord Deputy refused, and brake down their said two castles, and camped there two nights and two days, breaking down the said castles and cutting their corn.
"Item, the 20th day the Lord Deputy departed thence, and lodged that night at Beallakorie; and there came to him by the way one called O'Conner Ro, a great man in those quarters, accompanied only of the friar (sic) of Roscomen, that spake good English, and one that led his chief horse with him as a horseman, by whose conduct and leading the young Garrott [Note in margin:--"Afterward he was Earl of Kildare."] and his aunt [Note in margin:--"She was wife to McCartie Reughe."] were conveyed from the said Ulike to O'Donnell. And after that, Stephen Ap Harry and Gerald McGerrott were in long communication with the said O'Conner Ro; and the said Lord Deputy himself with the said Prior went a part before from all the company, and had long secret communication with the said O'Conner. In the end the said O'Conner left his chief horse with the Lord Deputy, and departed from him at Agherim the 21st day, where we lodged that night.
"Item, Brien O'Conner bringing in his brother-in-law Donoghe O'Kelly (that married his sister that was Oliver FitzGerald's wife) to my Lord Deputy to Agherim, and when he was demanded to put in his pledges, he said he would put in none, and that he had no gold, nor silver, ne cup to give him, but that he would do his Lordship service, and conduct him through his country as other men did; and if he would not be contented with that, that he would defend himself the best he could against him. And so his Lordship shunned that country, and came through Shilankie, called O'Maddin's country, receiving of the two O'Maddins 80 kine, and that day went over the Shenan at the ford of Bennagher, and there lodged that night; and in the morning through the great fastness of woods and moors of O'Malaghlin's country, where my Lord Deputy compelled Dillon to deliver unto him O'Malaghlin's son, which he had taken in good war that he had with the said O'Malaghlin. And for the delivery of him again to his father, my Lord Deputy received 70 kine, and Gerald McGerrott had a silver piece. And so we came home that night to the said Gerald McGerrott's house at Creboy. It is commonly said that the Lord Deputy, Gerald McGerrott and Stephen Ap Harry were out of fear by reason of the Earl of Kildare's band, so as they passed through every where upon trust of that band, never putting harness on their backs all that journey, nor few or none Englishmen that were there, except the Treasurer's [William Brabazon.] men."
Signed: John Darcy, W. B. [The initials of Sir William Birmingham. See the following paragraph.]
"Sir William Birmingham, knight, being present the same journey, being also sworn upon the journey, confesseth the same to be true, and hath as well as he could subscribed his name."
Signed: Anthony St. Ledger.
Sir Jenico Preston, Viscount of Gormanston, sworn and examined, agrees with the said John Darcy, saving that he was not privy what pleasures or rewards the said Lord Leonard received in that journey. Though he was in company with Lord Leonard, "he made him little or nothing privy to his proceedings in that journey concerning the secrets of the same." He heard it reported in the camp that "young Gerald, his aunt Eleanor, and that company were conveyed (not past 14 days before their coming into those parts) from James of Desmond to O'Brien, and from him to Ulike de Burghe, and from him to O'Conner Ro of Roscomen, and from him to O'Donnell." He says that "the article of the taking of the horses and harnesses from the Baron of Delvin and other the King's subjects in O'Conner's country, and the misintreating of them there," is true.
Signed: Jenico Vicecount of G.
"Note, that this examination and many more, to the number of 70 examinates or thereabouts, were taken, by order out of England, by Sir Anthony St. Ledger, then Lord Deputy of Ireland, against the Lord Leonard Grey, his predecessor, whereof a great book was made, every leaf whereof was subscribed by the said Sir Anthony St. Ledger, and sent to King Henry VIII.; whereupon the Lord Leonard Grey in England was arraigned, condemned, and executed in anno 1541."

LORD LEONARD GREY.  MS 601, p. 40  Oct 1540

Former reference: MS 601, p. 40

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 150.

"Anno 32 Hen. VIII, mense Octob., 1541.
"The names of such of the King's Council in Ireland and others as were examined and deposed against the Lord Leonard Grey, late Lord Deputy of Ireland, for the approving of such treasons and misdemeanors whereof he stood accused; collected out of the original." [The last five words are in Carew's hand.]
John Allen, Lo. Chancellor of Ireland; George Browne, Archbishop of Dublin; Edward [Staples], Bishop of Meath; Sir John Rauson, Lo. Prior of St. John's of Jerusalem; [Sir] William Brabazon, Vice-Treasurer of Ireland; Gerald Aylmer, Chief Justice of Ireland; Robert Cowlie, Master of the Rolls; Edward Basnet, Dean of Christchurche; James Butler, Earl of Orm. and Oss., Lo. Treasurer; Bartholomew Stritch, of Limericke; John Band, steward to the Lo. Leonard Gray; Edmond [Butler], Archbishop of Cassell; James Fleminge, Baron of Slane; George Dowdall, Prior of Ardee; Patricke Fleminge, gent.; Sir Gerald Fleminge; Thomas Casy; Oliver Grace, constable of Rathvillie; Martin Pells, captain of foot; Thomas Allen, constable of Rathmore; Cahir O'Conner, of Ophalie; James FitzGerald, of Ballisimon; John Darcy, of Rathwyer, gentleman usher to the Lo. Leo. Gray; Thomas Tirrell; Thomas Page, servant to the Lo. Leo. Gray; Thomas Welshe; Edmond Nugent, Bishop of Kilmore; Thomas Fitz Eustace, Lo. of Killcullen; James FitzGerald; Richard Aylmer; Thomas FitzGerald; Richard Wale; Hubbert Fitz Gerald; Reymond Baron; Philip Cryffe; Maurice Fitz Eustace; Nicholas Wogan; John FitzEustace; James Fitz Gerald; William FitzEustace; Rowland FitzEustace; Alexander McTirloghe, captain of the gallowglasse; Edmond Ashpoll; David Sutton; Reymond Oge; Thomas FitzGerald; Philip FitzMaurice; John Sutton; Nicholas FitzEustace, of Kardeston; St. Michell, Baron of Rheban; Thomas Longe; Nicholas FitzEustace, of Crookston; James FitzMaurice; Wellesley, Baron of the Norraghe; Martin Blage, portreeve of Athboy; Thomas Cantrell; Jenico Preston, Viscount of Gormanston; Sir William Birmingham.

SIR HENRY SYDNEY, Lord Deputy, to the LORDS OF THE COUNCIL [in England].  MS 601, p. 43  15 Dec 1575

Former reference: MS 601, p. 43

7 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. II, document 33.

"Since my last letters, wherein I made report of the state of Ulster, [This Report is not preserved either amongst the Carew Papers or in the Public Record Office.] and in the same omitted (as I think) to write of O'Donnell, Lord of Tyrconnell, and McGuire, Lord of Fermannaghe, who wrote humbly unto me, live wealthfully, and deny not to pay rent and service to her Majesty (so as that they may be discharged from the exactions of others), I have passed and gone through the whole English Pale, containing the greatest and best part of the provinces of Meath and Leinster, and of the same have had conference with the principal personages, as well English as Irish, of the estate of those two countries, in like sort as I mean, before I cease to travel (in journey as I do), to visit the most and chiefest parts of every province within this realm.
"And yet, before I enter to particular discourse of any other part, I must return back to the province of Ulster, and speak of the county of Louth, being a parcel of the English Pale, which I find greatly impoverished, through the continual concourse of soldiers passing to and fro the North, and besides the ill neighbourhood of the men of Ferney, the Fues and the Orrery, mentioned in my former report of Ulster. The good towns of Carlingford, Dundalk, and Ardee are extremely impoverished, and only the town of Drohedaghe in better state, which was much amended and increased in wealth through the great expenses of the Earl of Essex, who lay and continued there much, and during his abode very bountifully and very honourably spent in the same; howbeit, the rest of the country is in great confidence of speedy recovery, for the gentlemen are willing to obey and forward to serve, and the rather for the good inclination I find of my Lord of Louth, who is one both well given and forward (as it seemeth) to execute anything committed unto him. The good neighbourhood of the Marshal, who governeth those under his rule without doing of harm, but rather by their labours and travails procurers of amity, friendly society, and quiet to their neighbours; so that only Ferney is the gap open to the hurt of the rest, which I beseech your Lordships to hasten my Lord of Essex to take order in, as the occasion of his stay, in resolution to place some one man, to take the charge of the country, breed not further trouble, than in short time is to be recovered.
"And thus, to begin with Meath, I find the same curstly scorched on the one side, as well by the incursions of the O'Connors and O'Moloyes, while they were in open rebellion, as oppressed by them, since they were protected, not yet recovered nor reformed, but in very good way to be, the noblemen and gentlemen of the same performing in their doings that which frankly they have offered; and a great deal the better it is, for the good neighbourhood and just dealing of O'Reilie, whose country, for that it is in the province of Connaught, for the present I write the less of him and of it, yet for that he confineth within this country, and it very well used by him, I thought good thus much to touch of him and it, as of the justest Irishman and the best ruled Irish country (by an Irishman) that is in all Ireland.
"The most of the baronies of the borders of Westmeath are sore spoiled and made waste by the forenamed rebels, as Fertullagh or Tirrell's country, the barony of Ferbill, called Darcie's country, and now held of the Earl of Kildare, Dillon's country, Dalton's, and De La Mare. Those and divers others, as the Brawney Urin, or O'Birne's country, were made baronies of Westmeath when the same was first made a shire, and in the time of my last government here I added Kinaleaghe or McGoghagan's country, the Caulderie or McGaul's country, [and] Clancolman or O'Malaghlin's country, to be likewise members and parcels of the said county. In these Irish countries the writ yet hath no perfect currency, but, God willing, it shall have, whereunto the Lords of the same have willingly agreed, and most humbly desired to take their lands of the Queen, yielding for the same both rent and service. Fercall or O'Moloy's country, Monteregan or the Fox's country, together with the rest before remembered, are all wasted or extremely impoverished by the rebels aforenamed (McGoghagan and McCoghlan's country only excepted), but I hope well of the speedy reformation of this country, a great deal the rather through the good hope I conceive of the service of my Lord of Delvin, whom I find active and of good discretion. There joineth unto this the Annalie, a country by me heretofore made the county of Longford, being a parcel of the province of Connaught, the lords of the same being of two lineages, though of one surname. They were with me, and proved by good testimony that they were good neighbours both to Westmeath and the rest of the Pale, and lived now in far better order and greater wealth among themselves than they did before they were shire ground. They confess to be in arrearage for the rent for all or most of the years since I departed, which they willingly agreed to pay speedily and in convenient time. And thus much for the state of the province and countries of Meath.
"In the province of Leinster, first, I find the borders of the county of Dublin greatly annoyed almost by nightly stealths and some daily bodderaggs, chiefly fathered upon one Pheaghe McHughe McShane, of the surname of the O'Birnes, but under his father owner and farmer of sundry lands apart from them. The father was with me without protection, but the son liveth aloof yet, without hurt for anything I hear, since my arrival; but my circuit once finished, I intend to attend him somewhat nearer than hitherto I have done. The county of Kildare is extremely impoverished, and especially the Earl of Kildare's lordships and lands, which in a great part are wasted, partly by the last-named loose people, partly and chiefly by the O'Mores, as well in the rebellion as since they were under protection; and in one barony of the said county, called Carbrie, it was constantly affirmed unto me by old Henry Cowlie, with tears in his eyes, that that barony was 3,000l. in worse case than it was the last time before I was there with him. The county of Catherloghe is more than half waste, as well by the forenamed outlaws of all sorts, as partly by the inhabitants of Kilkenny, the Kevanaghes, and some other of their own soil living under Sir Edmond Butler; and some doubt I have of the good order of that quarter, for that Sir Peter Carew is lately departed this world, and the land left to a young gentleman, his kinsman. For the county of Wexford, it is constantly affirmed, both publicly and privately, (by Thomas Masterson and many other principal gent',) that if it were divided into two parts, the one of them is utterly wasted, most of them by the county of Kilkenny, partly by some of themselves, and much by the Kevanaghes, living in worse order, for that their captains (Englishmen) agree no better, which is much to be pitied, but hardly it will be redressed, it is so innate after they are once placed here.
"For the Irish countries on the east side of Leinster, being under the rule of Mr. Agard, as the O'Tohills and the O'Birne's country, I find they are in very good order, except Hugh McShane's son, whom before I remembered. And here, my Lords, except I should forget it, I cannot but lament the lack of Mr. Agard so long from hence; surely the loss of 1,000l. should not so much have grieved me as the wanting of him hath troubled me.
"The Kinshelaghe [are] divided into three lineages, but originally all Kevanaghes, now under the order of Thomas Masterson, who, in my opinion, is a good servant, both for the Queen and country, for he hath brought the people to good order, and made them obedient and willing to pay that rent which heretofore I brought them unto, and though much arrear, yet pay it they will and shall. The O'Moroghes, another race of the Kevanaghes, are under the rule of one Richard Sinnett, in indifferent good order, and shall pay the rent and service, as well that in arrear, as that shall grow due hereafter. That race of the Kevanaghes that dwell about Fernes, by the good policy and rule of Thomas Masterson, constable of the same, are willing and ready to yield all rents and services due to her Majesty. And thus much for the Irish in East Leinster.
"On the west side lieth the countries of Ophali or O'Connor's country, Leix or O More's country, Upper Ossory or McGillpatricke's country, Iregan or O'Dunne's country. The two first were shired by the names of King's and Queen's Counties, and in the time of my Lord of Sussex' government granted in fee farm, with good reservations, to sundry tenants, whereof the greatest part then were mere English, and now both countries are much spoiled and wasted by the race and offspring of the old native inhabiters, which grow great and increase in number, and the English tenants decay both in force and wealth, not of ability to answer the rents and services, but let their lands to Irish tenants. They are daily so spoiled and burned, the charge they have been at, and the daily, expenses they be at, to defend themselves, so weaken them, as their estate is to be pitied: 200 men at the least in the Prince's pay lie there to defend them. The revenue of both the countries countervails not the 20th part of the charge, so that the purchase of that plot is and hath been very dear, yet now not to be given over in any wise, for, God willing, it shall be recovered and maintained; but this may be an example how the like hereafter is attempted, considering the charge is so great, and the honour and profit so small, to win lands from the Irishry so dearly as these two countries have been to the crown.
"Rory Oge hath that possession and settling place in the Queen's County, whether the tenants will or no, as he occupieth what he listeth, and wasteth what he will. Geshell, in the King's County, is very necessary to be had of the Earl of Kildare; it is a matter of consequence for her Majesty's service in that county; and therefore it was necessary he were dealt effectually with to depart withal. During my time of being at the fort at Maribroughe, the Earl of Clanricard came unto me, not unsent for, but very humbly and loyally offered his service; what and how I find of him I will more at large write to your Lordships when I shall come to Connagh, where he is.
"Upper Ossorie is so well governed and defended by the valour and wisdom of the Baron that now is, for the old man, in whom before the cause of the greatest disorder of that country grew, God hath taken (I hope) to his merciful favour, as, saving for surety of good order hereafter in succession, it made no matter, the country were never shired, nor her Majesty's writs otherwise current than it is, so humbly he keepeth all his people to obedience and good order; and yet united to some shire it shall be. And the Baron himself very well agreeth to yield rent and services, as other countries lately brought to such frame do and shall do. Iregan or O'Doyne's country [is] in good case; the Lord of it a valiant and honest man after this country manner. And here I thought fit to remember likewise Ely or O'Carrell's country, though the same be of the province of Munster, yet adjoining in land and neighbourhood to the countries aforenamed. He came unto me, being in the Queen's County, and desireth to hold his land of her Majesty, and offereth a very large rent and service. He hath of long time been answerable to the law, and obedient to the direction of the Governor.
"The last of this province in this my account is the county of Kilkenny, which I find in very bad case, and by many due circumstances proved to be the sink and receptacle of innumerable cattle and goods stolen out of many other countries, but undone by their own idle men, and partly by harbouring of protected rebels, which yet was done by order, and for avoiding a greater or at the least a more present mischief. Here Rory Oge came unto me, upon the Earl of Ormond's word, and in the cathedral church of Kilkenny submitted himself, repenting (as he said) his former faults, and promising hereafter to live in better sort, (for worse than he hath been he cannot be, for by him the greatest spoils and disorders have been committed upon the Queen's County and the Pale). I accepted him upon entreaty and trial of amendment till my return, and both lessoned him and threatened him for his former faults, so that I stand in some hope he will live more quietly and orderly than he hath done, renouncing that aspiring imagination of title to the country, which if he do not, and content himself with such a portion of freehold as I shall allot and think meet for him, he shall be the first that will repent the match, for he shall forego life, land, and all, otherwise I will fail much of my purpose, for so I have given him warning, and will keep touch with him if I can. At this town likewise the Earl of Ormond feasted and entreated me very honorably, and accompanied me to this city very courteously, where I was received with all shows and tokens of gladness and pomp, as well upon the water as the land presented me with the best commodity they had."
"In passing through the counties and countries I have heretofore spoken of to your Lps., I left each of them, before my departure from them, under government and guard (for the most part) according to their own devices, which they thought would be most for their safeties and commodities till my return. Some I left to themselves and to the guard of their own borders, as they desired, yet with authority sufficient to levy force among themselves if needs so required. Some other parts I left well guarded with the garrison and other sufficient strength of their own, for such was their desire, and so, by conference with them of their states, it seemed best and likeliest to me. I placed the Baron of Upper Ossory Lieutenant of the King's and Queen's Counties and divers Irish countries adjoining. The like authority I left with the Earl of Ormond of the two counties of Kilkenny and Tipperary: so that I find in all the places I have yet passed the people remain in good confidence, being so provided for and guarded as they be, to remain in good quiet till my return."
Waterford, 15 Dec. 1575. Signed.
"Note, that the latter end of this letter is omitted, for that it concerned only cesse, treasure, and victual." [See the Privy Council's reply to this letter, 24th January 1575-6.]

SIR HENRY SYDNEY to the PRIVY COUNCIL.  MS 601, p. 46a  [27] Feb 1576

Former reference: MS 601, p. 46a

16 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. II, document 36.

Related information: Collins, Sydney Papers, 89-97.

From Waterford, on 15th December last, I wrote of my passage through Meath and Leinster. The English Pale is in quiet, through the careful service of my Lord of Upper Ossory, whom I left my lieutenant of the King's and Queen's Counties. My expedition in these parts is now ended, and I am ready to pass into another province.
The night after I departed from Waterford I lodged at Corraghemore, the house that the Lord Power is baron of. The Poerne country is one of the best ordered countries in the English Pale, through the suppression of coyne and livery. They are both willing and able to bear any reasonable subsidy towards the finding and entertaining of soldiers and civil ministers of the laws; and the lord of the country, though possessing far less territory than his neighbour, lives in show far more honorably and plentifully than he or any other in that province. Albeit the soil is for the most part barren, yet there is no gentleman or freeholder in that country but may make more of an acre of land there than they have of three in the county of Kilkenny, where the soil is very good, or in the Decies next adjoining on the other side.
Of the Decies Sir James FitzGerald is chief lord. "His brother was Viscount of the same, who being the first so created, and dying without issue male, his lands (though not his title) descended to this gentleman, who is one of bad government; and so it well appeareth, for being left by his brother and other friends very rich, is since much spent, and almost no better than a bankrout." His lands are four times as much as my Lord Power's, and yet made so waste, that competent food cannot be found for a mean family in good order, yet are there harboured and live more idle vagabonds than good cattle bred. The rest of that country is either in mean gentlemen's hands, (who have had long continuance of antientie and dwelling there,) or else in citizen's hands of Waterford, by purchase or mortgage. But all are desirous of reformation.
From thence I came to Dungarvan Castle, where I lodged three nights, and whither the Earl of Desmond came to me and humbly offered his service. That town, of late, is much decayed by the rebellion of James FitzMaurice, but in great hope of amendment by the diligent travail of Henry Davells, constable of the castle there.
I passed from Dungarvan to Sir John of Desmond's, leaving Yoghall, for they were not able to receive me and my train by reason of the great spoils done upon them in the rebellion. Passing out of the county of Waterford I entered the county of Cork, and from Sir John's came to the Lord Barrie's, and on the 23 December arrived at Cork, where I was received with all joyfulness, tokens, and shows. I abode there six weeks. The townsmen received half of the soldier's wages for his board, fire, and lodging. That city well approves the good effects of resident authority amongst them, for it has been greatly amended in few years. I was very honorably attended on and accompanied by the Earls of Desmond, Thomond, and Clancare, the Bishops of Cassell and Cork, and the elect of Rosse-Carbrie, the Viscounts Barry and Roche, the Barons Courcy, Lixnaw, Dunboyne, Power, Barry Oge, and Louthe, who, only to do me honour, came out of the English Pale to that city. There were also divers of the Irishry not yet nobilitated--the Lord of Carbrie, Sir Donnell McCartie, and the Lord of Muskrye, Sir Cormucke McTeg McCartie: "neither of these but (in respect of his territories) were able to be a Viscount, and truly I wish them both to be made barons, for they be both good subjects, and in especial the latter."
"There came to me also Sir Owen O'Sulevan and the son and heir of O'Sulevan More, the father not being able to come by reason of his great years and impotency; Sir William O'Carroll, of Ely Carroll and McDonoghe; never a one of these but for his lands might pass in rank of a baron, either in Ireland or England. There were in like manner with me of the Irishry, O'Kife, McFinine, the sons (or heirs as they would have them) of McAwlive and O'Callaghan; the old men not being able to come by reason of extreme age and infirmity; O'Maghon and O'Driscoll; each of these have land enough (with good order) to live like a knight, here or there. There were with me that descended of the English race, Sir James FitzGerald, brother to the Viscount Decies, Sir Theobald Butler, whose uncle and cousin germaine were Barons of the Cahir, whose lands he lawfully and justly enjoyeth." Sir Thomas, Sir John, and Sir James, of Desmond, brethren to the Earl, were continually with me, and a number of other gentlemen.
"There came to me also many of the ruined reliques of the ancient English inhabitants of this province, as the Arundells, Rochfords, Barretts, Flemings, Lombards, Terries, ["Tirrells," in the margin.] and many other, whose ancestors, as may appear by monuments as well of writing as of building, were able, and did live like gentlemen, knights some of them, and now all in misery, either banished from their own or oppressed upon their own.
"Lastly there came to me five brethren and the sons of two other brethren of one lineage, all captains of gallowglas, called McSwynes, who, although I place them last of the rest, yet are they of a[s] much consequence as any of the rest, for of such credit and force were they grown unto, (though they were no lords of lands themselves,) as they would make the greatest lords of the province both in fear of them and glad of their friendship. And the better to furnish out the beauty and filling of the city, all these principal lords had with them their wives during all the Christmas, who truly kept very honorable, at least very plentiful, houses; and, to be brief, many widow ladies were there also, who erst had been wives to earls and others of good note and accompt." I found Mr. Dowdall and Mr. Welshe commissioners in this province.
"They seemed, in all appearance, generally to loathe their vile and barbarous manner of life; they offered all fealty, homage, and service to her Majesty and crown for ever; and I dare undertake there is never a one of the above named, but (if her Highness will) shall perform it at Westminster." They desire to hold their lands of her Highness, and to yield both rent and service. They agreed to deliver in the names of their idle men and to answer for them, "and if any were found unbooked, to be used as a felon or vagabond."
I caused daily sessions to be held in that city, from the morrow after Twelfth Day till the last of January; 24 notable malefactors were condemned and executed. Condon, or Canton, of Armoy, was attainted and judged to die, and yet stayed from execution, but his lands, which are great, are escheated to her Majesty. A younger son of the Viscount Roche was condemned to die, but stayed from execution, for, as the world goes here, his fault was very small. More has been done for the recovery of the Queen's decayed rents and embezzled lands than was ever done in the memory of man. Her Highness has a diligent servant in Lancelot Alford, her surveyor here.
I have taken pledges of all who are of any regard, especially of the McSwynes, a brood not a little perilous to this province.
I have considered how I might satisfy the lords with some certain revenue instead of their extortions, and find them in this point very tractable, though the matter in handling is somewhat tough.
"For the last point of my doings in Cork; I hope I have laid such a plot as the province shall bear 50 horsemen and 100 footmen of her Majesty's English soldiers continually, if foreign invasion impeach not the device, and find them both victuals and wages, and daily pay them their entertainments. This plot is to begin at May Day next, and none will impugn this, but it shall take place, if it be not a great one or two; neither shall they be able to resist it, if they find not countenance and maintenance there."
I left Cork the first of this month, and lodged two nights by the way hitherwards at my Lord Roche's; then I entered into the county of Limerick, and lodged one night in the town of Kilmallocke, which was lamentably spoiled and burned by FitzMaurice, but has been speedily reedified.
From thence I came to this city, the 4th inst., accompanied by the Earl of Desmond, the Bishops of Cassell and Cork, my Lord of Louth, and others; I was received with great pomp.
All the principal gentlemen of this county, and likewise those that dwell in the lordships adjoining, (who are doubtful whether they be of this county or no,) repaired to me, "as namely, the Burkes, Lacies, Suppells, Purcells, the Red Roche, and divers other original English, divers also of the lords of the Irishry, as, O'Mulrian, McBrian O'Gonoughe, McBrien Araghe, O'Brien of Arloe, which do inhabit the south side of Shenan, and many other of note, original Irish; all lamenting the waste and spoil of their countries." They crave to have the forces of their mean lords suppressed, to be equally cessed, to bear an English force, to have English laws planted amongst them, and English sheriffs to execute those laws, and to surrender their lands to her Majesty.
To this town the Earl of Ormond came to me and friendly accompanied me five or six days, and likewise my Lord of Upper Ossory, who made report to me of the universal quiet and good state of the Pale, wherein his service and great travel taken therein is worthy of note; likewise both the Earl of Clanrickard's sons, Ulick and John Burghe, who, not many years past, were most execrable evil doers, but since pardoned; I licensed them both to depart, but with condition that they should meet me again at Galway. To this place came to me (and still continue with me) the Earl of Thomond and all the principal gentlemen of his surname, being near kinsfolk, yet extreme enemies. Two Lords of Thomond, called the McNemaries, came likewise to me, lamenting the ruin and waste of their countries, and craving to have English laws and English sheriffs. As to the O'Briens and their country, as I mean to lay it to the government of Connaught, I will write thereof in my discourse of Connaught, which I will dispatch by the beginning of April next.
Two other counties there are in this province, namely, Kerry and Tipperary. The Queen's writ is not allowed currency in them. I conjecture that, as long as any subject has any jurisdiction palatine in either of them, there will be no perfect reformation in Munster. The principal gentlemen of each county have been with me.
Thus I end with Munster, in which I have found great towardness of reformation since my late repair into these parts; and "I dare affirm that, if Mr. Perrott had continued till my arrival and maintained the course still he held while he was here, I should have found Munster as well as I left Wales; and Mr. Agard, considering the impediments he found, (which Mr. Perrott left not,) did as much as might be; and so have two gentlemen of this country birth, James Dowdall and Nicholas Welshe, both professors of the law, and remaining here since the revocation of Mr. Agard, have done as much as was to be looked for of men of their quality, wanting men of war and force to execute their orders, arrests, and decrees.'
Munster needs a discreet and active governor, "for these people are of the most part Papists, and that in the maliciest decree, et novarum rerum cupidi, delighted in ravyne and licentious life."
"James FitzMaurice lieth still in St. Maloes, and keepeth a great port, himself and family well appareled and full of money; he hath oft intelligence from Rome and out of Spain; not much relief from the French King that I can perceive, yet oft visited by men of good countenance. Thus much I know of certain report, by spial of my own from thence, the man is subtil, malicious, and hardy, a Papist in extremity, and well esteemed and of good credit amongst the people. If he come and be not hotly dealt withal at the first, (as without an English commander I know he shall not,) all the loose people of this province will flock unto him; yea, the Lords, though they would do their best, shall not be able to keep them from him. So as if he come and in show and appearance like a man of war (as I know he will), and that I be in the North--as, God willing, I will be at Carrigfergus before Midsummer Day--he may take, and do what he will, with Kinsale, Cork, Youghall, Kilmallock, and haply this city, too before I shall be able to come to the rescue thereof. Hasten therefore my good Lords, him that shall take the charge here [i.e., in Munster.] in the Queen and country's behalf,--I crave it; and the only man I hope you will find is Sir William Druerye."
The like [governor] is requisite in Connaught, and also a Chancellor for the whole realm. The Queen has paid, ever since the death of Mr. Weston, late Lord Chancellor, 300l. a year to the Keeper of the Great Seal, who never sits in court, or does anything else incident to the office of a Chancellor, but only keeps the Seal. I once heard that Mr. Rookebie was ready to embark hitherward to have supplied that office, and since that Mr. William Gerrard was appointed to it. If it be so, I beseech you that he may be here before the beginning of next term. I have had long experience of him, having had his assistance in Wales now 16 years.
At Cork, certain pieces of counterfeited coin of Spanish stamps were brought to me, uttered from hand to hand. I found out that the money was made in a castle of the Earl of Ormond's, in his liberty of the county of Tipperary, whither I sent. The parties were brought to me, with some of their money pots for melting stuff for minting, and other instruments. The parties were but two, "the master and the servant, both Englishmen, born in the north; the master, a gentleman (as he saith) and is called Harrison, and much delighted (as he confesseth) a long time in alchymistical practices; his man an excellent artizan in sundry occupations." The fact they confess, having been persuaded it is not felony and treason by the law of this land by some of the best lawyers in England; and the like is affirmed to me by some of the like profession here, though I am given to understand that the fact is treason, by others of better trust about me, as namely, Sir Lucas Dillon. If the matter be tried here by the ordinary course of law, it must be tried before my Lord of Ormond's officers, for the offence was committed within his liberty, or else he will think himself much wronged and his grant infringed. After their apprehension a barque arrived at Waterford, which brought them certain stuff, pots, and instruments, which I have caused to be stayed, and the party that brought it. Certain pieces of English counterfeits were found in those quarters with simple people.
My servant, John Gefford, has just arrived here, with letters from your Honours, dated at Hampton Court, the 24th of the last, in answer to mine of 4th Nov. and 15th Dec.
"Touching my suit for McGennes, wherein you desire more fully to understand my meaning, whether it be meant that he shall have the captainry by inheritance, and the land he holdeth presently as his own freehold, leaving the rest to other freeholders, or else to have the captainry of the whole;" though I am of opinion that, the dissipation of the great lords and their countries, and the reducing of their lands into many hands, is a sound way of proceeding to perfect reformation, yet the attempting of it is perilous. My Lord of Essex's plot for the reformation of the North is the best and surest foundation to build on. But if that enterprise be not pursued, but let fall, what better mean is there to make the lords of countries to apply to obedience, than to assure them of their own? Then, if obedience and rent may be had, it seems better to take some rent and service than to forego it, since a better composition cannot be had of them except by force. As for the lands of McGennys, they are her Majesty's, and given her by Act of Parliament, so that she may give him part and reserve part to herself, if she please. It is objected that the rent is small in respect of the greatness and quantity of the soil, since O'Hanloyne's country, being a less scope of ground and territory, is valued at a greater rent. I answer that the one person is an open enemy, and the other has continued a dutiful subject, since the overthrow of Shane O'Neale.
I thank you for having in remembrance to deal with Chatterton and Malbie; "and because at May Day, commonly, the Irish captains and lords use to bargain and compound with their tenants, which time now approacheth, I am the bolder eftsones to renew the matter to your Honours, so that, your resolutions therein known, I may take order accordingly."
I thank you for having considered Tirloughe Lenaghe's requests. According to your directions I will conclude the best bargain that I can. His agent is not yet returned, and I cannot have his warrant drawn, or anything done in good form, before I come to Dublin. As to "the articles your Lps. sent me, postiled with your opinions, I think they were mistaken, for I received the copy of the treaty betwixt the Earl of Essex and him, and not your Lps. resolutions in those articles I presented unto you for his causes."
I recommend to you my servant John Gyfford "whom I have expressly sent to attend upon your Lps. pleasure, for order for the receipt of my quarterage due the last of March next, to be brought over by him, who hath my acquittance to deliver for the same, where he shall be directed to receive it."
Limerick,-- February 1575.
Signed: Henry Sydney.

SIR HENRY SYDNEY, LORD DEPUTY, to the PRIVY COUNCIL.  MS 601, p. 54a  27 April 1576

Former reference: MS 601, p. 54a

17 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. II, document 38.

Related information: Collins' Sydney Papers,I., 102-110.

I crave pardon that I have not with more diligence addressed this my fourth and last provincial discourse, namely of Connaught. By this and the other three before sent, you may perceive how I have occupied myself these six months since I arrived here, in which I have viewed and almost circled this whole realm on every side. The cause of my deferring was, that I expected the arrival of Mr. Agard, whose miss hath been no small maim to me in this my travail; and also for that I looked to have received somewhat by Gifford, but by letters which arrived here the 24th inst., I understood of his death.
In my last discourse of Munster, I omitted to write of my being at Kinsale, where I continued three days, and went to the Old Head, six miles beyond the town, which is one of the forticablest places that ever I came in. The town is much decayed, by the great and long unquietness of the country, yet through the continuance of justice and English government near them it holds its own well enough, and is on the mending hand. A castle they had upon the pier, which was all ruined, and the pier itself greatly decayed. I granted them some aid towards re-edifying the same. They are to find stuff, victuals, and labour, and the money which I gave them is to be expended only in defraying the wages of artificers. I trust the work will be finished this summer.
"After my last dispatch made at Limerick and sent to your Lps. by Gifford, I departed thence the 27th of February, and so entered into Thomond, attended on by the Earl of Thomond, Sir Daniel O'Brien, Teg McMorogho, Teg McConnohor, Tirloghe, the Earl's brother, and Donnoghe McMorrogho;-- all these gentlemen of one surname, called O'Briens, and yet no one of them friend to another, and sometime have been named kings of Limerick. These are the great doers and undoers of their own country and neighbours, yet so near kinsmen as they descended of one grandfather. I had also with me the two McNemarrowes, by us called the East and West McNemarrowes, chief gentlemen of that country, which if it were in quiet, they might live like principal knights in England. There was also with me in company the two landlords of the McMaghons of Thomond, and O'Laghlan. These are captains and lords of large territory."
There were many others of meaner sort, but amongst them all I could not find one descended of English race, although that country was once the Lord Clare's of England, and most part of it possessed by Englishmen. All these and many more complained upon the O'Briens and each other for the ruin of their country. "If they were not a people of more spare diet than others are, both of flesh and bread and drink made of corn, it were not possible that a soil so wasted could sustain them; and yet many they are not in number."
I lodged, the first night after I left Limerick, in a dissolved friary of the Queen's, called Coyne, where by the Earl and country I was well provided for. The night following I rather encamped, than lodged, in the ruined see of Kilmakoagh, where I and my company had bad fare and worse harbour. Here the Earl of Clanricard met me, in very comely and civil manner, but immediately departed from me. The next day again he met me, and so passing into O'Shagne's country, "where Thomond (being of Munster) confineth with Connaught," I came the same day to Galway, where I was honourably entertained.
As soon as I could get all them of Thomond to me I entered into consideration of their griefs and losses; the spoil of goods and cattle was infinite, and the whole country not able to answer a quarter of that which was affirmed to be lost among them; though Sir Lucas Dillon, who examined every particular matter as it was booked, reduced the same to a reasonable and certain quantity. Commissioners were appointed to take the proofs and the goods restored to the losers.
The mutual hurts and revenges done betwixt the Earl and Teg McMorrogho were one great cause of the ruin of the country. I bound them by bonds in great sums to abandon their country during my pleasure, as well to restrain them, as to bind them to perform such orders as I took with them, which they have observed. I took the Earl's brother, and still detain him in iron; and Teg McConnoghor I detained likewise, until he had delivered a sufficient hostage for his good behaviour. I made Sir Daniel O'Brien sheriff of the shire, and appointed others of the country birth to be serjeants, cessers, and other mean officers. The country consented to be at the charge of a provost marshal, and to give him wages and food, for himself, 12 horsemen, and 24 footmen, for that the country swarmed of idle men, and by this means they thought best to suppress them.
During my abode at Galway, divers notorious malefactors were brought in and executed. According to their desire I sent them commissioners. Lastly, for that the origin of their ruin was the uncertain grant and unstable possession of their lands, (whereupon grew their wars,) I brought them to agree to surrender all their lands into the Queen's hands for forfeited, and take them of her again, and yield both rent and service.
"Thus much for Thomond, a limb of Munster, but in my last government here annexed to the President of Connaught by the name of the county of Clare."
I divided Connaught (besides the East Brenye or O'Reilie's country, and the Annalye or O'Ferrall's country) into four counties, namely Sligo, which was a part of Nether Connaught; Mayo, another part of the same; Galway, which was called Upper Connaught; and Roscommen, called the Plains of Connaught.
"Out of the county of Sligo I had nothing but letters, but those humbly written, from O'Connoghor, affirming that he durst not come for fear of the wars happened between O'Donnell and Con his nephew, but lewd and malicious tales rather made him afraid, as I take it. He hath under his tyranny O'Dowde, two McDonoughes, two O'Hares, and Agare, and yet he himself tributary to O'Donnell. They be all men of great lands, and they shall not choose but yield both rent and service to the crown. All but O'Conner himself have offered it, and he, to be discharged of O'Donnell, will most willingly do it. I look daily for O'Rwrke (whose country, called West Brenye, is also a portion of this county), with whom I doubt not to conclude for a good rent and service for the Queen. This county, or these countries, are well inhabited and rich, and more haunted with strangers than I wish it were, unless the Queen were better answered of her custom."
Out of the county of Mayo came to me to Galway first seven principal men of the Clandonnells, all by profession mercenary soldiers by name of galloglas; they humbly submitted themselves. I was informed that McWilliam Eughter would not come to me, and therefore I won his chief force from him in getting these Clandonnells; but in the end McWilliam came very willingly, by the good persuasions of the Dean of Christ Church (one of the Council), whom I sent into Connaught, when I went into Munster. I found McWilliam very sensible, though wanting the English tongue, yet understanding the Latin. He desired to suppress Irish extortion, and to expulse the Scots. He bound himself, by oath and indenture, to hold his lands of her Majesty, to pay yearly 250 marks sterling, and to find 200 soldiers, horsemen and footmen, for two months by the year. In one of his petitions he "besought (doubting that I would have taken away the bonaght from the Clandonnells which they held of him and his country) that they might (withdrawing it from him) hold it of the Queen." They accepted this overture. "He received his country at my hands by way of seneschalship, which he thankfully accepted, the order of knighthood I bestowed upon him, whereof he seemed very joyous, and some other little trifles I gave him, as tokens between him and me." He was desirous I should send thither an English sheriff; I sent one with him. He is a great man; his land lies along the west north-west coast of this realm, wherein he has many goodly havens. His territory is three times as large as the Earl of Clanricarde's. "He brought with him all his brethren, McPhillipin, who in surname is a Burke, as he is," and others. O'Mayle came likewise with him, who is an original Irishman, strong in galleys and seamen. He earnestly sued to hold of the Queen.
At that instant were also with me McPhaten, of English surname Barrett, McIvilye, of English surname Stanton, McJordan, of the like, Dexter, McCoshtelo, of the like, Nangle, McMaurice, of English surname Prendergast; and these five show matter of some record and credit, that they have not only been English, which every man confesseth, but also Lords and Barons in Parliament," but now they have not three hackneys to carry them and their train home. There were with me many more of lower degree, as the chief of the Clan Andrews and McThomin, Barrett[s], Cusakes, Linches, and sundry English surnames now degenerate, and all lamenting their devastation, and crying for justice and English government.
Touching the county of Galway; first, I find the town of Galway much decayed, both in number of expert sage men of years and in young men of war, through the horrible spoil done upon them by the sons of the Earl of Clanricard. 50 householders of that town inhabit under McWilliam Eughter. They had almost forgotten that they had received any corporation from the crown, but I trust they are now revived. The Earl of Clanrickard continually attended on me, and so did the Earl of Thomond, the Archbishop of Tweom, the Bishop of Clonfert and Killmakogh, and the Baron of Athenry, by surname Birmingham (a poor baron, though the ancientest in this land), O'Flaherty, O'Kelly, and many of their surnames, which are very great, O'Madden, and all of any account of that surname, O'Naughton, and many other petty lords and captains of countries, craving to hold their lands immediately from her Highness. "These are the principal of this country, saving such as be of my Lord of Clanricard's surname, as O'Heyne, original Irish, and in old time very great, now mean; McOwge, McHubbert, McDavy, McEdmund, McRedmond, all these Burghes and many more, but all holding of the Earl of Clanricard (by due service as he saith), but through oppression say they." Many other there were who durst not show their faces, for that they had been partakers with the Earl's sons in their rebellion.
These two hopeless sons came into the church of Galway on a Sunday at public service, and there craved their pardon. I committed them to my marshal, and have them here prisoners in this castle of Dublin.
I departed from Galway the 22nd of March and passed through Athenry, which was totally burned--college, parish church, and all that was there--by the Earl's sons; yet the mother of one of them was buried in that church. "I took order for the re-edifying of the town, and I have taxed (for the satisfying of the old inhabitants) indifferently upon that country, weighing the ability of each person, and the quality, of the faults, as I thought most reasonable; and the sum of this taxation amounteth unto 2,000l., which shall be confirmed and ratified by order of commissioners authorized under the Great Seal, according to the meaning of her Majesty's letter granted to them; and I doubt not to levy it, and the rather for that the Earl is entered into band of 5,000l., to see as well this performed, as the first order taken at Limericke against his sons in my predecessor's time. I have cut the town almost into equal parts, it being before full as big, with a fair high wall, as the town of Calais. I took from the Earl (the better to answer the expectation of the people) two principal castles and keys of strength, the one called the castle of Ballinesloe, which standeth betwixt Galway and Athenry, and the other called Clare, and seated betwixt Galway and McWilliam Eughter's country." I went from Athenry with the Earl of Clanricard, and was very honourably entertained with him. The next night I lodged in the O'Kellies' country, and the night following in the castle of Roscommon. The county is indifferently manured, by reason of the Earl of Clanricard's force, whose friends and followers fare well, the rest go to wreck. The Bishop of Meath came to me to Galway.
I staid at Roscommon but one night, both for that I had appointed provision at Athlone, as also that I found nothing there laid in, to furnish me withal. During my abode at Roscommon, O'Connor Dun came to me, whose ancestor (they say) was sometimes called King of Connaught. The castle of Roscommon I took from him in my former government. Under his rule there are O'Birne and O'Flin. O'Connor Ro came not at me, for fear I would compel him to make recompence for his hurts done in the rebellion time. Under him is O'Flanagan. "McDermond was with me, and one under him called McManus. These people and some more petty lords inhabit the plains of Connaught, and are all destroyed by the Scots chiefly. The country is large and of excellent soil, the best, and all the rest beggars, desirous to be delivered from the tyranny of their stronger neighbours. They all crave to be subjected to the English government."
At Athlone I remained nine days, in which time was executed a notable rebel of the Burkes.
I daily look for O'Connor Sligo, O'Rwrke, O'Donnell, and Con O'Donnell, his nephew, and doubt not but so to agree with them as the Scots shall be soon banished out of Connaught. As to the Annalye or O'Ferrall's country, and East Brenye or O'Reilie's country, they all attended upon me during my abode in the counties of Roscommon and West Meath. At my being at Athlone I sent commissioners thither to hold sessions. This country was made shire ground by me, by the name of the county of Longford, and the chief lords are bound to pay 400 marks by the year of increase of revenue, whereof albeit they were in arrear for four or five years, yet immediately upon my demand they paid part, and took short days for payment of the rest.
From the East Brenye, or the O'Reillies' country, I received all dutiful offices. The captain of the country is a very honest man, but old, very impotent and bedrid. His death may breed great trouble. The competitors for his place will hazard the destruction of the country. I mean to dissipate it into more captainries than one, if I can.
I left in Connaught Thomas Lestrange and Thomas Dillon, learned in the laws, as commissioners, to determine controversies, and Robert Damport, provost marshal, to apprehend and execute the thieves and destroyers of the country. They of Connaught are willing to bear men of war for the suppression of rebels and outlaws. "The Queen's revenue revived, and that, with casual revenues, will go near to bear the charge of civil magistracy." Connaught may be made to bear its own charges within one year and a half, so as a President and Council be sent thither to reside amongst them.
I am advertised that my Lord of Essex is minded to come again into this realm. He is held of the people of this country both in honourable and dreadful terms. If he be placed as President with a Council in Connaught, it will imprint in their minds the Queen's resolution to reform them. "I will so impart with him, as, without her Majesty's further charge than presently she is contented to be at, he shall be able to live honorably there." While his Lordship and Sir William Druerye join together in the south and west, I will deal with the east and north. If I may not have the Earl of Essex, let me have another.
I departed from Athlone the 2nd of April, and lodged by the way at Mr. Lestrange's, Mollingarre, my Lord of Delvin's, my Lord Bishop of Meath's, and Lawrence Delahide's. On the 14th I arrived in Dublin, being the first entry I made into it since I landed last in Ireland, which was the 12th of September last. By the way as I went, sessions were held in the counties of West Meath, Louth, Longford, Meath, and Kildare. I could not have wished for better service to be done in my absence, and in especial by my Lord Bishop of Meath, [Hugh Brady.] and such as I joined with him in commission for guarding of the borders of the Pale.
"I write not the names of each particular varlet that hath died since I arrived, as well by the ordinary course of the law, the martial law, as flat fighting with them, when they would take food without the good will of the giver." The number of them is great, and some of the best; and the rest tremble. "They fight for their dinner, and many of them lose their heads before they be served with their suppers."
I beseech you to mark these few heads following.
(1.) The church must be reformed, being deformed and overthrown by the ruin of the temples, the dissipation and embezzling of the patrimony, and most of all for want of sufficient ministers. The means to amend it are easy, whereof I have written to the Queen.
(2.) An army must still be maintained. A garrison of 300 horsemen and 700 footmen may continually be kept here, without any great charge to England. "This charge now must be reared by the new rents of the Irishry, and by an alteration of the old burthen of the English Pale."
(3.) "I heartily wish that it might please her Majesty to send hither four personages, whereof one well acquainted with the course of that grave and wise Council, as it might be Mr. Tremayne; two stout and well learned lawyers, as two of these three; viz., the Master of the Rolls, the Attorney General, and Mr. Bell; some one discreet gentleman, as Sir Edward Mountecute, that were able to argue what might be reaped out of a good soil peaceably possessed."
(4.) That it would please her Majesty to send hither three lawyers, to be Chief Justices of three principal and common benches, and one to be Attorney General of this realm. There is none here so meet for those places as is to be wished, Sir Lucas Dillon excepted, who is Chief Baron.
Castle of Dublin, 27 April 1576.

LORD DEPUTY SIDNEY to the PRIVY COUNCIL.  MS 601, p. 63  27 Jan 1577

Former reference: MS 601, p. 63

16 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. II, document 45.

Since my letters of the 20th September last, dated from Galway, I still remained in expectation of answer to my former letters, which came not before the 23rd inst., when it was brought me by my servant, James Prescott. I cannot justly lay the fault to his negligence, but to the contrariety of the winds and untowardness of the weather, which would not suffer him to pass.
In my letters from Galway I spoke of my proceedings in Connaught in pursuit of the rebels. The day following I went to Athenry, so to the Shrugher and into McWilliam Eughter's country, and within a day or two came to the castle of Ibary, which I had caused to be besieged beforehand by certain companies I had dispersed from me, to lie in that country and to make head against the Scots, who were reported to lie not past five or sis miles from the place of this siege, and to have gathered together all the prey of the country. The castle was noted to be a very strong piece.
"At my coming thither, the mother of two of the principal gentlemen that were in the ward of the castle and sons to Edmund Burke (who was sent from the Earl of Clanrickard' sons, to entertain the Scots to come into Connaught to the aid of those rebels,) made humble suit unto me, that she might speak with her sons; and first she entreated for their lives, that I would grant them pardon, which I would not in any sort assent to, except they would presently yield the castle into my hands, and simply submit themselves, their lives, lands, and goods to my devotion; and assured her that since I was come thither I would not depart thence and leave the place before I had won it. She thought the conditions very hard; nevertheless, tendering much her son's lives, went to them by licence from me, and put them in so hard hope to obtain mercy (but upon these conditions) as the misery of their state made them to hazard the extremity of fortune, and so privily at a spikehole on the back side and in a main wall of the castle (which during the parley they had wrought somewhat wider), and made passage to let down a man by device into the ditch betwixt the twilight and setting of the watch, the ward stole away and escaped with their lives."
Hither came to me McWilliam Eughter, whom I rebuked, because, though I was come into those parts to repossess and settle him in his country, he had neither come nor sent to me. He alleged that he had gathered his strength and people together, and forthwith gave a sudden charge upon the Scots, crying " Bows ! Bows !" The Scots, thinking it to be true fled away, and left all the prey behind them. I delivered to him the castle I had taken, to keep it to her Majesty's use, and all the castles and piles of which he had been dispossessed.
From this place I meant to have gone to Sligo, but by reason of extreme rains the water of Moy was risen so high that, having no boats, I could not pass either my horsemen or footmen over. And besides the soldiers were overtoiled and wearied, and many of them feeble and [...] ck. Moreover, I thought the journey less necessary, for that O'Connor Sligo came to me thither, with the Clandonnells and all the rest of that country, and because the Scots were fled the country, leaving Ulick Burke, who likewise fled to the mountains of Slevartye to his brother Shane; O'Roorke also sent to me, to meet me where I would appoint him.
"I returned homewards by the plains of Connaught towards Dublin, and left Sir Nicholas Malbye possessed of the houses of Roscommon and Athlone, and all the Earl's houses in Clanrickerd, besides two bands of footmen, and Captain Daniell's company of horsemen, 200 of the Clandonnells of Leinster, being her Majesty's galloglas, with 100 kerne; all to be at the direction of the Colonel, over and besides his own company, being 30 horsemen and 20 footmen; and gave him order and commission to take bonaght and spending for the finding of the galloglas upon such countries and lords as had not yet compounded with her Majesty for their lands. And so leaving him sufficient authority and power for the government of the province, I departed thence and arrived in Dublin the 13th of October." Sir Nicholas Malbye is a sufficient man for the service of Connaught, being forward and valiant. I thank your Lordships for your choice of so fit a man to the place.
The hope of the Earl's enlargement, so daily gaped for, is the only cause of the wars there. But "in truth the Earl's cause falleth out against him every day fouler and fouler, as both by his own confession and the depositions of others" will appear to you. With them I will send you a bill drawn for his attainder by Parliament, if he be not found a bastard, as it is thought he may be, and then he may be tried by a jury of common persons. His sons' wars and his once suppressed, the revenue of Connaught will in short space bear the charges of Connaught.
"The province of Munster is universally quiet as yet, but the President findeth some stubbornness of Thomond, in not obeying such orders as be taken against him; and some wilfulness of Desmond, that he will not be withdrawn from his wonted exactions; and such a general repining throughout to bear cesse, not without some intelligence, or, as it is rather to be suspected, conspiracy, with them of the English Pale." Howbeit the Lord President holds them in great security of quiet. If the cess might be converted to a certain subsidy, the revenue of that province would do more than bear the charge of the same.
The English Pale is very quiet. Never has a winter passed over with less loss and fewer stealths and bodder gges. "The only gall of the Pale for this present is the wilful repining at the cesse, which is stirred up by certain busy-headed lawyers and malcontented gentlemen, who indeed bear not themselves the burden of it, but the farmers and husbandmen, who willingly would contribute toward it, if the gentlemen would suffer them; insomuch as the county of Meath being twice as big as any other county of the English Pale, hath offered to give five marks sterling out of every plowland, which is not above 2d. sterling out of every acre; and yet if the same were universal over Leinster and Meath it would amount unto above 5,000 marks sterling by the year; and yet in this accompt all ancient freedoms shall remain and continue free still. The repiners from whom these new freedoms are now taken, and to whom the same were first granted in respect of service to be done by them at general hostings, it was a mockery to see what sorry service those men they set forth either did, or for their training or ability were able to do, for their freedoms, so that the Queen lost both ordinary and extraordinary subsidy; the consideration whereof moved me to call the statute in question, whereby they challenge these new freedoms and exemptions; and the statute being seen and scanned upon, it was found that they could not justly any longer claim any freedoms, by force of the same statute, and so abridged both by my Lord Chancellor and Sir Lucas Dillon, none of the rest professing the laws, willingly agreed to that judgment, and yet not any of them all, in learning nor reason, able to maintain probable argument to the contrary.
"And lest this name of cesse, being not an usual word there, might seem to carry some secret mystery in the term, being misconceived, may it please your Lordships therefore to conceive that cesse is nothing else, but a prerogative of the Prince, and an agreement and consent of the nobility and Council to impose upon the country a certain proportion of victual of all kinds to be delivered and issued at a reasonable rate, and, as is it commonly termed, the Queen's price; so that the rising and falling of the prices of victuals and accatts, and the seasonableness of the times, dear or cheap, makes the matter heavier or easier to the people. For when the cow was commonly sold for 8 or 9s. sterling, the peck of wheat for 2s. 8d. or 3s. the peck, and the mutton at 12d., and of the rest after the like prices, this burden was not felt, but such an agreement betwixt the soldier and the countryman, and so desirous and loving one of another, as there was no repining, but so welcome was the guest to the host, as there was ever grief and sadness at their departing each from other. And now, although as much be paid as ever was in rate, yet the price growing higher, and the insolency of the soldier more, than it was wont to be, in exacting of money upon the poor farmers, and sometimes escaping uncorrected for the same, (which happeneth as seldom as never if they be complained upon), provoketh this kicking and spurning at cesse."
At first they exhibited their complaint to me and the Council, and I offered to join with them in advice, if any way might be thought of to ease their griefs, and not any further to charge the Queen; for the soldier could not pay above the rate he did for his victual. My Lord Chancellor afterwards took great travail to set down their device and had both the gentlemen of the country and victualler[s] before him, and heard their objections and the victuallers' answers. Yet the gentlemen, not satisfied with any thing I can do or invent for their good, conspire to complain of cesse, and of me and my government. Your Lordships should mightily maintain it with your grave censure, for without it, or a subsidy instead, the revenues will never bear the charge of the defence of this country.
As to my government I crave no more but that I may be heard before I be condemned. "The poor man's burden (whom I seek most to ease), by reason of the revocation of these new freedoms, bear a far more easy charge, since some of the gentlemen then neighbours contribute with them more than theretofore they did. They are glad and thankful for it, though others repine and spurn at that which they cannot in any sort remedy, as long as they are not able to defend and maintain their own without the aid and help of a garrison to reside amongst them. It was avouched unto me in a general speech by the country that there was paid 9l. out of every plowland for cesse. I offered to discharge them for four marks. And this is the hard hand and ill will I bear the country."
I send herewith the state of the charges of the whole year from 1 October 1575 to 30 September 1576. Although I have somewhat exceeded my promise for this year's charge, the same hath grown chiefly by payments and imprests I made out of my assignations for [A word omitted?] grown due, before the time I entered government. Yet for urgent causes, and saving her Majesty's further charges, and to disburden the country of the extortions and oppressions of the soldiers that remained discharged and not paid, I caused to be issued out, as may appear more plainly by a book of particularities and rates set down, and signed by Mr. Treasurer (Sir Edward Fyton) and the Auditor (Thomas Jenyson), which herewith I send to your Lordships; of which sum I disbursed for things due before my time, amounting in the whole to 1,263l. 3s. 8d. sterling, I am humbly to crave allowance and consideration at Her Majesty's hands; besides the large imprest delivered by order there unknown to me, or without my privity here; and some entered into entertainment so long before their coming hither, and nevertheless the whole charge continued here, for the service of the country, although no such allowance had been granted there, which grew in the end to a double charge to the Queen; moreover, this unlooked for broil and stir in Connaught, which drew some extraordinary expense."
It cannot be expected that this next year her Majesty's charges can be lessened, these winter's wars have been already so chargeable. I endeavour to bring each province to defray its own charges. Both in Munster and Connaught I have made compositions with divers lords and potentates of Irish countries for a certain annual rent and service, as may appear by a book of a particular rental sent to Mr. Secretary Walsingham. If justice may be continued amongst them, I doubt not within two or three years to make that as certain a rent and revenue to the crown as any yielded by the English Pale.
"There is besides, for the reducing of Munster and Connaught to more pliantness and aptness to yield obedience and embrace justice and civility, several commissions devised, wherein the Commissioners take travail to appoint a certainty betwixt the lord and tenant, that the lord may know what he should demand and the tenant what he should pay, to the end to abolish all Irish extortions and unjust customs amongst them."
I likewise send a book of the state of the army, and a book of all such fees as are due to the patentees. I beseech you that money may be sent over hither to discharge that debt. It will be greatly to their comforts, if special care be had of them in time; "for if they should expect their payments to be made out of the arrearages (as they are brought in), that will not be in a long time, and as the same cometh in, it must be employed for the payment of old debts, due for victuals taken up, for wages of artificers, labourers, and stuff taken by commission for buildings, fo[r] wages of stipendaries and other extraordinary [expenses]."
In my memorials for Connaught I left unremembered the good service done by Thomas Le Strange and Captain William Collier, "whom I left, in the interval betwixt my first journey into Connaught and the settling Nicholas Malbie colonel there, to have in mine absence the principal rule in that province." Placed by me at Balliloghreughe, a principal house of the Earl of Clanricard's, they so manfully and valiantly defended both the castle and the town, in which they were besieged by 2,000 Scots and Irish, brought thither by the Earl's sons, that no house or cottage perished, although they were but 100 foot and 50 horsemen.
"Some hurt hath happened of late in the King's County by the sudden starting out of the O'Connors, grown chiefly by unadvised and negligent dealing by some put in trust, who, too hastily giving credit to the oaths of the outlaws, dismissed the guard of the country, whereof ensued the burning of some ricks of corn and a few cottages."
The book of arrearages of the Queen's debts, which has been continued from year to year, in appearance and bulk shows no small matter. The debtors are for the most part dead, slain, or in miserable and poor estate. Therefore in order that it may more plainly appear to her Majesty which are sperate and which are desperate debts, you should do well to write to the Auditor and Surveyor (Alford) tocertify the state of the said arrearges, and to yield you their best reasons why the book is continued. A commission also should be granted to me and the Council here, to compound with them at our discretions.
I intend within a few days to repair to the North, and there to deal with Tirloghe O'Neale, whom I have sent for to meet me at the Newrie, whither, when he shall come, I will compound the best bargain I can for her Majesty, and likewise conclude with McGenis and other Irish lords in those parts.
I will shortly send over bills for Parliament, and then I will show my advice about letters for the subsidy.
The Lord Chancellor is the best beliked man that ever sat in his place. I fear lest the daily toil he takes without assistance may hazard his weak and sickly body, and therefore put you in remembrance of the speedy sending over of two learned persons, the one to supply the office of a justice, the other to be her Majesty's attorney.
I end with some special requests.
(1.) Your good acceptance and allowance of my letters for the court of the Marches and March causes, and your answer upon them.
(2.) To know her Majesty's resolution in the liking or disliking of those persons I recommended of late to be placed in the rooms of the bishops here, as namely for Ossory, Ardaghe, and Rosse in Carbrie.
(3.) For that by reason of these winter wars in Connaught, supply of money must speedily be had, I beseech you to take order, that as well such money as is due already the first of January present, as that which shall be due the last of March next, may be presently delivered to the Treasurer or his factor there.
Dublin, 27 January 1576.
Signed: Henry Sydney.

The COUNCIL of IRELAND to the QUEEN.  MS 601, p. 76  12 Sep 1577

Former reference: MS 601, p. 76

9 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. II, document 70.

Related information: Collin's Sydney Papers, 214-221.

Your Deputy has signified to us your pleasure that we should once every year at the least advertise the state of this country, and set down our opinions of the means to reform disorders, and to diminish your great charge.
After the end of the Deputy's long journey into all the provinces, the first year after his arrival, the lords and chieftains of all the Irishry have submitted themselves, with offers to hold their lands of your Highness, and to yield rent and service.
If you had sent presidents and justices to be resident in the remote parts that he visited and a Chancellor and justices to serve within the Pale, we lived in hope in a few years to have tasted of the fruit of that your gracious intent, to the good of this realm. But in June last, upon the landing of your Chancellor and President, "a rebellion (conspired by the Earl of Clanricard the May before, to draw force of Scots into Connaught,) was by the said Earl himself then actually put in execution, as we have most apparently perceived, by sundry examinations already taken, whatsoever be said or informed of the father's severe dealing against his sons." The Deputy so daunted it in the very beginning that the forces and helps which the rebels expected were cut off, the fortifying of the castles and holds suddenly stayed, and their trenching and walling prevented; yet they held me, Sir Nicholas Malbie, your Majesty's colonel there, so occupied that until almost Easter last I had small time to see justice delivered, or to deal with the country for contribution towards your great charge.
The conspiracy stretched itself by sundry branches into Munster, "to hold your Deputy and Presidents in both the provinces so occupied in arms, as they should not greatly trouble courts with English justice, of those conspirators abhorred and hated; expecting (as may be gathered) some greater force from foreign parts, to have wrought this year the like that the last yielded; for this appeareth by the confession of Sir John of Desmond, that saith the Earl was committed, [Sic.] his sons and their force being not yet subdued, but remaining armed in the fields; mediation and intreaty was made for the conclusion of the marriage between Mary Burke, the Earl's daughter, and the said Sir John, although he have another wife living and she another husband. And further it appeared by examination that he received several letters from John Burke and Mary, and as it is by others affirmed (although colorably by him denied,) he secretly met and had conference with John Burghe, who showed him letters of advertisements of James FitzMaurice his invasion, as it were in vaunt of the likelihood of some foreign invasion and help, the rather to stir him to take his part."
Conner McCormucke O'Conner and Rorie Oge O'More, contrary to their oaths, (hoping for aid out of Connaught) began to gather their friends and confederates to the number of 100 swords or thereabouts, and so to revolt; who, upon a sudden at Christmas Eve last, burnt divers haggards and poor men's cottages of the King's County, to the value of 200l. Afterwards with greater force they came to the town of the Naas by night, and burnt about 140 thatched houses; and since that time they have burnt a great part of Leighlin, and done some other harms and spoils upon the borders of the Pale. Notwithstanding your forces have cut off the greatest number of those who first were assembled, "yet such is their maintenance in the countries adjoining to Leix, and their watch and spial so good, with the help of their fastness, bogs, and woods, as still they be out; unto whose danger Captain Harrington and Alexander Cosbie, overmuch crediting some subtle promises and oaths, have of late (through their own follies) cast themselves."
The North is in greater quiet than it has been of long time, for Tirloghe Lenoghe has come in to your Deputy without protection or hostage. If troubles should arise there by means of the Scots, Tirloghe is to be framed as an instrument and scourge for them.
"The benefit that hath risen by this last year's travail of your Highness' President in Munster and Colonel in Connaught, notwithstanding the actual rebellion in the one place, and the show of mislike in the other, is an argument to us what would have grown thereby to your Majesty, had not the rebellion in Connaught been, or, if the Earl of Desmond had in all points showed such willing disposition to obey, and live under the rule of justice, as he might have done." Resident authority is of great force.
"The people within the Pale are over much blemished with the spots of the Irishry," and the sundry good laws from age to age devised to wipe out those stains have not been executed. We beseech you to send justices to put those and other needful laws fit to pass this next parliament in due execution.
By the long journeys which your Chancellor (Gerrard) has taken, he has seen the exactions, extortions, and Irish impositions, which decay the poor and hinder justice; and by his search into the Parliament rolls and rolls of accompt, he has seen the government of this estate in times past. He is thus fit to confer with such as you shall appoint touching these new laws that are to pass this next Parliament. Therefore, upon consideration of such persons as we thought meetest to repair to your presence with advertisements, we have made special choice of him, and have taken order for the safe using and custody of the seal.
The country seems now to be more grieved than before with the cesse. They of the country should fall to some certain composition, that a certain sum might yearly be yielded out of every ploughland. The Deputy has used no other manner and order in the setting down of the cesse for the two years past than was before used. The Lord Chancellor can certify you fully of the manner of the setting down of the cesse this last year.
Signed: T. Armachan.; Adam Dublin.; W. Drury; H. Miden.; Ed. Fyton; H. Bagenall; Lucas Dillon; Nich. Malbie; Francis Agard; J. Garvey; John Chaloner; Henry Colley.

SIR HENRY SYDNEY to the PRIVY COUNCIL.  MS 601, p. 71  20 Feb 1578

Former reference: MS 601, p. 71

10 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. II, document 83.

Related information: Collins' Sydney, Papers. I. 240.

"After I had made my last dispatches and sent away the bills for parliament causes to her Majesty, (whereof I beseech your Lordships there may be speedy return,) and taken order for the better settling of the O'Birnes and Tohills, (my neighbours at home,) I made my repair presently to the borders of the King and Queen's Counties, to meet with the insolency of the rebels, the O'Mores and O'Conners, who were, since the taking of Captain Harrington, so increased both in strength and pride," as they were not any longer to be endured. I assembled part of the rising out appointed for the general hosting, which from the beginning of June last had been from time to time deferred, and not dissolved. I sent for Sir Nicholas Bagenall, the Marshal, "to take the charge of the service in my absence, for the prosecution of the rebel, making him my lieutenant of Leinster and Meath; appointing the Lord President of Munster with his charge to lie upon the confines of the province under his rule, next adjoining unto the rebel; and on the other side assigned Sir Nicholas Malbie to remain with the greatest part of his force upon the frontier of Connaught, where he might best annoy, and lie most aptly to stop the rebels' passage."
I spent some time in taking pledges of the O'Dempsies, and other doubtful neighbours upon that border. On Christmas eve I came to Kilkenny, Sir Lucas Dillon only accompanying me thither. I was informed that the speediest way to suppress the rebel was to plague his maintainers. I found some of the principal and best sort of the town had relieved the rebel with victuals and other necessaries. The country had received the rebels' goods, fostered their children, and maintained their wives. Few would come to me without protection. Those that had special rule and charge of principal houses and castles of the Earl of Ormond refused to come at me, as namely, Foulke Grace, constable of Roskrea, Owen McDonoghe, Oge O'Kenedie of Ballihaghe, and Ferdorroghe McEdmond Purcell of Potlerathe, one of the said Earl's manors, and captain of his kearne. Each of these three last fostered one of Rorie's children.
Having had this taste of the principal men, I caused every day some one or other to be apprehended. I appointed a sessions to be held. Plenty of accusations. Partiality of the juries. I willed the commissioners to take recognizance of the juries to appear here in the Castle Chamber, and likewise to cause the prisoners to be brought [hither].
During my being at Kilkenny, the Earl of Thomond came to me, and brought me letters from her Majesty and your Lordships, "but he was either so curious or negligent, or both, in carrying of them, as he delivered them unto me open and the seals broken up." I referred him for further order in his causes hither, where I will with some advice consider his demands.
A day or two before my coming from Kilkenny, the Earl of Desmond likewise came to me. I had heard that he had refused to come to the Lord President, and had gathered together a rabble of lewd and unruly followers. I thought good therefore to charge him with the matter. He alleged that he was driven to assemble this company for fear of the President, as it was reported that the President intended to slay ["Stay " in MS.] him. I caused the President and him to come together, and reconciled them. The Earl promised to disperse his companies and to obey the President. When he went from me, I sent a man of special trust and credit with him, to report his proceedings, who accompanied him as far as Kerry, and told me at his return that during the time that the President and he were in company together, which was two days' journey, lodging and feeding both in one house, the Earl behaved himself orderly and reverently to the President, and after his coming home took order for the dispersing of most of his company. He gave out everywhere that he meant no harm to the State. "I hold him the least dangerous man of four or five of those that are next him in right and succession, (if he were gone,) and easiest to be dealt withal, so that be it for the doubt of the attempt of the rebel James FitzMorris, his kinsman, if he should come in and he join with him, or in respect of the harm otherwise which he could do, if he should grow ill disposed himself, I suppose there is least danger in him of any of the rest, and soonest may be met withal and cut off, being such an impotent and weak body, as neither can he get up on horseback, but that he is holpen and lift up, neither when he is on horseback can of himself alight down without help."
The country is in good quiet, "save that which lately hath happened betwixt Tirloghe O'Neale and O'Donnell, for killing of Tirloughe's son, whereupon there had been like for this matter some brawl to have fallen out betwixt them, but that I suppressed the same in due time." O'Neale would not seek his right but by order from me, and neither the one nor the other seeks to entertain Scots. Thus Ulster is a good neighbour to the Pale ;--no complaint of boderagge or stealth made by them since my departure. Connaught and Munster are also quiet and obedient.
The only gall is the rebel of Leinster. I waste him, and kill of his men daily. Hasten hither the Lord Chancellor, whose absence may be ill spared long, for the dispatch of poor men's causes.
I beseech you to give order for my quarterage to be due the 1st of April next; for to repress the archtraitor James FitzMaurice and that rebel Rorie Oge I am inforced to employ no small extraordinary charge.
I gave order, upon receipt of your first letters touching Hickes, the pirate, that he should be presently sent thither. My Lord President promised that he would do it, so that I hope ere this he is arrived.
It seems that I am greatly blamed that I advertise no oftener such occurrents as happen here. There is good store of others, whose diligence enriches you with reports, but they are malicious. I love not to write of every accident and slight matter, but I leave no matter of weight unadvertised.
Touching George Winter's untrue reports of me, I hope ere this you have discovered so much of the man, by his own contradictions and confessions, as I need not to say any more of him. I willed my Lord President to answer your last letters, and desired him for his own discharge to make a full declaration of what had passed between George Winter and him. For my own part, I neither saw him nor dealt with him, but referred the whole state of the cause to my Lord President and others. I appointed in commission the Escheator General, Henry Davells, Peter Sherlocke, and Pierce Aylward; "the two last, the one the Mayor of Waterford that was the last year, the other the Mayor this year." He (Winter) dealt so strangely with me, that he would not let me have 100 hides for my ready money, which I desired for the provision of my household and sent an express messenger for them; "nor yet so much as give me a parrot, which I heard say he had in the ship he took, although he were intreated by my man to bestow her upon me."
Castle of Dublin, 20 February 1577.


Former reference: MS 601, p. 89

65 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. II, document 501.

(A summary relation of all his services in Ireland.)
Coldness is thought in me in proceeding in the matter of marriage between my son and your daughter. In truth, it is not so. "Compremitting the consideration of the articles to the Earls named by you, and to the Earl of Huntingdon, I most willingly agree, and protest I joy in the alliance."
By your letters of 3 January I find there is no hope of relief of her Majesty for my decayed estate in her service. By sale of part of that which is left, I ransom me out of the servitude I live in for my debts. "I am not so unlusty but that I may be so employed, as I may have occasion to sell land to redeem myself out of prison; nor yet am I so old nor my wife so healthy but that she may die and I marry again, and get children or think I get some."
But since her Majesty will not reward me, give me leave somewhat to write to you of my two high offices, and of my service in them.
"Three times her Majesty hath sent me her Deputy into Ireland, and in every of the three times I sustained a great and a violent rebellion, every one of which I subdued, and (with honorable peace) left the country in quiet. I returned from each of those three deputations three thousand pounds worse than I went."
The first ["Note.--In my first passage I lost by shipwreck the most of my household stuff and utensils, my wife's whole apparel and all her jewels, many horses and stable stuff, &c."] was against Shane O'Neale, who had usurped the whole of Tyrone, being O'Neale's country, and subdued all the potentates and landlords in Ulster. The Scots of the Glynnes he held in pay. The Queen had nothing but the miserable town of Carregffargus. The county of Lowthe paid him tribute, called black rent. He exiled O'Donell, Lord of Tirconneil, and drave him into England.
I made war with him. He had of Scots and Irish 7,000 men. I had but 1,700, with 300 Berwick soldiers. I advanced into the rebel's country the 22nd of September 1566, and wasted Tyrone. The old Magwyre died in my camp, but I possessed his brother in his country. I then entered Tireconnell, where I found Colonel E. Randle, with a regiment of 700 soldiers. There of an old church I made a new fort. I left not one castle in the possession of the rebel, nor unrestored to the right owner. I repossessed the old exiled Callagh O'Donnell of the castle of Dunyngall and his country. In the second time of my deputation I sent to the now O'Donell, called Hugh, for the rent and the arrearages, to gather which he desired me to send my serjeant with some force.
I then marched into Carberie, O'Connor Sligo's country. O'Wryrk and others submitted. O'Conor made me great cheer. O'Ghare vowed to go into England, which he performed. I took the great abbey of Aboyle in Connaught. MacDermode submitted. The strong castle of Roscoman had been in the possession of disloyal Irishmen 160 years, "for so long was it before that it was betrayed, and the English constable and ward murdered, as I found in the Irish chronicles." There I planted a small garrison. O'Connor Dun, O'Connor Ro, O'Byrn, O'Flyn, and O'Flanygan did their homage.
From thence I went to Alone. The O'Kellyes desired to hold their lands of the Queen, "and it was done." The two principal captains of the Annally, called O'Farroll Boy and O'Farroll Bane, desired that Connaghe might be shired and rented, which was done, by the name of the county of Longford. I built the bridge of Alone.
The traitor, in my absence, invaded the English Pale, and made roads to the very walls of Dreydath, but was driven home by Sir Warham Sentleger and Sir Nicholas Heron. He approached the fort of the Derry. Colonel Randle repulsed him, but was slain. The rebel thus escaping invaded O'Donneyl's country, where he was met with and defeated by Sir Hugh O'Donnell. Between the end of November and the beginning of Lent following, I made many incursions into his country. Sometimes my vauntcurrers "felt his couch warm where he lay that night."
"In the Christmas holydays I visited him in the heart of his country, where he had made as great an assembly as he could, and had provided as great and good cheer as was to be had in the country. And when word was brought him that I was so near him, 'That is not possible (qd he), for the day before yesterday I know he dined and sat under his cloth of estate in the hall of Kilmainham.' 'By O'Neyle's hand (qd the messenger), he is in thy country and not far off, for I saw the red bractok with the knotty club, and that is carried before none but himself; meaning my pensell with the ragged staff. With that he ran away, and so I shortened his Christmas, and made an end of mine own with abundance of his good provision." He resolved to submit, but feared the fury of the watch.
"How pleasant a life it is that time of the year, with hunger and after sore travail, to harbour long and cold nights in cabbanes made of boughs and covered with grass, I leave to your indifferent judgment."
But now the Earl of Ormond applied the Queen with such complaints against me and Sir Warham Sentleger, whom I placed with others in commission in Munster, and her Majesty wrote so often and so earnestly to me touching hurts done to him and his by the Earl of Desmond, that I was forced to address me southward against Desmond. So I advanced towards Munster in January and came not home till April. "The Earl of Desmond met me at Carryke (a house of Ormond) whom I carried with me to Waterford, Dungarvon, Yoghill, and Cork, all the way hearing and ordering the complaints between the two Earls. When the Earl found I dealt justly with Ormond, and that I rather showed favour than severity (as indeed I did to all his), after sundry and several speeches of very hard digestion, expressing his malicious intention, he would have been gone from me, which I denied him, and unwitting to him appointed a guard to attend him day and night. I ordered against him a great sum in recompense of damages done to Ormond, and so took him with me to Kilmallocke. Then I was informed by his own brother John and by Lacie, then Bishop of Limerick, that he intended by force to rescue himself from me, and to that end had a great number of men in areadiness.
"Hereupon, calling such noblemen and potentates of Munster as I had with me, namely, the Viscounts Barry and Roche. Macarty Reoghe, Sir Dermod MacTeague of Muscrye, the Barons Coursey and Lexnaue, with Condon and a few other principal gentlemen of that province. I declared unto them what intelligence I had of Desmond's intention, and asked them whether they would give me their faithful promise and oath to take my part, and do as I would; 'for Desmond (said I) will I take, and as a prisoner lead away with me.' They forthwith answered me as it were with one voice, that they would to the uttermost adventure of their lives do whatsoever I would have them. Hereupon I took such security of them as I thought convenient, and was indeed sufficient, and immediately sent for the Earl of Desmond, whom in the presence of the forenamed personages and the Sovereign of Kilmallock, with the best of his brethren of the same town, [I] did arrest, and committed him to the custody of my Marshal; which arrest and commitment humbly on his knees he yielded unto."
The lords and others above written persuaded me that it was no policy nor safe for me to lead him out of that town till I had greater force. I had but 50 English spears, 50 English shot, and 50 galloglass. But I, seeing the town to be great and weak, sent to the Mayor of Limerick, willing him to make ready for me as many men as he could, which he accomplished. 300 well-appointed fighting men met me between Kilmallock and Limerick. Out of Kilmallock I took 150 men. With these forces I issued out of the town.
"But still came threatenings to me that I should be fought with by the way, and the prisoner taken from me, but I rested resolute that I would to Limerick, and lead Desmond prisoner with me, and protested to him in the hearing of a multitude that if the least violence that might be were offered to the basest churl or horseboy of my train, he should die of my hand; and so mounting him on a worse horse than I rid on, marched away with him to Limerick, where after very few days I condemned him in the forfeiture of his band to the Queen's Majesty's use for breach of the peace against the Earl of Ormond of 20,000l. and had him indicted according to form and order of law for levying unlawfully men in warlike manner against me, her Majesty's Deputy, which is treason.
"Here I constituted John of Desmond, his brother, to be seneschal and captain of all the Earl's lands and seigniories, with charge and oath for his loyalty, and that he should, with all the speed he might, restore or recompense all her Majesty's subjects who[m] Desmond had (I now remember not in how many years before) spoiled or injured. And so making him knight, I departed that city, leaving him behind and still leading his brother prisoner with me. Sir John did so effectually in that his charge as (within three months after) I received letters of good credit that he had caused restitution to be made to the Queen's good subjects oppressed by his brother's tyranny of above 5,000l. These my acts (good Mr. Secretary) are both registered and enrolled.
"Then I went into and through the great countries of Tomond, and quieted all controversies in the same. I made the people apt to have and to obey a President and Council, like as I had planted in Munster. I took pledges of all such as I thought necessary to take pledges of. And so (having the Earl of Tomond with me) I passed through O'Shaghness' country and came to Salowe in Connaught, where I quieted and appeased sundry griefs and controversies between the Earl of Clanricard and other landlords of that province of Connaught. From thence I went through the same province to Alone, where I found everything in good quiet, in sort as I had left it, in my former long journey.
"But all this my doing for the Earl of Ormond and his could nothing satisfy him, but still he exclaimed in England that he could have no justice of me, nor of the Commissioners established in Munster, who were Sir Warham Sentleger, the second Baron of th' Exchequer, called Cusake, and Nicholas White, now Master of the Rolls in Ireland. Sir Warham Sentleger I knew, and do know him, for a worshipful, honest gent', and one that would not blemish his credit for either of both the Earls. Cusake I deemed to be more affected to Desmond than Ormond. White I knew, and all others that knew him thought [him] to be affectuously devoted to Ormond as one born his follower; and yet both honest.
"This composition of a Council I thought convenient for the primitive reformation of so old a cankered faction as was and yet is between the two Earls, who albeit they would inveigh each against other, yet if any sentence passed for the advancement of the Queen's prerogative, or suppression of either of their tyrannies, straightways it was cried out of, and complained of to the Queen, specially by the Earl of Ormond, as injustice and oppression; and thereupon received I many a bitter letter, which indeed tired me, and so perplexed my most dearest wife, as she fell most grievously sick upon the same, and in that sickness remained once in trance 52 hours, upon whose recovery I sent her into England."
I then addressed myself northward against Shane O'Nell, and wasted his country. He practised with Alister Oge MacDonnell, an Irish Scot, but upon the battle fought at the fort of Derry the most of his mercenary Scots left him. Captain Piers, seneschal of Clandeboy, did deal so as the traitor's practice was prevented. "And whereas he (O'Nell) looked for service at their (the Scots') hands against me, for service of me, they killed him the 22th day of June. And I began my wars with him the 22th of September before; so the wars endured eight months, whereof three I spent in Munster about the Earl of Ormond's causes, as is above rehearsed. And [they] sent me his head pickled in a pipkin and craved their reward, and (as I think they be not lately satisfied) they do still, as I know not many years since in your presence at the Council board the forenamed Alister Oge did by his letters and Captain Piers's."
I then went down into Ulster as far as the Blackwater, where I had yielded to me all holds or fast-places that Shane O'Nell kept anything of price in, more specially the pledges or prisoners, amongst whom was Thomas Vaughan; which pledges through hard keeping and famine were in most pitiful and miserable case. Amongst those places that were delivered me was an island standing in Logh Eogh, by the countrymen called Island Sydney, which piece Shane thought to be of most strength of any that he had, and where he kept his plate, jewels, and apparel.
"To my camp there came Turlo Lenogh, who had been in Shane's life Tanist of Tyrone, and yet by me made in those wars his enemy. He was by the people of that country chosen O'Nell, which title in truth he accepted, being given him with the brutish ceremonies incident to the same. There came with him the principalest of all his sirname, and I had with me the young Baron of Dunganan, Shane's eldest brother's son, whom I had bred in my house from a little boy, then very poor of goods and full feebly friended. I then, in the presence and hearing of all that were in my camp, as well of them who came with me as those that came with him, and all other the potentates and landlords of Ulster, rebuked him sharply for taking upon him the title of O'Nell afore her Majesty's pleasure were known, affirming unto him that I would not confirm the same, but would write to her Highness to nobilitate him with title of higher honour and dignity, which he seemed reverently to accept, and willingly to expect her Majesty's resolution. I then set down in form of articles certain covenants:"--that he should not take upon him the name of O'Nell till her Majesty's pleasure were known; that he should disclaim any superiority, rent, or service taken before by Shane from his uriaghs; that he should cease to exact other rent or service, or "buying," in certain countries (named); that he should not entertain any Scots, either born in the Glynnes or in Scotland, without special licence of the governor for the time being.
"Then descended I with him into the consideration of his own country of Tyrone, meaning indeed the dissipation of the same, and appointed unto him all the lands beneath or by north the Great or Black Water, with the service of O'Chane MacKann, O'Donnell, O'Quyn and two other landlords," and to bear the title of principal of his sirname.
"I appointed unto Turlo Brasylogh the lands called Clanbrassyll; this Turlo was the son of the eldest son of Chon, first Earl of Tyrone. Then allotted I to Hugh, Baron of Dungannon, and of right ought to be Earl of Tyrone, all the lands called the O'Nele lands, the very first and most ancient possession of the O'Nells, lying about and by south the Great Water. I exempted him from taking any exaction upon any of the lands of the church of Armagh or any member of the same; to all which covenants he agreed, to the great rejoicing and contentment of all the proprietaries of that province, saving some particular and peculiar followers of his own, who much repined that the great and regal estate of the O'Nell (as they deemed it) should be so broken and dismembered.
"Then dealt I with O'Donnell and with Chon, who both were in my camp, which Chon was eldest son to Callogh, eldest brother unto Hugh, then and now O'Donnell, at that time lately dead, and nephew to Turlo Lenogh. This Chon looked to be captain of the country, but the bishops and other landlords of the same elected Sir Hugh to be O'Donnell, whereupon there was great likelihood of great wars, which I quieted, establishing Hugh in the place of O'Donnell, and gave unto Chon the castles of Lyppar and Fynn, and the lands belonging to the same, being a good third part of all Tirconell.
"I planted three garrisons in Clandeboy and the Glynnes, namely, the good old Captain Willm. Piers with a company of footmen in the castle and town of Carre[g]fergus, the renowned soldier Captain Malbye with a company of horsemen in Belfast, and the lusty young Captain Willm. Horsey in Glanarme in the Glynnes, and a ward in Island Sydney under James Vaughan.
"Lastly, I made Alister Oge and all his Scots who killed Shane, and all other Scots not born in Ireland, to depart the realm; and the rest born in Ireland and inhabiting the Glynns offered to hold that country of her Majesty by rent and service."
Ever since, each landlord has enjoyed that possession I left him in, saving McGwier, whom the Earl of Essex, when he was General of Ulster, gave to O'Nell to hold of him by rent and service, as Shane before had challenged in the time of the deputation of Sir William FitzWilliams, which was not well done.
I returned to Dublin, and caused the old ruinous castle of Dublin to be reedified. But Ormond ceased not to persecute me, alleging that his people were still oppressed by Sir John of Desmond and the Desmonians. Hearing also that it was resolved that, for saving of charges, I should abate my forces, and should not proceed in building of bridges, towns, and forts, I then procured my revocation. I passed the seas attended on by OcKoner Sligo, captain of his country called Carbrye, OcKaroll, captain of his country called Elye OcKaroll, the Baron of Dungannon, Patrick FitzMores, eldest son of the Baron of Lexnaue, John O'Reley, eldest son to O'Reley, a great man, and of the province of Conaghe anciently, but adjoining to the English Pale, captain of [the] country called Breni O'Reley, and Ros Magochigan, eldest son to Magoghigan, captain of his country called Kymaliagh. All these and many others went with me to surrender to her Highness all their lands, and to receive the same again of her, yielding far greater rent and service.
"But when I came to the Court it was told me it was no war that I had made, nor worthy to be called a war, for that Shane O'Nell was but a beggar, an outlaw, and one of no force, and that the Scots stumbled on him by chance. But such a beggar he was that after a former was made in the government of the Earl of Sussex, a peace was made with him not the most honorablest; and as he and his would say, he was entreated to come into England, and there rewarded of her Majesty with favour and good apparel, and 2,500l. lent him, but as he termed given him to buy his peace. Sure I am the money he had, the apparel and other gifts, and nothing had ever the Queen for it again, saving his head. This may argue he was no beggar.
"And within the few days after, I was charged for not redressing the damages done to Ormond and his followers by Sir John of Desmond, whom I left seneschal and captain of his brother's countries, as before is mentioned; his brother still remaining with me in captivity. And there it was openly spoken that the Butlers could have no justice against Sir John of Desmond neither by Sydney nor Sellenger, whom I had left chief in commission to minister justice in Munster. And unwitting to me the Earl of Desmond and Sir John his brother were sent for, which Sir John (being come to Dublin for conference with the LI. Justices) was (together with his brother the Earl) sent as prisoners and committed to the Tower of London, where they remained (I think) seven years after. And truly (Mr. Secretary) this hard dealing with Sir John of Desmond was the origin of James FitzMores' rebellion, and consequently of all the evil and mischief of Munster, which since (I can prove) hath cost the crown of England and that country 100,000l.
"When they were come, I was eftsons charged with partiality between the Earls, and in especial for that I did not apprehend them sooner than I did. For the younger brother I had no warrant, nor (in truth) saw no cause, but much to the contrary; and for the other I was driven to prove that I had apprehended him and committed him prisoner in Kilmallock (as before is mentioned) 48 days before the letter was written at St. James' for to apprehend him." Foris triumpho, at domi ploro.
Turlo Lenogh, seeing no plantation to follow, after so great a destruction of the people of Tyrone, nor garrisons maintained, but diminished or totally withdrawn, grew proud and insolent, and demanded and arrogated his ancient truage and service of his uriaghs." I was sent for to the Court again and again. As-the people of that country were desirous to have me, so were there some of this country unwilling that I should go; but before a full year was run out, I was sent again Deputy into Ireland. I landed at Carregfergus the 6th of September 1568. Turlo Lenogh, hearing of my landing there, came to the Bane side. He was contented to cease from challenging any more the uriaghs, and promised me, when his wife returned out of Scotland, to come to me to some more convenient place, which he performed.
Thereupon, some order being taken with the MacGwillins and the native Scots of the Rowte and Glynnes, I returned to Carregfergus, where I found the garrisons that I there left in very good order, the people furnishing them with victuals at a very easy price, as a fat cow at 6s. 8d. and 24 eggs for a penny, and rising out when commanded. "Surely, Sir, so it might have been kept, if the violent and intempestive proceeding of the Earl of Essex and his followers had not been, for undoubtedly the treasure, horses, victuals, and other furniture, as well for the war as for husbandry, which was spent and spoiled in that his enterprise, whereof came no good but the destruction of that town with the church and utter ruin of all the country about, had been well employed, and seasons of the year observed, and leisure taken in dealing with the people, had been sufficient to have reduced all the last forenamed countries to as good obedience as the English Pale." In Carregfargus twice a week a good market was kept, where out of the English Pale, the Isle of Man, and Scotland came much merchandise, victuals, and other commodities, and out of France; and in one summer three barks of 40 tons apiece discharged their loading of excellent good Gascoigne wine, the which they sold for 9 cowskins the hogshead.
I surveyed and viewed Clandeboy and Ardes, and shired the same by the name of the county of Carregfargus. "The Archbishop of Armagh and the Bishop of Meath, with divers noblemen and gentlemen as well of England and the English Pale, lawyers, merchants, and others, came from Dublin to Carregfargus, only for visitation' sake, the Bishops riding in their rochets, and the rest unarmed."
Then I journeyed towards Dublin. By the way there met me all the horsemen and freeholders of the Ardes, McGennys, the captain of Kilwltogh, and the captain of Kilwarlyn.
"James FitzMores, son to Mores of Desmond, nicknamed Attolane, brother to James Earl of Desmond, father to the now Earl, traitor and rebel, understanding that I was arrived [at Dublin] and had not brought with me neither the Earl nor Sir John his brother, which he thought I might and would have done, assembling as many of the Earl of Desmond's people as he could, declared unto them that I could not obtain the enlargement either of the Earl or of his brother John, and that there was no hope or expectation of either of them, but to be put to death, or condemned to perpetual prison. And therefore (saying that that country could not be without an earl or a captain) willed them to make choice of one to be their earl or captain, as their ancestors had done, after the murther (as he termed it) of the good Earl Thomas FitzJames, his ancestor, put to death by the tyrant the Earl of Worcester (as he called him), then Deputy of Ireland. And according to this his speech, he wrote unto me, they forthwith, and as it had been with one voice, cried him to be their captain." I wrote to him to desist from that unlawful usurpation, and used threats. He persisted in assembling of men of war. This was the origin of the rebellion in Munster; "and to use plain terms, 'twas the withdrawing of Sir John of Desmond from the governing of that country, where he governed well, and the long imprisonment of him, which was the Earl of Ormond's counsel, and lastly the enlargement of them both; for if the one had been kept, though the other enlarged, each had been a sufficient hostage upon the other.
"James grew into more and more insolencies and great outrages upon divers whom he loved nor liked not; whereupon I was driven to proclaim him traitor and rebel. And looking for the service of Sir Edmond Butler, then captain and seneschal of all the Earl of Ormond's countries, (for so the Earl his brother had made him, and politicly kept himself in England, as well for duty's sake to the Queen, as ancient and innate malice to the Earl of Desmond and all Desmonians,) I was quite disappointed, being answered as well by scornful letters as frivolous and foolish speeches, that he was able to do none, alleging that I had made him to ride up and down the country like a priest, inferring thereby the suppressing of the most filthy and intolerable exaction of coyne and livery, used most harmfully by him, the country being quiet and no wars, nor likely to be. I urging him still to serve, he fell into rebellious actions; for he wasted and destroyed almost all the Queen's County, killing very many of the inhabitants of the same, but most especially all the Englishmen; and for more despite to the nation he would cause English dead men's bodies to be stripped out of their English garments, and their hose and dubletts (being stuffed and trussed) he would set up as marks for his kernes to throw their darts at. He wasted much of the county of Carlow and of the Kavenoghes, as many as would not be of his rebellious faction; he did much hurt in the bounds of the counties of Dublin and Kildare; he utterly spoiled a great fair held at Inys Corthie, a house and town of the Queen's in the county of Washford (Wexford). I am sure that fair is far the greatest of any in Ireland, and held yearly, and usually at a day certain; the horrible rapes and shameful murders, with the total rapine of all the goods that could be carried away, were too loathsome to be written or read. There were assembled (beside a multitude of country people) the most of the merchants of the good town of Washford, either in their own persons, their wives or their servants, who were ravished, killed, or spoiled; all looking for no such ever unheard-of harm there, whither peaceably they came by water.
"Then increased he his strength by stirring the Earl of Thomond to rebellion, and to resist Sir Edward Fitton, then Lord President in Connaught and Thomond, and had with him both his brethren Edward and Piers, and by far the most part of all the fighting men of both the counties of Tipperary and Kilkenny; for although some householders and principal gentlemen, more wary than the rest, went not, yet their sons, servants, and followers (as they term them there) went to him. And finally, all Ormonists, of what sirname soever they were, except Sir Theobald Butler, Lord of the Kaer (Cahir), and the Lord Baron of Dunboyne's people (who then was in England and under age), rebelled with him. James FitzMores, for his part, had gotten to him the Earl of Klankar, McDonagh, McAwley, OcKueefe, O'Swillivan Moore, and I think O'Swillivan Bere joined with him; and though the rest of the potentates of Munster remained (as they seemed) sound, yet their young and loose people went to him. And for that so virtuous an action as this rebellion was might be of more strength, both Butler and Garadyne (Geraldine), notwithstanding all former and most ancient enmity, joined together and spoiled those that would not go with them at their pleasures.
"I sent the good knight Sir Peter Carew and the valiant Malby to keep the frontiers of Carlo and Cavenoghe's country, and the hardy and politic Captain Collier into the good town of Kilkenny, the people whereof I did not very soundly trust. Sir Peter Carew and Captain Malby gave Sir Edmond Butler a shrewd blow, after a bloody bickering and slaughter of his men, and chased them, and wan his house at Kloghgrynan, and hanged the ward, Sir Edmond returning to James FitzMores. And both they with their forces encamped and besieged the town of Kilkenny, where the Earl his brother hath a strong castle, and the town is well closed and defended with gates, walls, and river; but had not the soldiers been, the town had been sacked and many of the people ransomed, as I after in truth found. But Captain Collyer so vigilantly attended his charge, as well in guarding the gates and walls against the rebels, as in preventing the practice of the townsmen, as the rebels were forced to go away with shame, against whom I advanced with as much diligence as I could, leading only with me the garrison men, which were but 600, leaving all the men of the country to guard the Pale northward, and Sir Barnaby FizPatrick to guard the Pale southward, who was the most sufficient man in counsel and action for the war that ever I found of that country birth; great pity it was of his death.
"I came to Kilkenny, where, after I had allowed of some with thanks, and checked others with rebukes, I marched into the county of Tipperary, where the rebels went afore me, burning their own houses and villages. Some of their castles I won, but so many as I would. I could not tarry to win, for that I daily was advertised of the great distress the city of Corke was in, where at that time lay a full noble and virtuous lady, the wife of Sir Warham Sentleger, whom the citizens were sometimes in consultation and consideration to deliver to James FitzMores, which he earnestly and with great threats required; for whose rescue I sent forth a ship furnished with mine own menial servants and others, who, by reason of contrary wind, could not come thither in due time; but there arrived in very good season (so directed by me) 400 footmen, sent with great diligence out of England, led by Captain Sute and Captain Ward, two very sufficient men, whose coming not only comforted the poor desolate lady, but the whole city, before sore afraid.
"So marching through the county of Tipperary, I encamped by Chlomnell (Clonmell), a walled town, standing upon the river of Sure, the people good and loyal. During mine encamping there, the rebels being dispersed all over the country, there was libels or chattels thrown into my camp, signifying that I should not so soon dislodge, but that I should be fought withal; yea, and peradventure in my camp itself. I sent to the mayor and his brethren of Waterford to send me some relief of men furnished for the war; they flatly answered me they would send none. Albeit some particular men, namely, Piers Ayellward, who had been mayor of Waterford, John Wise, and Antony Poore, and some others very well appointed, of their own good wills came to me." There came also to me certain seamen, led by Marshall, servant to my Lord of Warwick. The city of Waterford alleged they might so do by their charter; but at my coming home I made their corporation pay for it, as Mr. Tremayne, then my secretary, can testify.
"I sent forth proclamations of pardon to all such as would desist from rebellion (certain exempted), but it prevailed not. I sent also Commissioners to parle with the principal gent' of the county of Tipperary, to dissuade them from that furious, unnatural, and traitorous actions they were in, but nothing took place, the gent' answering thus, as followeth:--'We are of this county more ancient inhabiters and freeholders than any Butlers is, and were the first conquerors of this soil from the Irishry; and in our ancestors' days it was made of a country called Earthmound (as much to say as East Munster); but since that time (though a good many years past) England gave us away (I use their own phrase) to a Butler, and created him Earl of Ormond, [and] made him, by letters patents, Lord of the Liberty of the county of Tipperary, where, as a county palatine, he keepeth courts regally by himself or his officers, to which courts we do, and our ancestors did ever since that grant from the Kings of England, yield suit and service; and where all actions for goods, lands, or life are tried, very few except, and those being but four capital offences, seldom or never committed there. Thus have we and our ancestors acknowleged him as our Lord and Captain, and indeed know no other Sovereign but him, whose lieutenant Sir Edmond Butler, his brother and heir apparent, is. Him we follow, and him we will follow, and do as he commandeth us.'
"This was all I could get of them. And Sir Edmond Butler being demanded (for so was I directed out of England that he should be) what the cause was that he rebelled, he said it was my hard dealing with him. 'Wherein?' said he that examined him. 'Marry,' qd Sir Edmond, openly in the Star Chamber, 'he said that he would sit on my skirts, and that hereafter came not yet, and that he would make my heart-strings ache;' where, in truth (Sir) I used no such words." ....
"To his complices in rebellion he would say that the cause of his stir was that the Earl of Leicester, enemy to his brother and house, should marry the Queen, and be King of England, and that I should be King of Ireland, their mortal foe, and brother to the Earl of Leicester, of whom I should hold Ireland (as might appear) by bearing the ragged staff continually in my pensill before me, which indeed I did. This did the Earl of Klancar and others tell me that he said unto them.
"And lastly, that blessed babe, Edward Butler, a page of my own bringing up, talking with some servants of mine, his old and familiar fellows, whom of purpose I sent with the Commissioners to understand of him what they could, for they were well acquainted with the young man's humour, and he, pretending great goodwill and love to me for the sundry benefits and favours he had received of me, wished them, and prayed them even with tears, that they would persuade me to return back, affirming that if I went forwards I was but undone, for overthrown I should be.".... He said also "that he nor they did anything without the privity and direction of the Earl of Ormond, then in England."
When my Commissioners were returned and brought no submission from the rebels, the Council and captains persuaded me to return, affirming they found great faintness in the soldiers. But Sir Thomas Cusake and Sir Lucas Dillon animated me to go forwards. Sir Lucas is a faithful and loyal servant to the Queen.
"I went into the market-place of my camp, and with trumpet and drum sounded to the standard. The soldiers and all the rest of the camp readily came, in hope I would forthwith have returned. I showed my resolution to the contrary, and some words I spake, and somewhat it prevailed, for they with the drinking of a tun of wine, which, during the consultation, was provided and laid in the market-place; and after my speech ended, very diligently applied both by drawing and drinking, all my men's cowardish coldness was turned into martial heat, and then nothing but 'Upon them! upon them! Lead you, and we will follow to the land's end, or die by the way; and let us go by and by!' 'Nay, fast, ["Soft" in the copy in MS 628.] sirs,' qd I, 'it is Sunday, and it is afternoon; we will go hear evening prayer, sup and rest; and you shall be called, I warrant you, betimes in the morning; and so, in the name of God, we will advance forwards.' That evening and all the night there was nothing but singing, casting of bullets, drying of powder, filing of pikes' heads, sharpening of swords, and every man thinking himself good enough for five rebels."
As soon as it was day I dislodged, marching through sundry straits into the White Knight's country, the owner of which was in actual rebellion with James FitzMores, and not long after in his service slain. Here I left the Butlers' dominions, and entered into the Garradynes', at the entry of which met me the Viscount Barrie, the Viscount Roch, MacKarte Reogh, and divers other gentlemen of the province of Munster, all pretending loyalty to the Queen and enmity to the house of Desmond.
"I went to the principal castle of the White Knight's country, called the Old or the New Castle, I know not whether, and summoned the ward by sound of trumpet, who answered they held that castle of none but of God, James FitzMores, and the White Knight, and unless one of them would come (or send St. Peter or St. Paul) they would never render it." Finally, after an obstinate resistance I won the castle, and delivered it to James Roch, son of the Viscount Roch, and sundry other castles and lands to Sir Theobald Butler, withheld from him by the White Knight.
I then dislodged towards Cork, wasting and spoiling the country. There I found the above-written captains and soldiers, revived the poor afflicted lady, and comforted the citizens. I there heard of the arrival of the Earl of Ormond, whom I addressed to meet me at Limerick.
"I departed from thence, and encamped in a country of the Earl of Desmond's called Kerrywherie, and destroyed the same, winning the principal castle thereof, called Carreg Ilyn, and left in it a ward. From thence I marched into Mack Donoghe's country, which confineth with Desmond, the Earl of Clanckare's country, and there I wan and pulled down castles, burned and spoiled the villages and fields; which while I was in doing the Lord of the country, OcKueefe, McAulie, the eldest son of O'Swillivan Moore, the father for age and corpulency not being able to travel, and O'Swillivan Bere, without protection, came to me and submitted themselves, lives and lands, and there taking of them oath and hostage for their fidelity without pardon, I dismissed them to expect the Queen's mercy.
"I then turned into a great territory of land of the Viscount Barrie's, the name of the country I have forgotten, but the principal castle thereof beareth a French name called Bowte de Vawne [Boutez en avant--Buttevant], which I took, and repossessed the right owner in it; so did divers landlords and freeholders whose lands and castles had been taken and withheld from them, some of long time by the Earl of Desmond, and some of late time by James FitzMores.
"Then and there I heard that the rebel James (with his associates) went afore me, wasting and destroying the Queen's good subjects, as well of the county of Cork as the county of Limerick, and therefore was constrained to alter my former intention of going into Desmond, and turned towards the county of Limerick, but I could not get so far as Kilmallock but that the rebel had by scale surprised the same town, not without vehement suspicion of falsehood in many of the townsmen, for some he saved, many he sacked, some he ransomed, and many houses of base building he burned, which afterwards were reedified, the walls heightened, and the town made better than ever it was."
Here I received answer from the Earl of Ormond that he could not come to me without convoy of good force to conduct him. I sent him the Viscount Desyes and the Lord Poore, who brought the Earl to me safe, I lying in camp hard by Limerick. The Earl delivered me the Queen's letters containing confident opinion in his loyal devotion to her. He besought me that he might work the retreat of his brethren from their vile actions, and brought me his brother Edward, my late page, who submitted himself. The Earl said he would do his best to bring in his other two brethren, but I saw them not all that journey. He made most earnest suit to me that he might have his brother Edward in custody, affirming that he was more able to work with his other two brethren than he himself. I granted his request, but since that time I could never set eye of my old servant Edward.
"During my abode in Limerick there came to me divers principal personages of the same county of Kerry and of Conelogh, as the Lord FitzMores, William Burgh, captain or owner of Clan William, a man of great lands, whose eldest son after (being my man) with his own hand killed James FitzMores and James him at one only encounter, Lacy, Pursell, and Suppell, with many moe whose names I have forgotten, being all descended of English race; all sware allegiance to her Majesty and faithful service in that action against James. There came to me also Rorie MacShee, captain general of the Earl of Desmond's galloglas, sirnamed Chlanshee; he likewise submitted, sware allegiance, and delivered pledges as before. This man was counted one of much might among them; he procured to come to me a great many more of the Irishry."
I constituted Captain Gilbert Commander and Colonel of all Munster. He brought James FitzMores to a very base estate. "So, enjoying great victory of the suppressed rebel, he came to me with great joy to Tredath, bringing with him sundry personages of good account. "I made him knight. After Sir Humphrey Gilbert's departure to England the rebel got force again until Sir John Parott was sent to be Lord President of Munster, who (though not in my time) brought him to make a very lowly submission, with very vile conditions; "under which the rebel lived a small time there, and ran away with wife and children first into Brittany, then into Portugal, lastly to Rome, and got to him the association of that good man Thomas Stukelie."
Then departed I from Limerick to Dublin, and was advertised of the Earl of Tomond's revolt and adherence to James FitzMores, alleging the cause of his rebellion to be the hard dealing of Sir Edward Fitton, Lord President in Conagh and Tomond. I practised by all peaceable means to appease him, and went to the Queen's house of Laghlyn Bridge, where I sent for the Earl of Ormond, and commissioned him and Mr. Rauf Rugby, then Chief Justice in Conagh, to parlewith Tomond. He affirmed that he had done nothing but by Ormond's counsel. I was forced to send forces against Tomond, who was defeated by Sir Edward Fitton at a place called the Shrowre in the confines of Clanrickard and McWilliam Eughter's country, whither came to the aid of Tomond a great many Scots. Teg Mack Morogh O'Breene and Teg Mack Conoghor O'Breene forced the lubber to leave the land and creep into a French bark that lay in the river of Shenen; and so he went into France.
"I, thus lying in Dublin, long looked for the coming of the Butlers, who at last came, Sir Edmond and Piers, but my pretty and foregrown page would never come at me, notwithstanding the Earl his brother's band. I had the two brothers indicted of high treason, which they humbly and publicly confessed at the bar. Then weighing the great mercy of the Queen's Majesty before mentioned, and her Highness' direction expressed by letters, I stayed any further proceeding with them by ordinary course of law, but detained them in prison. Shortly after this the Earl of Ormond, according to her Majesty's large licence that he might return into England without further leave or passport obtained of me, went thither, pretending his going was to obtain pardon for his brothers.
"Then I summoned, according to the laws of that realm and authority granted by letters patents, a Parliament, and before the first day of the session of the same I went northward to Armagh, and there had meeting with Turlo Lenogh, who then brought his wife with him, before mentioned to be in Scotland at the time of my arrival. And truly, Sir, I found her a good counsellor to him, a well willer to peace, and a reverent speaker of the Queen's Majesty. She would still persuade him to content himself to be a subject, and to contain him in all his actions like a loyal subject, alleging many examples of her own country of Scotland, where there was many as great potentates as he was, and her own brother or nephew the Earl of Argyle (I wott not whether, but daughter she was to an Earl of Argyle), who challenged as much jara regalia and other sovereignties as he could, and yet contented themselves to submit their causes to the laws of the realm, and themselves to the King's pleasure. In truth, Sir, she was a grave, wise, and well-spoken lady both in Scotch, English, and French, and very well mannered. To be short, with him I concluded even as I desired." I then, returning to Dublin, went southward, peaceably keeping sessions in the counties of Kildare, King's County and Queen's County. I went into Upper Ossory and stayed at Kilkenny, where above 60 persons were executed, and many of them of the stoutest of the Butlers' gallowglas. I came to Laghlyn Bridge, where I had before me the principal gentlemen of the county of Washford. Kaer Mackedo O'Moore and Lyssagh Mackedo O'Moore were hanged.
Sir Edmond Butler made his escape from the castle of Dublin, and by the help of Hugh Mack Shane's children he was conducted into the county of Kilkenny. Before his escape I had enlarged Piers. He said it was told him that undoubtedly I would kill him.
"Now approached the Parliament, in which what acts were made may appear and be extant in the printed book of statutes, of which printing I was the first author, I am sure to the benefit of the subjects of that land."
"I caused to plant and inhabit there above forty families of the reformed churches of the Low Countries, flying thence for religion' sake, in one ruinous town called Surds (Swords). And truly (Sir) it would have done any man good to have seen how diligently they wrought, how they reedified the quiet spoiled old castle of the same town and repaired almost all the same, and how godly and cleanly they, their wives, and children lived. They made diaper and ticks for beds, and other good stuff for man's use, and excellent good leather of deer skins, goat and sheep fells, as is made in Southwark." But Sir William Gerrard obtained a licence of her Majesty to transport a number of packs of yarn unwrought, though I had by an Act restrained myself and successors for ever to grant any like licence.
I might have had 2,000l. in ready gold, to have opposed the act respecting the custom for wines.
During this session the Earl of Klanckar came to me and confessed his rebellion, alleging that Sir Edmond Butler was the cause thereof, in that he reported to him those foolish and frivolous speeches of the Earl of Leicester and me. He submitted himself, goods, lands, and life to her Majesty. "Towards the end of this Parliament came the Ox. I should say Earl of Tomond; having found that he could find nothing in France, but according to his worth suffered to live there without relief, he made such mean to the then Lord Ambassador in France as he obtained of her Majesty over-great grace." He made his submission. I kept him in prison, and his castles warded by my men.
"The Earl of Ormond (my professed foe) sometime with clamour, but oftener with whispering, did bitterly backbite me, saying that brethren were driven by my cruelty to rebel, and that he nor his could have any justice of me." I once again procured my revocation and came to the Court, where, after more acceptation than I hoped for, it was said "that the Butlers' war was made by my malice borne to them, and that else there was nothing done."
A third time I took upon me that thankless charge, and departed from the Queen at Dudley Castle, passed the seas, and arrived the 14th of September 1575 as near the city of Dublin as I could safely, for at that time the city was grievously infected, and so was the English Pale, with the pestilence. I went to Tredath and received the sword of the then Deputy. [Sir William FitzWilliams.] Taking some order for the government of the English Pale, after conference had with the Earl of Essex for the best possession that I could put him in of his country of Farney, parcel of the attainted lands given to him by her Majesty, I journeyed to Carregfargus, from whence I went through Clandboy, the Glynnes, and into the Rowte. I there had interparlaunce by commissioners with the Scot Sorley Boy, who had defeated a company of the Earl of Essex's regiment, led by Captain John Norreys. His men were commanded by a lieutenant of his, a certain Italian. He was desirous of peace, offering to hold the Glynnes and Rowte of the Queen by rent and service. As I was not well assured of Turlo Lenogh, I made peace with him. He humbly desired to have again the island of Raghlyns, which his ancestors had occupied 140 or 160 years before, wherein the Earl of Essex had planted a garrison.
I left Carregfargus in very good quiet, intending to go to Dublin, but by that time I came to the Newry, Sir Nicholas Bagnall's house, Turlo Lenogh sent a trusty agent to desire me that I would come to Armagh, where he and the lady his wife would meet me. Albeit I heard the Earl of Desmond was grown somewhat insolent, I went to Armagh, where the former peace was ratified. Turlo desired to be nobilitated by the title of an Earl, and to hold his land of the Queen by rent and service. The Scots craved to enjoy their lands, and to yield rent and service; "the lady, Turlo's wife, as earnestly sueing that she might have the same lands assured to her children, which she had by James MacKonnell, ["McDonnell" in the margin.] Sorley's eldest brother, and would give more for it than he would." I settled the MackGwillims of the Rowte in their country. Within one month after Turlo killed a great number of Sorley's men and his eldest son.
I then journeyed towards Dublin, doing justice in the counties of Louth and Meath. From Dublin I wrote of my proceedings. Turlo was thought too base to receive such nobilitation; and it was deemed too dangerous to grant the Scots plantation in Ireland.
Albeit it was in the deep of winter I travelled towards Cork, keeping sessions in the counties of Kildare, Carlo, King's County and Queen's County. From thence I went to Waterford. In that county I had constituted an Englishman to be sheriff. I went to Dungarvon, where then ruled Harry Davells, and took order for the fortifying of the town. From thence I went to Lessmore and Lessfynen, where at that time dwelt Sir John of Desmond, then in all appearance a good and loyal subject. At Cork I lay from Christmas till Candlemas. I was well entertained at the Viscount Barrie's house, called Barrie's Court. The people of the city said there was never such a Christmas kept in the same; for there were with me the Earl of Desmond, the Earl of Klankar, the Viscount Barrie, the Viscount Roch, and many others. They were willing to live under English law, and to bear soldiers.
The Seneschal of Imokelly, a Garraudyne, boasted that he would keep his strong castle of Ballymarter against me, which I besieged and took. The cannonier, old Thomas Eliott, (now a suitor at the Court) was stricked through the thigh. There I left a ward, which continued long after, and went back again to Cork. From thence I went to the Viscount Roche's, and from thence to Kilmallock. The best and principallest gentlemen of those parts submitted to my taxation for bearing of soldiers. Thither came "3 or 4 bishops of the provinces of Cashell and Thewme (Tuam), which bishops (albeit they were Papists) submitted themselves unto the Queen's Majesty and unto me, her Deputy, acknowledging that they held all their temporal patrimony of the Queen's Majesty, and desired humbly that they might (by her Highness) be inducted into their ecclesiastical prelacy. Here was some hold between the bishops and me, too long here to be recited, for they stood still upon Salvo suo ordine, &c., and I of the Queen's absolute authority." This done I went into Tomond, where the Earl met me. "I there subdued a rebellious race of the sirname of the Earl, the O'Breens. Their captains were called the Bishop's sons ["Mac Anaspig" in the margin.]; and indeed the bastards they were [of] the Bishop of Kilallowe, [Maurice O'Brien.] which Bishop was son to an O'Breen, captain of Tomond. Of these wicked generation, some I killed, some I hanged by order of law, but all I subdued." O'Shaghne's country was all in garboil and violent wars, the captain whereof I settled in bis due room.
I then went to Gallowey, in the way to which met me the Earl of Clanricard. All the potentates of Connaught came to me with most humble submission. The Earl of Clanricard caused his two most bad and rebellious sons, Ulick and John to come to me with humble submission. "I committed them, and in the chief church of the town had a sermon preached of them and of their wickedness by a countryman of their own, called Linch, sometimes a friar at Greenwich, but a reformed man, a good divine and preacher in the three tongues, Irish, English, and Latin. The young men publicly in the church I rebuked very sharply, and they as humbly submitted, and again to prison I committed them." I then departed from Galway.
I was convited by the Earl of Clanricard to his house of Balie Logh Reogh, still leading with me his two sons as prisoners in my marshal's ward. I offered to make him Governor of Connaught if he would suppress the extortion of coyne and livery, but he would not accept it. I returned to Dublin, and licensed his sons to dwell with their friends, provided that they should never pass the Shenen or come into Conunaght.
I had not been long at Dublin, but I heard of some disorders by the Cavenaghes, and some of the good county of Washford. Having gone one day's journey southward, I was credibly advertised of the revolt of the two young Clanricardines. "Albeit they were mortal enemies (though brethren), yet in odium tertioe, nempe, the Queen, and English government, they conjured and joined in actual rebellion, shaking off and cutting in pieces their English garments upon the river of Shenen, saying that those should be their pledge for the remaining by East Shenen." They went to Balieaurhie, where was the sepulture of their fathers, and the natural mother of the same John buried; the chief church of which town they most violently burned. I had there some workmen whom they killed; and, indeed, I had begun some fortification there.
Thus advertised, I directed my course from the south into the west, and was there before they looked for me. I went to the Earl of Clanricard's chief house, and took it and him. I proclaimed the sons traitors and rebels, detained the father, and planted there Thomas Le Strainge and Captain Collier with 250 men. I sent for the Earl's followers to come to me to Gallowey.
"There came to me also a most famous feminine sea captain called Grany Imallye, and offered her service unto me wheresoever I would command her, with three galleys and 200 fighting men either in Ireland or Scotland; she brought with her her husband, for she was as well by sea as by land more than Mrs. Mate with him; he was of the nether Burkes, and now as I hear Mack William Euter, and called by nickname Richard in Iron. This was a notorious woman in all the coast of Ireland. This woman did Sir Philip Sydney see and speak withal; he can more at large inform you of her.
"Here heard we first of th'extreme and hopeless sickness of the Earl of Essex, by whom Sir Philip being often most lovingly and earnestly wished and written for, he with all the speed he could make went to him, but found him dead before his coming in the castle of Dublin."
From thence I marched in prosecution of the rebels, and wan divers castles. I delivered Castle Barry to Mack William Euter. And so I departed, leading the Earl with me, and leaving Balye Logh Reogh well stuffed with men and munition. The two gentlemen before named did sundry notable exploits against the rebels. I caused a bridge to be begun over the Sowke, hard by the castle of Balislough, which since was perfected by Colonel Sir Nicholas Malby. After I had settled him in that province, I had no cause to have care of it. If he had continued longer in the charge of Munster, the crown of England had not spent so much. He so well governed the good subjects of Connaught as they were contented to yield him service, victual, and wages.
Leaving Dublin, I journeyed through the counties of Kildare, Carlogh, Kilkenny, and Wasshford, holding sessions. I came home by the seaside through Base Leinster, the countries of the Kavenoghes (ruled by Captain Thomas Masterson), the O'Moroghes (governed by Richard Synod), the Kynchilaghes (where Thomas Masterson was Captain), the O'Byrnes, and the O'Tooles (governed by Captain Francis Agarde), and so home to Dublin. All these Irish people lived as loyally as any people in the shire ground. There was "no waste land, but, as they termed it there, it bare corn or horn."
Some of the barons and principal gentlemen of the English Pale grudged greatly at the bearing of the soldiers, and made divers grievous complaints in the name of the Commons. But they looked to exact all that of the poor Commons which they yielded to the finding of the soldiers. They impugned the Queen's prerogative, saying the Queen had no right to impose any charge upon her subjects without consent of Parliament. There were few in the English Pale thoroughly sound for the Queen's prerogative and profit, saving Sir Lucas Dillon and his whole lineage, far the best of that country brood.
The chief opposers of them against the Queen were the Baron of Delvin, the Lord of Howth, the Lord Trymbleston, the Lord of Killeyne, and divers knights, principal gent' and lawyers, among whom Nicholas Nugent, then Second Baron of the Exchequer, and since executed for treason, was one. All the principal landlords of the English Pale confederated against me and the prerogative. The only noblemen on the Queen's part were the Lords of Slane and Upper Ossory. Agents were sent to the Queen, exclaiming upon me for my cruel and unlawful exactions. "Then was I driven to search old records, and so did I many; the which records, many years before, I myself, being Treasurer there, had laid up and dressed a house for the conservation of them and others." It appeared that cesse had been used from the time of King Edward III. In this search the Chancellor, then William Gerrard, did well assist me, but afterwards joined with the country.
I offered to discharge them for 3l. 6s. 8d. the ploughland, but still they repined at my charge; while many townships, cantreds, and baronies thanked me for it, accepted the same, and readily made payment thereof to the hands of Robert Woodford. The same came to 2,400l. "But still and almost weekly I received [letters], to my hearty grief, that I was a costly servant, and alienated from her Highness her good subjects' hearts." I gave over all cesse for my household, and paid ready money for everything, to my undoing.
"To return to the commonwealth men (for so they called themselves), I mean the messengers of the repining malcontents of the English Pale, who then were at the Court." I sent over the Lord Chancellor with matter of ancient record. Two of the three learned legates, Burnell and Newterffield, were committed to the Tower, and the third, the oldest and craftiest of the three, named Barnaby Shurlogh, submitted himself in Dublin. But the Chancellor brought me nothing back again but speech delivered (sic) that it was a thing intolerable and dangerous, and might breed universal rebellion. In my absence he enlarged the repinants, whom I held prisoners in the castle of Dublin. As soon as I was gone he made Nicholas Nugent (displaced by me from the Second Baronship of the Exchequer and committed to the castle of Dublin for his arrogant obstinacy against the Queen) Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.
I would have left the sword and gone over without leave, had not an obscure and base varlet called Rorye Oge O'Moore stirred, and claimed authority over the whole country of Lesh. Daniel, the Earl of Ormond's secretary, confessed to me that Ormond had counselled him never to submit himself to me, prognosticating my disgrace with the Queen, and the revolt against me of the English Pale. I went into his fastest places, but never would he fight with me, but always fled and was secured in the county of Kilkenny, and under and with the Butlers. I retired myself and the army, leaving in Maryborough Sir Harry Harrington, my sister's son, and lieutenant of the King's County, in old time Ofaley. When he had brought the rebel Rorye to a low ebb, he came to a parley with him undiscreetly, for there was he taken and carried away. I sought his enlargement, "but nothing prevailed without such conditions as I would not have enlarged Philip my son." Then made I war upon the rebel, and my men prevailed, but still he kept my nephew. But through Robert Harpoole I beset his cabanish dwelling.
"The rebel had within it 26 of his best and most assured men, his wife, and his marshal's wife, and Cormagh O'Koner, an ancient and rank rebel, of long maintained in Scotland, and at last (but too soon) reclaimed from thence by the Queen our mistress, and with stipend as a pensioner sent into Ireland, who, returning to the vomit of his innate rebellious stomach, went to Rorye Oge and took part with him in his rebellion, and in that place and time was by a man of mine called John Parker killed. There were also killed his wife and all his men; only there escaped himself and his marshal, called Shane Mack Rorye Reogh, in truth miraculously, for they crope between the legs of the soldiers into the fastness of the plashes of trees. Rorye Oge confessed, and so did the wife of his marshal, whom the soldiers saved, that the skirts of his shirt was with an English sword cut from his bare body; but in this assault and conflict, being done in the dark night, the villainous rebel fell upon my most dear nephew, being tied in chains, and him most shamefully hacked and hewed with my nephew's own sword, to the effusion of such a quantity of blood as were incredible to be told. He brake his arm with that blunt sword and cut off the little finger of one of his hands, and in sundry parts of his head so wounded him, as I myself in his dressing did see his brains moving. Yet my good soldiers brought him away, and a great way upon their halberts and pikes, to a good place in that country, where he was relieved, and afterwards (I thank God) recovered.
"During his service, and before his unhappy apprehension, I went to the Newrye, and thither came to me Turlo Lenogh (the lady his wife not being able to come through a hurt she had), but well had she counselled him, as it appeared, for most frankly and familiarly used he me, coming to me against the will of all his counsellers and followers, protesting he so much trusted and loved me as he would not so much as once ask hostage or protection. He brought above 400l. sterling to the town, and spent it all in three days. He celebrated Bacchus' feast most bravely, and as he thought much to his glory, but as many hours as I could get him sober I would have him into the castle, where he would as reverently (as his little good manner did instruct him) speak of the Queen, craving still, and that most humbly, that he might be nobilitated by the Queen, and to hold his lands and seigniories of her Majesty by rent and service, and there ratified all former peace made between me and him, and the Earl of Essex and him."
I returned to Dublin, where "I understood that the Earl of Desmond, still repining at the government of Sir William Drurye, and upon a short message sent him by Sir William, fell into a frantic resolution, and whereas he purposed to have kept his Christmas at Yoghill, he suddenly brake off that determination and went into Kerry, and straightwar assembled forces; and had I not taken the ball at the first bound, he had undoubtedly used violence against Sir William Druery and his people, who were not many. I straightways addressed me to Kilkenny, and thither I sent for Sir William Druery, the Earl and the Countess his wife. They came all to me. The Earl was hot, wilful, and stubborn; the Countess at that time a good counsellor; Sir William Druery confessed some fault; but finally (though with much ado) I made them friends, and a sound pacification of all quarrels between them, and sound it continued as long as I continued governor there. But not long alter (as you know), upon like occasion as before is noted, he and his two brothers Sir John and Sir James fell into actual rebellion, in which the good knight Sir William Druery, then Lord Justice, died, and he as a malicious and unnatural rebel still persisth and liveth.
"The Christmas ended, wherein I entertained the Earl and the Countess as well as I could, and presented them both with silks and jewels, not a little to my costs, I fell then into holding of sessions by commission of Oyer and Terminer, but in person I would never be on the Bench, for that the Ormonists should not say that I was there by speech or countenance to engrieve any matter against them. And though I were as much thwarted by some of them as might be, yet had I a great number of that county orderly indicted, according to the laws, arraigned, judged to die, and executed for abetting, favoring, and aiding Rorie Oge. This matter remains of record.
"Divers of the principal gentlemen would in the night, and as it were, disguised, come to me, protesting they durst not in the daytime be seen to do so for fear of the Earl of Ormond. They did give me good information of matters of weight, and I them the best instruction I could. The Earl in England still exclaimed that I lay there to no other end but to make myself rich by the spoil of his country, saying that I paid for nothing that I took, which was utterly untruly; for not only my household officers, but all others that followed me, paid ready money for everything they took in any town where I came. And when the Earl of Ormond was so said to by Mr. Edward Waterhowse, sometime my secretary, he answered that his officers had written so to him."
After the taking of my nephew Harrington from the rebel (Rorie Oge), I placed a garrison to persecute the rebel under Sir Nicholas Malbye, Captain Collyer, Captain Furres, Captain Mackworth, and others; lastly, and most effectually, under the Baron of Upper Ossory, my particular sworn brother. "The vile Rorye was killed by a household servant of the Baron's, his marshal the forenamed escaped, and the rebel's body, though dead, so well attended and carried away, as it was the cause of the death of a good many of men on both sides, yet carried away he was; but not long after his head was sent to me, and set upon the Castle of Dublin, for which I had proclaimed 1,000 marks to be given to him that would bring it me, and 1,000l. to him that would bring him me alive." The Baron of Upper Ossory (who was nurtured under Edward VI.,) would take but 100l. to give among his men.
I loathed to tarry any longer in Ireland, and yet before I went I invaded MacMahon's country, and totally destroyed the same, in revenge of a shameful murder committed by him in killing the Lord of Louth, and the son and heir to Sir Hugh MackGennys. Within short time after my departure he came to the Newrye to Sir William Drury with a wyth about his neck, and obtained his pardon.
The Queen made so little accompt of my killing that rebel (Rorie Oge), and was persuaded that there was no more difficulty to kill such a rogue than to kill Mad George, the sweeper of the Queen's Court. He had burned all the good towns in the counties of Carloghe and Kildare, as the town of Carlogh and the Naas, ["Mash" in MS.] &c. It grieved me not a little that her Majesty rejected those bills which I sent to be allowed to be made laws. I was weary any longer to live among the gentlemen of the English Pale. It irked me not a little to see the ambitious dealings of Chancellor Gerrard, who would not let to say "that he had brought over such warrant for himself and restraint for me, as I could do nothing without him," and that when I were gone, and the new Justice (Drury) ruling by his direction, Ireland should be governed with a white rod.
I passed the seas and came into England, carrying with me the old archrebel the Earl of Clanrickard and a son of his called William, who since for treason and rebellion was as a traitor executed. At the Court I was not entertained so well as I had deserved. The archrebel whom I brought, you know by whom he was countenanced. He was enlarged and sent home, to my small credit. I was accompted servus inutilis, for that I had exceeded a supposed composition. A conference indeed there was that 20,000l. should defray all the charges of Ireland. I had spent nothing but profitably for the Queen. I too far exceeded in spoiling my own patrimony. Since, being curious to know what the charges were in the time of my government, by Sir Edward Fitton's accompts it appears that I am within the bounds of 20,000l. a year. This accompt was sent to my Lord Treasurer (Burleigh) and to me by Thomas Jennyson, auditor. Write to him to signify the charges in my time; and use his information to my advantage.
In my great and high office of [President of] Wales I have served full 23 years. A better people to govern Europe holdeth not. I have been twice into France, once into Scotland, and twice into Kent to the seaside, to receive the Dukes John Casimir and Adolph, Duke of Holstein. I was sent to Portsmouth to superintend the victualling of Newhaven. Oftentimes I was sent for to Court for Irish causes, to my great charges.
Further details respecting his Presidentship of Wales, the illness of his wife, ["As foul a lady as the small-pox could make her, which she did take by continual attendance of her Majesty's most precious person, sick of the same disease."] his burdensome expenses, &c.
The Queen has made me one of her Privy Council. I have been a Companion of the Order of the Garter now full 19 years.
"When I was but 10 years of age, and a while had been henchman to King Henry the 8th, I was by that most famous King put to his sweet son Prince Edward, my most dear master, prince, and sovereign, the first boy that ever he had; my near kinswoman being his only nurse, my father being his chamberlain, my mother his governess, my aunt by my mother's side in such place as among meaner personages is called a dry nurse, for from the time he left sucking she continually lay in bed with him, so long as he remained in woman's government. As that sweet Prince grew in years and discretion, so grew I in favour and liking of him, in such sort as by that time I was 22 years old he made me one of the four principal gentlemen of his bedchamber." Sundry times he bountifully rewarded me. He sent me into France and Scotland. Lastly, he died in my arms. "After I had spent some months in Spain, ["Note.--My going to Spain for the liberty of the Earl of Warwick and his brethren."] neither liking nor liked as I had been, I fancied to live in Ireland, and to serve as Treasurer, and had the leading both of horsemen and footmen, and served as ordinarily with them as any other private captain did there under my brother-in-law, the Earl of Sussex, where I served during the reign of Queen Mary and one year after; in which time I had four sundry times, as by letters patents yet appeareth, the government of that country, by the name of Lord Justice, thrice by commission out of England, and once by choice of that country; such was the great favour of that Queen to me and good liking of the people of me."
In the first journey that the Earl of Sussex made I killed James Mack O'Nell, a mighty captain of Scots.
"The second journey the Earl of Sussex made into those quarters of Ulster, he sent me and others into the Island of Raghlyns, where before in the time of Sir James Croft's deputation, Sir Raulf Bagnall, Captain Cuff, and others sent by him landed little to their advantage, for there were they hurt and taken, and the most of their men that landed either killed or taken, but we landed more politicly and safely, and encamped in the isle until we had spoiled the same, all mankind, corn, and cattle in it."
During my government I had sundry skirmishes with the rebels, always with victory. At the very time that Calais was lost, I invaded Firkaol, otherwise called O'Meloy's country.
Other particulars respecting his family, debts, and decline in wealth. [He states that he is 54 years of age and 5,000l. in debt.]
Commend me to my good lady, cousin, and sister, your wife; bless and buss our sweet daughter; and bestow a blessing upon the young knight, Sir Philip.
Ludlow Castle, 1 March 1582. Signed.
Here follow several memoranda, for insertion in different places in the preceding discourse. Among them are the following:--
"The coming to me thither (Carrickfergus) of Sir Arthur Champernoune, Mr. Henry Champernoune, his eldest brother's son and heir, Mr. Philip Butside, and divers other gentlemen, yeomen, and seamen of the west of England, desirous to take lands and to inhabit in the north parts of Ireland.
"The taking of lands by Sir Thomas Smith, then secretary, the possession whereof is held to this day."

LORD BOROUGH'S INSTRUCTIONS.  MS 601, p. 136  18 April 1597

Former reference: MS 601, p. 136

12 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. III, document 267.

Instructions by the Queen to Thomas Lord Burghe, K.G., Governor of Briell in Holland, appointed Deputy in Ireland, 18 April 1597.
(1.) At your arrival deliver our letters to our former Deputy and Council. Receive the sword "with observation of all due honour," and take your oath.
(2.) Require the Council to inform you of the general state of that realm, and especially of the army. "Discreetly and quietly inquire of the state of religion, how it is there observed, whereof we are informed there hath been notorious negligence, in that the orders of religion are in few parts of our realm there observed; and that which is to be lamented, even in our very English Pale multitudes of parishes [are] destitute of incumbents and teachers, and in the very great towns of assembly numbers not only known to forbear to come to the church or divine service, but even willingly winked at to use all manner of Popish ceremonies. For this cause, although we know it is hard, specially at this time, to have things so well observed as in time of quietness, when it was also much abused by negligent looking into, you shall earnestly require the bishops which be of our Council there to show you some cause of this general defection, especially in our towns. And likewise you shall inform yourself whether there be not a Commission Ecclesiastical, and of such as be in commission you shall require to understand upon what occasions the said Commissioners have not discharged their duties to withstand these pitiful disorders. And of their answers you shall make good observation, which we would have to be delivered by them to you in writing, and thereof to advertise us with some opinion, by advice of the better sort of our Council there, how this general defection might be reformed in some convenient sort, and not thus carelessly suffered, as though we had granted a toleration of Popery, that being one of the chiefest points at which in all demands the rebels have so greedily aimed."
(3.) For the administration of civil justice, we have of late years "appointed certain learned men in the laws of our realm to occupy the places of the Chief Justices of our Benches, the Master of the Rolls, and Chief Baron, which in former time have been occupied by men native of that country, not indifferent." Give them your assistance in the execution of justice.
(4.) Command the Muster Master (Lane) to deliver to you rolls of all who receive pay of us, certifying where they serve, "how many of them are checked in their pays for their absence," and how many pretend to be free from checks. Make no warrant to the Treasurer (Wallop) for pay to such as be absent from the musters. As many captains in remote parts "have untruly informed the Muster Master of their full numbers," consult with such of our Council as have no interest in such abuses, and appoint commissioners to take monthly musters in all remote places. This will be a hard matter, "considering the great corruption of late used therein." View any bands that may conveniently come to your presence. The men to be able of person and furnished with fit armour and weapons.
(5). In former times, upon discharging of our armies, certain captains, officers, and private soldiers in bands were allowed pensions, with intention that upon the renewing of any such army they should be called to the like places of service, and their pensions cease. This good order has been very negligently observed. Require the Muster Master and the Treasurer to have a roll made of the names of all pensioners now continuing in pay, and the Treasurer to make certificate how long they have been pensioners. Lose no opportunity to place the said pensioners in like rooms as they formerly held; and though at present they are no rooms of captains void, because the forces of late sent out of England were "directed under captains from hence," yet if any of them shall die or depart out of that country, you shall prefer some of the pensioners to those rooms, if not impotent or unserviceable. If any pensioners come from thence, the Treasurer is to forbear to pay their wages. "Have care in bestowing pensions when they fall without our knowledge and privity, for we do find that matter much abused, and some preferred that least deserve it, besides many needless wards continued, which when their rooms are void, we do require you to advertise whether they may be spared or not, before you seek to prefer any to them."
(6.) Require the late Deputy and Council to acquaint you with such of our letters and commandments as have not yet been executed.
(7.) "Upon colorable suits made to us here to recover lands concealed from us in that realm, sundry suitors have fraudulently combined with certain being deputies to the Escheators and Surveyors there, and have by their means entered upon sundry our ancient lands, of our revenue, and have falsely rated the same under their ancient values, and gotten colorable estates thereof very falsely and not warrantable by law, whereof complaints have been made by our ancient tenants, wronged thereby, to our Deputy and Council and our Court of Exchequer, but by reason the said [deputies] to the head officers depend upon some of our Council there, the complaints are not indifferently heard, but our revenue decayed greatly. Of which matter you shall require to be informed duly both of our Treasurer and our Justices of either Bench and the Chief Baron of the Exchequer, whom you shall authorize to examine the said complaints, and in whom they shall find the frauds and abuses, to cause the same to be publicly and severely punished, and our ancient tenants restored and our revenues revived. Of which kind of causes you shall understand that our Treasurer and the Chief Justice of the Common Pleas have very earnestly written to our Council in a case of one John Rawson, wherein so great abuses have been by colour of inferior officers, as they do require to have some special authority to inflict some notable punishment upon the offenders."
(8). A commission is to be directed to you and five others to make leases of our lands for terms of 21 years or less, and to make bargains for the wardships, marriages, and lands of our wards, excepting persons of the degree of Barons and above. Be more wary for our profits than previous Deputies have been. By another commission you and the same five are authorized to call to account all persons indebted to us, and compel them to make payment. Your are not to execute these commissions by yourself alone without the privity and assent of the other Commissioners, as some of our Deputies have done, especially in demising our lands and granting wardships.
(9.) Whereas our former Deputies have made warrants called concordatums to the Treasurer to pay extraordinary sums for special services, we charge you to grant no such concordatums without the assent of the Council, and to make books of them every quarter.
(10.) When we appointed a Governor, Justice, Attorney, and other ministers to govern Connaught, we allowed them yearly stipends out of the composition made with the country in lieu of all other taxes and cesses. The composition, amounting to nearly 4,000l. a year, was received by Sir Richard Bingham, Chief Commissioner, and out of it 2,313l. Irish were paid to our ministers. The rest was commonly spent by the Chief Commissioner in "pretended extraordinary charges arising by the troubles of the country." But now, owing to the rebellion in that country of late years, little of the composition money has been answered; yet the Commissioners, though not residing within the province, have demanded their stipends out of the treasure sent for our army. This is not to be allowed, but you are to consider how that province may be reduced to quietness, and the composition answered. As, however, the Chief Commissioner is to be in the province for ordering martial affairs there, if the composition money will not stretch so far, he is to be allowed his entertainment out of the treasure sent from England.
(11.) You are not to "give the order of knighthood to any but such as shall be, both of blood and livelihood, sufficient to maintain that calling, except at some notable day of service to bestow it for reward upon some such as in the field have extraordinarily deserved it." Former Deputies have dishonoured us in this respect.
(12.) Inquire what has been done since the death of the Earl of Clancare for the rule of the country of Desmond. As he has left no lawful issue male, all his lands ought to revert to our Crown. Inquire how Florence McCartey, who married the Earl's daughter, behaves himself, and whether he attempts to meddle with the Earl's possessions. If he use any force, "overrule him with forces in our name." Maintain Donnell McCartey, the base son of the said Earl, "a gentleman of good value, and by his wife and his mother of good parentage, with whom also may be joined to assist him O'Sullivan Beare, his kinsman." Nicholas Browne, a son of Sir Valentine Browne's, an undertaker in that country, "and greatly friended by the alliance of his wife, daughter of the said O'Sullivan," can give you information, and is able to serve us against any attempt made by the said Florence.

The QUEEN to the LORD BURGHE, Lord Deputy.  MS 601, p. 141a  20 May 1597

Former reference: MS 601, p. 141a

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. III, document 269.

Besides the great charge of our army in Ireland, "there are many things omitted by loose and negligent handling, which, straighter looked into, might cut off many superfluous and needless charges, as well for unnecessary wards as superfluous offices." In such matters use the advice of our Chief Justice Gardener and our Treasurer Wallope. The former has a commission to inquire into disorders of this nature.
"We find that our Chief Baron and the rest of the Barons in Ireland do grant at their discretion divers good sums of money in nature of mandamus." Give direction to our Treasurer to pay no more of them, except they be allowed by three or four of our Council, including either Gardener or Wallope.
We send you two commissions, little varying from those which you had with you, for letting our lands and wards. Some experienced persons are to be of the Quorum with you.
"There have been many foul abuses by selling of offices, by making of sheriffs imperpetuities, whose lewdness hath been caused of many revolts in regard of their oppressions."
We are informed now that most of our forces in Ireland have never paid the country for their diet. Inquisition to be made. Many debts claimed of us by captains may be disproved.
O'Donnell escaped "by practice of money bestowed on somebody." Call to you the Chancellor, Chief Justice Gardener, and the Treasurer, and inquire "who they are that have been touched with it."
"As these things are very fit to be inquired of by such as have best means to know it and will most clearly examine it, our pleasure is that you do appoint specially for this inquisition (as Commissioners) some of the lords of the country, amongst the which none are fitter in regard of their late employment than the Earl of Thomonde and the Baron of Delvyn, with any other, such as you our Deputy shall think meet. And as for the matter of O'Donnell's escape, none is fitter than the Lord of Delvyn to be used, who is able to say much in the matter."
Greenwich, 20 May 1597.
P.S.--The Chancellor is omitted from these commissions [respecting Crown lands and wards], but not "for lack of trust."

A brief Journal of the services in Ireland during the deputation of Sir William Russell, extracted out of his own Journal-Book.  MS 601, p. 123  1597

Former reference: MS 601, p. 123

22 Pages.

Abstract of MS 612.

The ARMY.  MS 601, p. 142a  1 July 1597

Former reference: MS 601, p. 142a

6 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. III, document 273.

Ordinances by her Majesty for reforming Disorders in the Musters and Payment of her Army in Ireland, 39 Eliz., 1597.
"Every captain of 100 footmen shall receive weekly upon every Saturday for the week following his full entertainment of 28s. for the week; and so in like case the lieutenant 14s., the ensigns 7s., and the sergeant drummer, surgeon, and phyfe 5s. apiece, by way of imprest; and every common soldier of the company shall likewise receive by way of imprest 3s. ster....... The residue, which is for every of the said four last officers 2s., to make up his full pay, and for every common soldier to make up his full pay 20d. by the week, shall be answered to the full value thereof in good apparel of several kinds, part to serve them for the winter, and part for summer, which shall be of good quality and stuff for the prices, and delivered at the two seasons for the winter and summer, whereof true patterns shall be sent to the Lord Deputy, to be there compared with the apparel that shall be sent thither for the soldier, which shall be of these sorts and prices hereafter following, viz.:
"For the four officers of every band.--For the winter:--a cassock of broad cloth with silk buttons and lace, 22s. 7d.; a doublet of good canvas, 14s; a hat and band, 5s, 5d.; two shirts and two bands, 9s. 6d.; three pair of shoes, 7s.; three pair of stockings, 8s.; a pair of Venesions with silk lace, 15s. 4d.; [total,] 4l. 2s. 3d. (sic). For the summer:--two shirts and two bands, 9s. 6d.; two pair of shoes, 4s. 8d.; one pair of stockings, 2s. 8d.; a hat and band, 5s. 5d.; [total.] 22s. 6d. (sic).
"Common soldier.--For the winter:--a cassock of broad cloth, 17s, 6d.; a doublet of canvas, 12s, 6d.; a hat cap, 3s.; two shirts, two bands, 8s.; three pair of shoes, 7s.; three pair of stockings, 8s.; a pair of cloth Venesions, 13s. 4d.; [total,] 3l. 9s. 4d. For the summer:--two shirts and two falling bands of Hollon, 7s.; two pair of shoes, 4s. 8d.; one pair of stockings, 2s. 8d.; a hat cap, 3s.; [total,] 17s. 4d.
"And because it will seldom happen that any band of 100 more or less will be found so complete as it should be needful to deliver weekly the whole sum payable to such a company with the full pay of the entertainment of the captain and officers, the six dead pays therein allowed, the checks for absence and deficiency also defaulked; it is therefore ordered that the Treasurer at Wars shall pay and deliver weekly for the imprest of every such company the sum of 18l. 19s., agreeable to the form above expressed. The captains and soldiers thus paid shall not, to the offence of our subjects, as heretofore, be cessed upon the country."
A commissary for the musters to be established in every province, and to have 6s. 8d. per diem. Musters to be taken every month, "allowing no more of the nation of Ireland or of any other nation but of England, where the band is ruled by an English captain." The commissaries to send the muster rolls to the Lord Deputy, and to be changed every year. The surveyor of the muster rolls to examine the books and certify any disorders to the Lord Deputy and Council, and the offenders to be punished for corruption. The surveyor to send copies of his books every half year to the Lord Deputy and Council in Ireland and to the Council in England. The Lord Deputy to inquire how many pretend to be free from checks. The books of musters to be kept in the Castle of Dublin as records.
"It were to be wished that the pay of every soldier might come to his own hand immediately from the Treasurer or his officer;" yet it shall be sufficient that the Treasurer or his officer deliver to the captain or his lieutenant the whole weekly imprest for his company, in the presence and with the knowledge of eight at least of the soldiers. Any captain who detains any soldier's wages is to be publicly punished, removed from his charge, and compelled to pay double the money detained.
As some persons have odd numbers of horse that are not so serviceable as they might be, if they were in bands under good leaders, "no horseman shall be allowed in any pay but such as shall serve in bands of 50 at the least, saving such as are allowed to attend upon officers by their patents or by the establishment." No company of footmen to be of less number than 94 able persons, unless it be in wards.
This order is not to extend to the retinue of the Lord Deputy, who is to have allowance for his retinue as heretofore.
Whereas the chief officer of the musters in that realm has, by prescription and without lawful warrant, "taken to his own use the benefit of one pay out of every company," her Majesty commands that no officer of musters shall take any such pay in any company, in order that no more than six dead pays shall be allowed in one band of 100. "And to the intent these ordinances may be kept and have a beginning as soon as may be, her Majesty hath presently sent as much money as may duly serve for these lendings (imprests) to all manner of footmen that are esteemed to be there in service, that are allowed 8d. by the day for 14 weeks, and for the Lord Deputy and all his retinue, and all horsemen and others serving as martial men, sufficient to pay their whole wages for three months, as by a schedule signed by her Majesty's Council and sent to the Lord Deputy shall appear."
Greenwich, 1st July 1597.

The QUEEN to the LORD DEPUTY (BOROUGH).  MS 601, p. 145a  1 July 1597

Former reference: MS 601, p. 145a

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. III, document 274.

For the weal of Ireland we employ great forces there under you, and have sent a navy and army to the seas towards Spain, to withstand all dangers that might come from thence. We now wish to reform the great disorders there, especially in "charging of us with pay of more persons than are known there to serve us," and for that purpose we have devised certain ordinances. As you are in the field, you may not have leisure to peruse and observe them; so we require you, for avoiding delay, to impart them to such of the Council as can attend to the execution of them.
Certify us what numbers of persons are ready for service according to their allowances, for the certificates from the Treasurer (Wallop) and Muster Master are not satisfactory. Rafe Lane, the Muster Master, seems to have been very negligent, and to have made up his checks by guess. The Treasurer certifies that our charge is about 12,000l. a month, "besides many other extraordinary charges of persons not subject to Lane's muster." He has "sent a declaration of the expense of 24,000l. saving 800l.," but does not state what number of persons are in our pay, or until what time the imprests are to serve. Sir William Russell, our late Deputy, has made declaration to our Council that the numbers he left there in pay were 8,303; but he believed that in truth there were not above 5,000. The Undertakers in Munster have neglected the habitation thereof with Englishmen, and have made grants to the Irish. Charge the Council "to answer you what hath been done therein to reform this disorder, upon our express commandment given to certain of them to inquire of the said defaults, and to have proceeded sharply to the reformation thereof either by punishment of the offenders or by seizing into our hands of their lands so misused." Give commission to certain chosen persons, joining with them the President of our Council there, to inquire into this matter, and how many Patentees are absent and not resident upon their lands.
The lands and seignories of the late Earl of Clancarre are to be surveyed.
Greenwich, 1st July 1597.

The QUEEN to the EARL OF ORMOND.  MS 601, p. 147  29 Dec 1597

Former reference: MS 601, p. 147

5 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. III, document 282.

We have seen divers letters of yours since you received our commission of lieutenancy. Your proceedings show judgment and affection to our service. We can be content to receive the penitent and humble submission of those traitors that pretend to crave it. "You now represent our own person, and have to do with inferior people and base rebels, to whose submission if we in substance shall be content to condescend, we will look to have the same implored in such reverend form as becometh our vassals and such heinous offenders to use, with bended knees and hearts humbled; not as if one prince did treat with another upon even terms of honour or advantage, in using words of peace or war, but of rebellion in them and mercy in us; for rather than ever it shall appear to the world that in any such sort we will give way to any of their pride, we will cast off either sense or feeling of pity or compassion, and upon what price soever prosecute them to the last hour."
Examine their complaints against our ministers, but do not "suffer them so to abuse your ears with complaints as to justify all their treasons by such imputations."
Dispense with such conditions prescribed by us heretofore as you find likely to delay the conclusion of mercy and quietness. In the schedule enclosed we have noted the conditions which are to be insisted on.
We are informed by Connyers Clyfford "that some of those rebels in and near Connaught are desirous to be received to mercy, and that he thinketh no way more likely to effect it than by your hearkening to the capital rebels' offers." Give him directions.
"Where we do find that the offals left of Pheaghe McHugh (O'Birne) and other rebels near the Pale do daily infester good subjects and distract those forces which should be otherwise [employed], we are content, and do hereby give you authority and warrant, to take all such into our mercy, and to give them our pardon, whom you shall, with the advice of the Lords Justices, think fit to be received for our service; and so have we also in Connaught given Connyers Clyfford warrant to do the like."
"For the rest of the misgovernment of our kingdom, especially in distribution of our treasure, and in our being notoriously abused by false musters, we do write to all such our officers as it appertaineth, and doubt not but, in what properly appertaineth to you as General of our army, you will yield us an account answerable to the opinion and expectation we have of your fidelity and wisdom. And to the intent you may have some assistant to you in those matters of treaties, we do allow well of our Secretary's (Fenton) going with you, and do hereby authorise you to take him, and to communicate with him all such things as are appertaining to our service. And further, we do give you full power to receive and pardon any of the rest of the capital rebels, with such conditions as possibly you can procure, although they have followed the principal traitor (Tyrone), but in no sort to do it for his sake."
Whitehall, 29 December 1597.
II. "HEADS of MATTERS for our Cousin the EARL OF ORMOND to urge to TYRONE at the meeting."
(1.) That he make his personal submission to you in public.
(2.) That he renounce all confederacy with the Irishry.
(3.) That he renounce the name of O'Neale.
(4.) That he disperse all his forces, and send out of the realm all Scots and other hired strangers.
(5.) That he have nothing to do with any of our uriaghts.
(6.) That he deliver to you the sons of Shane O'Neale, to be sent to the castle of Dublin, from whence they escaped.
(7.) That he contribute to the rebuilding of the fort and bridge of Blackwater, that our garrison be continued there without danger, and that the country bring it victuals.
(8.) "That he tell you truly how far he hath proceeded with the Spaniards, or any other Prince," and that he renounce all such dealings.
(9.) That he suffer a sheriff in Tyrone.
(10.) That he put in his eldest son for a pledge, or some other chief man, and resort, "as other lords of Ireland use to do," to the Governor and Council at Dublin.
(11.) That he pay a fine of ---- pounds to us with[in] three years. "Let the fine be imposed for an honour to us, and afterwards we may be moved to remit either the whole or part of it."
(12.) That bodragges, stealths, and outrages done on both sides be referred to commissioners.
(13.) That if he yield to so many of these articles as shall appear necessary to give assurance of his loyalty, the rest may be forborne.
"Of all these thirteen articles, these are necessary to be urged and obtained, which are the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th."
Memorandum by Sir Robert Cecil at the end.

"A NOTE of O'ROURKE'S DEMANDS, 8 February 1597."  MS 601, p. 149a  8 Feb 1598

Former reference: MS 601, p. 149a

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. III, document 283.

(1.) That he may be pardoned with all his followers.-- Granted.
(2.) "That he may have his country, both spiritual and temporal, past to him and his heirs by patent."--Granted.
(3.) That, for the defence of co. Letrym, garrisons be placed at Cavan and Ballimote, to act in concert with himself.--There is already a garrison at the Cavan, and there will be also one at Ballimote or Sligo.
(4.) That both the constableship and collectorship of co. Letrym be given to Charles Trever.--Granted.
(5.) That her Majesty build a gaol at Letrim.--Granted.
(6.) That a ward, of O'Rowrke's choice, be maintained by the Queen to defend the said gaol.--Granted.
(7.) "That the Governor of Connaught may procure a sufficient warrant in O'Rowrke's behalf not to be arrested for any matter with[out] a special direction from her Majesty; and the rather for that it is openly known how the Binghams maliciously urged his father to go into exile.--Sir Richard Bingham hath nothing to do in that province."
(8.) That he may have warrant to confer from time to time with gentlemen in rebellion, and that what he promises in behalf of her Majesty be performed.--Granted.
(9.) That the arrearages, both temporal and spiritual, of all his country be forgiven him and others.--Her Majesty refers this to the Governor and Council.
(10.) "That he, with all his country, may not be contributory to any kinds of hostings or cesses other than his composition."--Granted.
(11.) "That the Governor do procure for him martial law within his own country."--Granted.
(12.) That if his cattle be driven of necessity into Sligo or Roscomen, they shall not be cessed by any companies.--Granted.
(13.) That in case of a general peace between her Majesty and all the Irishry, he may have half a troop of horsemen to protect him.--Granted.
(14.) That if O'Donnell or Tyrone obtain more favorable conditions, "you will be a means to obtain the like for me."--Granted.
(15.) That if he be driven by the Queen's enemies to forsake his country and lose his goods, "the Governor will sue and obtain for him such living as may be correspondent for his calling."--No need to doubt her Majesty's grace.

INSTRUCTIONS to SIR SAMUEL BAGHENALL.  MS 601, p. 150a  17 Aug 1598

Former reference: MS 601, p. 150a

8 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. III, document 285.

The Queen has given you commission to have the charge as a chief colonel of two regiments of 2,000 soldiers, besides a company of horse, now sent under your charge to Loughfoile in Ireland. Charles Egerton is to be second colonel. By the 20th you are to be at Chester, where 600 of the 2,000 are appointed to embark. Direct your course for the bay of Knockfergus or Olderfleete, whither the other companies, which embark at Plymouth, are directed also to repair. On being joined by them, proceed to Loughfoyle. Assist Hugh Tuder, commissary of the musters.
Victuals are sent by sea to serve your companies for four months, and oats for your horses. If you capture any victual from the enemy, your provisions will last five months. In the winter it will be difficult to furnish you with supplies; and as Loughfoile is a waste place and uninhabited, special care must be had for the safety and preservation of the victuals.
The munition to be stowed in a safe place.
With the money delivered to you, you are to provide 100 horse at 30l. each, with armour and furniture both for the horses and men. The horse to be sent to Chester, and viewed and mustered by James Ware and other country gentlemen.
When at Chester, if the wind serve, you are not to wait for the horse, but leave some one to conduct them. Two of the 100 horse are to be delivered to the Provost Marshal.
As the place where you are to arrive is very ruinous and desolate, your first care shall be to see the two regiments and the horse well lodged. Then "seek to gather the corn of the enemy, and the straw for your horses, and make provision of wood before the hardness of the winter come on." Have regard to the government of her Majesty's people committed to your charge.
"Because of late time we have found that, by negligence or corruption of the captains, the soldiers sent over thither are dismissed and suffered to return again or get away by stealth, you shall give warning to the masters of those ships that shall transport you thither, that after the soldiers be landed they do take no soldier into any of their ships, upon pain to be severely punished at their return hither, and the loss of all their freight." Any soldier attempting to run away to suffer death. If any soldiers be slain you are not to admit above six Irish in a band.
Seek all opportunities of annoying the enemy.
Advertise the Lord General (Ormond) and the Lords Justices (Loftus and Gardner), and especially the Governor of Connaught (Clifford), of your arrival. Authority is given you to hearken to any overtures and parleys offered by the rebels. You may give rewards for intelligence and espials, and for good service.
"The good carriage of your captains and soldiers towards the Irish that shall continue or return to their obedience will induce others to offer themselves unto you; and therefore, for the better governing of the soldiers, you shall observe such orders as have been by the Earl Marshal set down." You may make use of the pinnaces employed on that coast.
"Where the footmen have an imprest of 3s. sterling by the week and the horsemen of 18d. sterling per diem, and the captains and their officers their full pay, which is to be paid to them after deduction of the victuals, the paymaster shall from time to time make like imprests and payments by your privity and warrant.
"You shall use all your means to know the factions and partialities of Ulster, which are very many, for divers of the rebel's followers are kept but by strong hand; which known, you shall instruct yourself the better whom to trust, and which are fittest to be employed one against other. And if you can surprise the castle of Sir John O'Doortery, or recover him by treaty from thence, you shall have good relief both for your horse and foot, and a port and passage to send to and fro for anything that you shall want. And you shall understand that Sir John O'Doortry may be drawn easily from O'Donnell; so may Hugh Duff McDonnell and McSwyne-a-Do. Those that are amongst others ill affected to Tyrone are Sir Arthur O'Nele, and the nation of Slught Art, all the sept of the Donolos ["O'Donologhe" in the margin in Carew's hand.], and Harry Oge McHarry McShane."
As some of the rebels of late have sought protections only to serve their turns, and afterwards revolted, be circumspect how you give protection to any rebel.
Dated 17 August 1598.
II. INSTRUCTIONS for SIR SAMUEL BAGHENALL the second time, upon the defeat given to the Marshal near Armaghe."
Whereas her Majesty was purposed to send 2,000 soldiers to Loughfoyle under your charge, whereof 1,000 were levied lately in sundry counties and the rest taken out of the West Country, "being of old soldiers heretofore drawn out of the garrisons in the Low Countries;" upon the overthrow of the Marshal near Ardmagh her Majesty has determined that the horse raised by you and the 2,000 foot shall be directed to the port of Carlingford. Order has been given to Colonel Egerton to carry the 1,400 men appointed to be embarked at Plymmothe, first to Lambay, near Dublin, and then to Carlingford.
The 600 appointed to be embarked at Chester, with the horse provided by you, are also to be transported. Repair to that city and conduct the men that are there with their captains and officers to Lambay, where you are to send word to the State of your arrival, and then proceed to Carlingford.
Bestow your soldiers in the towns of Carlingford, Dondalk, and the Newry, until you receive orders from the Lords Justices and the Lord Lieutenant General.
III. "SCHEDULE of the COUNTIES from whence 2,000 men were levied for Ireland, upon the defeat of the Marshal with her Majesty's troops near Armaghe."
Oxford, 100; Berks, 100; Essex, 100; Suffolk, 200; Norfolk, 200; Huntingdon, 50; Rutland, 50; Lincoln, 150; Sussex, 100; Kent, 100; London, 400; Hereford, 50; Bedford, 50; Buckingham, 100; Hertford, 50; Nottingham, 50; Derby, 50; Leicester, 50; Northampton, 100; Cambridge, 50.
Total, 2,100.

The QUEEN to the LORDS JUSTICES (LOFTUS and GARDNER) and COUNCIL.  MS 601, p. 154a  12 Sep 1598

Former reference: MS 601, p. 154a

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 286.

Having been moved by you "to supply that Council with some principal persons of experience and judgment, on account of the several rebellions in that kingdom, we make choice of Sir Richard Bingham, whom we have appointed to be Marshal of that realm, to repair thither. He returns with our favour and gracious opinion. Hear him lovingly and friendly in all things concerning our service, wherein we know that you, our cousin of Ormonde, our Lieutenant, will find great ease and contentment every way, it being neither fit nor possible that you should spend your body in all services at all times; and yet we must plainly tell you that we did much mislike (seeing this late action was undertaken) that you did not above all other things attend it, thereby to have directed and countenanced the same; for it was strange to us, when almost the whole forces of our kingdom were drawn to head, and a main blow like to be stroken for our honour against the capital rebel, that you, whose person would have better daunted the traitors, and which would have carried with it another manner of reputation and strength of the nobility of the kingdom, should employ yourself in an action of less importance, and leave that to so mean a conduction."
"It doth not a little trouble us to find so hard effects of all things from thence, considering the notable supplies of men, treasure, and victuals more plentifully sent than ever heretofore."
But there are notorious errors in that government. When the treasure was kept back by the winds and the soldiers clamoured for pay, not one of the principal officers forbore taking up his allowance in full beforehand. The captains entertain Irish to cover their frauds and to make gain by licensing English to depart, whereby the places are wasted and spoiled, and the Irish are ready to turn our own arms against our own armies, as lately at the Blackwater, "when you of our Council framed such a letter to the traitor after the defeat as never was read the like either in form or substance for baseness." All the expeditions to the North have been unsuccessful, while the other parts of the kingdom have been left to be spoiled and wasted by the rebels. With an army of eight or nine thousand men, it is strange that the provincial rebels of Leinster and Wexford should not be mastered.
All the forces you have and those appointed for Loughfoile are to be placed in garrison in our frontier towns, especially those that are maritime, where must be staples of victuals for such forces as may be sent for his (Tyrone's) prosecution. During this winter you are to follow the wars of Leinster. As you have had supplies of 4,000 men, clear our army of the Irish, and so order it that for this winter it may be reduced to 8,000. If we pay them and do not have them we shall be offended, "having often written hereof without any answer returned what is done in it." "Though some soldiers may run from the army to the rebel, it being upon the same continent, (which are not many,) yet all the rest must return by sea, which is not easy, if such good orders were taken as should be, that no soldier were suffered to embark in any our port towns without grant or good warrant for their passage."
Greenwich, 12 September 1598.
P.S.--We are glad to hear that your letter to the traitor has be n stayed.


Former reference: MS 601, p. 156

4 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 287.

Although we have forborne to write many letters to you since these late dangerous alterations in Ireland, we have sent over great supplies, to our excessive charge; yet we receive naught else but news of fresh losses and calamities. Although you have the great number of 9,000 men, "we do not only see the northern traitor untouched at home, and range where else he pleased, but the provincial rebels in every province, by such as he can spare, enabled to give law to our provincial governors; besides that the Pale is not only wasted, but the walls of Dublin (where our State is seated) esteemed unsafe, and (as we hear) the suburbs thought a dangerous lodging for some of our principal counsellors."
We disdain to bear affronts from "a rabble of base kerne." In providing a remedy no expense shall be spared. Meanwhile we remind you of some causes of these losses and dangers.
(1.) "There hath never been any care taken by the captains to train such soldiers as newly come over, neither is there any uniformity of discipline through the whole kingdom."
(2.) The numbers certified are false, to the gain of the captains, soldiers being licensed to return to England immediately after their arrival on that side. If it be objected that owners of ships and masters do receive them by stealth, we must still blame you for not punishing the offenders.
(3.) Neither Munster nor Connaught have been supplied with men for their defence, though nothing is being done in other parts.
(4.) As consultations upon matters of importance have frequently been deferred in the absence of you our Lieutenant (Ormond), "without whose advice and direction nothing would be resolved for the wars," we command you to make your abode for the most part at Dublin, as Norreis and Clifford are resident in their provinces, and our Marshal Bingham may be used for the war of Leinster, and Bagnoll directed towards Ulster. You are to have the superintendence of them all.
(5.) Our army is not to "hazard any main prosecution until it may be better provided and strengthened." The greatest part of the forces to be drawn between Munster and Leinster, saving the garrisons in Ulster and Connaught. In Munster and Leinster labour chiefly to assure the walled towns.
(6.) Take good pledges of all lords and gentlemen whom you suspect.
(7.) All good means to be used "for conservation for victuals and garrons for the use of our army which shall arrive." Any victuals not likely to be kept from the traitor to be destroyed.
(8.) Make it known that we cannot free our subjects there from many omissions, "when we consider what defences in former times the noblemen of that kingdom and others have used against divers rebels." We will not suffer them any longer to be oppressed by those vile rebels, but send a sufficient force of horse and foot out of England, strengthened with old soldiers of the Low Countries. Send us "a more perfect declaration what are our numbers by poll, how many Irish, and how the army is sorted for their arms of all kinds."
The President of Munster's (Norris) company of 30 horse to be increased to 50, and to be paid in sterling money at 12d. per diem.
Whitehall, 1 December 1598.

The QUEEN to SIR THOMAS NORREYS, Lord President of Munster.  MS 601, p. 158  3 Dec 1598

Former reference: MS 601, p. 158

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 288.

We have understood how strange a revolt has happened in Munster. "When the first traitor grew to head with a ragged number of rogues and boys, you might better have resisted than you did, especially considering the many defensible houses and castles possessed by the Undertakers, who, for aught we can hear, were no way comforted nor supported by you, but either for lack of comfort from you, or out of mere cowardice, fled away from the rebels upon the first alarm." We have sent over 2,000 foot for your aid. You will receive instructions from our Council. We have given orders to increase your 30 horse to 50, in sterling pay, and to send over another 100 horses.
There are some persons either out in rebellion or suspected, who might be used, on their claims for lands being granted, as good instruments against the capital rebels, who are combined with the northern traitor. Promise them our pardon, and that we will see them satisfied in all things just and reasonable. Of such are the White Knight, Condon, and Donnough McCormocke of the Dually. If McDonnaght will serve us against Derby McOwen, who takes the title of McCarty More, we will bestow upon him the country of Dually. If the White Knight has adhered to the rebels for lack of force to resist them, "or for fear of any other offence against our laws," assure him we will not suffer any extreme course to be taken against him, but consider his complaints. As for Condon, "cause him to know that if we had understood what success he had by the last despatch wherewith he was sent into Ireland, we would have taken present order for a gracious end to have been made between him and Hyde."
You are not to show yourself facile in offering grace, but "if honorable and just cause of extending favour may satisfy those who are not maliciously incorporated in the general and Spanish combination of the arch-traitor, we would have you proceed speedily and discreetly in this kind."
Whitehall, 3 December 1598.

The ARMY.  MS 601, p. 171  25 Feb 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 171

6 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 292.

Related information: MS 635, p. 142. Copies of MS 601, p. 171.

"An Establishment [by the Queen] expressing the number of all the officers and bands of horse and foot appointed for a new Army in the realm of Ireland, together with their several entertainments, by the day, month, and year. The same Establishment to begin and take place from the 1st day of March in this 41st year of [our] reign."
Officers of the Army.--The Lord Lieutenant, 10l.; lieutenant of the army, 3l.; general of the horse, 40s.; marshal of the camp, 30s.; sergeant-major of the army, 20s.; lieutenant of the horse, 20s.; quartermaster, 20s.; judge martial, 20s.; auditor general, 13s. 4d.; comptroller general of the victuals, 10s.; lieutenant of the ordnance, 10s.; surveyor of the ordnance, 11s. 8d.; two clerks or commissaries of munitions, to attend the magazines or arsenals, at 5s. per diem apiece; four corporals of the field, at 6s. 8d. each; four commissaries of victuals, three at 6s. per diem, and one at 8s.; carriage master, 6s. 8d.; twenty colonels, 10s. each. Total for a year, 13,127l. 16s. 8d.
Horse.--1,300 horsemen, distributed into 26 bands; captains, 4s. a day; lieutenants, 2s. 6d.; cornets, 2s.; 300 of the horse at 18d. a day, 200 at 15d., and 800 at 12d. Total per annum, 31,408l. 5s.
Foot.--16,000 foot, divided into 160 bands. Captain of each band, 4s. a day; lieutenant, 2s.; two sergeants, a drum, and a surgeon, 12d. each; ensign, 18d.; 94 soldiers and 6 dead pays, 8d. each. Total per annum, 228,246l. 13s. 4d.
Extraordinaries.--For sending letters by messengers; for the hire of a bark to convey packets; gifts and rewards for services; espial money either for foreign countries or for that realm; carriage of treasure, victuals, and munition; necessaries for the clerk of the Council; charges of keeping prisoners, and of buildings and reparations of castles, forts, and houses (all to be passed by concordatum), 5,000l. a year.
Sum total, 277,782l. 15s.
Given under the signet manual, at Richmond, 25 February, 41 Eliz.
II. "A LIST of divers OFFICERS and SERVITORS not contained in the Establishment."
Officers-general.--The Lord Deputy, 1,300l. a year; his band of horsemen (at 4l. 4s. a day), 1,542l. 2s. 6d.; 50 footmen (at 8d. each a day), 608l. 6s. 8d.; treasurer at wars, 35s. a day; marshal, 5s. 9d.; master of the ordnance, 24s. 8d. a day; clerks, gunners, and other ministers of the ordnance, 25s. 2d.; Sir Raphe Lane, muster master, 11s. 6d. Total, 5,313l. 9s. 7d.
Munster.--The President, 133l. 6s. 8d. a year; his diet, 10l. a week; his guard of horse and foot, 30s. 6½d. a day; chief justice, 100l. a year; second justice, 66l. 13s. 4d.; Queen's attorney, 13l. 6s. 8d.; clerk of the Council, 20l.; provost marshal (at 14s. a day), 255l. 10s. Total, 1,657l. 13s. 9½d.
Connaught.--Sir Conyers Clyfford, 100l. a year; his diet and the Council's there, 10s. a day; "more to him for an increase at 10s. per diem;" "more to him an allowance per annum, 40l.;" chief justice, 100l. a year; clerk of the Council, 20l.; sergeant-at-arms, 20l.; provost marshal (at 14s. 6d. a day), 264l. 12s. 6d. Total, 909l. 12s. 6d.
Leinster.--Sir Warham St. Leger, lieutenant of the Queen's County, at 6s. 8d. a day, 121l. 13s. 4d. a year; Owen Ap Hughe, provost marshal of the army, 4s. 3d. a day; Robert Bowen, provost marshal, 5s. 7½d. a day. Total, 301l. 17s. 8½d.
Chief Officers lately erected.--Governor of Loughefoyle, 20s. a day; governor of Karickfergus, 10s.; governor of Dundalk, 10s.; commander of the forces of Cavan, 10s.; commander of the forts of Rathdrome, Castlekeavyn, and Wicklowe, 10s.; commander of the forces in Ofayly, 10s. Total, 1,277l. 10s.
Warders in divers provinces.--In Leinster, 42s. 3d. a day; Munster, at 26s. 4½d.; Ulster, at 28s. 4d.; Connaught, 200l. a year; warders newly erected, 57s. 10d. a day. Total, 3,031l. 0s. 7½d.
Pensioners, Almsmen, and Commissaries.--44 pensioners, 4l. 19s. 2d. a day; 13 almsmen, 6½d. each a day; four commissaries for musters, 6s. 8d. each a day. Total, 2,385l. 8s. 5½d.
Sum total, 13,886l. 13s. 9d.
"This list was signed by the Lords [of the Privy Council], as the former was by her Majesty."

The QUEEN to SIR GEORGE CARYE [Treasurer].  MS 601, p. 174a  7 March 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 174a

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 293.

Warrant to pay to the Earl of Essex, Lieutenant of Ireland, 10l. a day, the entertainment due to his company of 50 horse and 50 foot, and the usual allowance of 1,000l. yearly out of the composition of 2,100l. made with the inhabitants of the Pale in lieu of cesse. The Justices now being (Loftus and Gardner), and the Lieutenant of the army (Ormond) to have the full entertainments ordinarily allowed to a Deputy by equal parts, until they deliver up the sword, deducting all the imprests which they have received before Carye's arrival. Also to pay 20s. by the day to the late Treasurer, Sir Henry Wallopp, during his stay there.
Richmond, 7 March 1598.

To ROBERT [DEVEREUX] EARL OF ESSEX, Earl Marshal of England.  MS 601, p. 159a  [12 March] 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 159a

13 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 294.

Related information: Mr Morrin's Calendar of the Irish Patent Rolls, Elizabeth, pp. 520-522.

Commission to be Lieutenant and Governor General of Ireland, with full powers to suppress the rebellion by any means, to treat with the rebels, to hold a parliament, to use martial law, to remove officers, &c., &c.
Date omitted. [This commission was dated 12 March, 41 Eliz.]

SIR GEORGE CARY, Treasurer at War in Ireland.  MS 601, p. 175a  22 March 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 175a

9 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 295.

"Instructions for George Carye of Cockington in the county of Devon, knight, appointed by us to repair into the realm of Ireland with our cousin the Earl of Essex, and to remain there as our Treasurer at Wars."
Having, at the suit of Sir Henry Walloppe, now Treasurer at Wars in Ireland, revoked him from that charge in regard of his great years, and of the great account he has to make, we have made choice of you to supply that room. You are to enter into that office from the 1st inst. Should any sums be issued by him after that date, "the same shall be by you repaid unto him, and run upon your accompt."
By your letters patent you are both Treasurer at Wars and Under Treasurer of the Exchequer, and further Receiver General of all our revenues there; "which though they be all places distinct and in their true natures not very convenient to be all in one hand, yet, in regard of the great trust we have in you, we are pleased they shall so continue."
The greatness of this late rebellion giving us cause to send thither a greater force than ever we previously had there, we have divided the account of that charge from the ordinary charge for martial services, and caused an establishment to be made thereof apart, which has been delivered to the Lieutenant General (Essex). You are not to exceed the payments specified in it "at your peril."
The men of war are to be furnished from hence with apparel twice a year, at a certain rate, and victuals are to be issued at certain staples to the soldiers at the rate of 4¼d. a day for each man. These sums are to be defaulked upon the pay of the soldiers. Defalcations also to be made of all sums which ought to accrue to us by the checks cessed upon the bands, according to the certificates of the commissaries of the musters; and for powder or munition delivered to any in our pay, "in cases wherein it is not accustomed to be spent at our costs," according to the certificates of the Master or Lieutenant of the Ordnance. We have limited the "extraordinaries" to 5,000l. by the year, which we hope will serve for all such expenses; but we have given warrant to our Privy Council here to pay any further sums necessary. A monthly certificate is to be sent over of all sums issued "by warrant of concordatum," and to be signed by the Council. See that this is done.
A quarterly certificate to be sent hither as usual, to the Treasurer of England or Under Treasurer of the Exchequer, showing the issues of the treasure sent in specie for the payment of the army there.
We have caused a list to be drawn up by our Council here, from the half-yearly books sent over by the Muster Master, of "the old ordinary charge of martial affairs." According to that estimate you are to make payment to the officers therein mentioned, "until such time as our Lieutenant General hath reduced the same to a certain charge; for the doing whereof as we have given him special instruction to be taken in hand presently upon his arrival there by conference with our Council, so we require you, as in a matter specially incident to your charge, to call upon him to see it speedily performed and certified over hither to us or our Council, to the end that thereupon both he and you may receive from us a like establishment under our hand as now you have for our extraordinary army."
Some of the officers have claimed to hold their retinues without check, "which is a great maim to our service there." We have given special charge to our Lieutenant General to examine by what warrant they claim such exemption. "Be mindful to call upon our said Lieutenant General, among his other multitude of affairs, to see the same done."
In the same list we have limited this part of our charge to 15,000l. sterling by the year.
The payments due to officers of justice in the Chancery, the two Benches, the Exchequer, &c. are to be made out of the revenue. If, owing to the disordered state of that kingdom, the revenue will not suffice, payment shall be made to them out of the treasure sent from hence.
Of late years the Treasurer at Wars has made up all captains' reckonings "upon the full pays." To remedy the inconveniences which have followed, we have determined to appoint an auditor of the army, to concur with you in viewing and examining your accounts.
Your predecessor in the office of Receiver General of our revenues there has not made due certificates, nor has a yearly account been made before the officers of the Exchequer. Every half year send us a perfect book under your hand containing the receipt of our revenue there, and the payments made out of it.
On your arrival make us a certificate of the fees and allowances of all the officers of the Exchequer, the Courts of Chancery, both our Benches, "or any other officers of justice or our revenues," and of their fees, showing how far the revenues "do stretch to discharge them."
A great disorder has been used by your predecessors and their clerks "in buying of bills of captains and servitors, which have had pay due unto them by us, at under rates, by laying out money aforehand, and then paying themselves out of our treasure, when it hath come for special services or growing charges." Neither you nor any of your servants are to "intermeddle with buying of bills."
Former Deputies, when in the field, took an allowance of 10l. a day, by concordatums. As our Lieutenant will spend most of his time thus, and "live in other sort than those who have gone before him," you are to pay him the sum of 10l. a day, limited in the establishment, as a standing allowance, from the day of his taking the sword.
Richmond, 22 March 1598.

The QUEEN'S INSTRUCTIONS to the EARL OF ESSEX.  MS 601, p. 166  25 March 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 166

10 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 296.

"Instructions for our Cousin and Councillor Robert Earl of Essex, Earl Marshal of England, &c., Lieutenant and Governor General of our kingdom of Ireland; given at Richmond, the 25th of March 1599."
We find it necessary, both in regard of our honour and the safety of Ireland, to end the rebellion there by a powerful force. We shall "spare no earthly thing of ours" in defence of that kingdom and people. Any person appointed to manage an affair of this nature "cannot but have a great sense and feeling which so great an honour and trust deserveth, and both resolve to undergo the charge with comfort, and study, by all efforts of diligence, faith, and wisdom, to yield us and our estate timely fruits of his endeavours."
Having cast our eyes upon all our servants, and compared the qualities and fitness of each, we have resolved on you before any other, out of former experience of your faith, valour, wisdom, and extraordinary merit. We have made you our Lieutenant and Governor General of Ireland, and "committed to your charge a royal army, paid, furnished, and provided in other sort than any king of this land hath done before."
Although it is not needful for us to instruct you, "to whom all particulars are better known (in respect of your inwardness in counsel and favour with us) than any other that hath gone before you," yet we think it not amiss to prescribe such things as are necessary for you to observe.
Upon your arrival in Ireland deliver our letters to the Lords Justices and Council, receive the sword, and take the oath. Then assemble the Council and require to be informed of the state of that kingdom, and of the strength of the rebels. Take pledges of suspected persons.
The army and people are to be "instructed and contained" in the true exercise and service of God. "This great infection of Popery is so spread over the kingdom, as it is most true that even in time of peace (and within the English Pale) multitudes of parishes have had neither incumbents nor teachers, and in the very good towns of assembly not only recusancy allowed, but massings and idolatry winked at and tolerated." Call the bishops and ecclesiastical ministers to account for it.
Of late years, with the increase of our charge, we have appointed certain learned men in the laws to be Chief Justices of our Benches, Master of the Rolls, and Chief Baron. Give them your assistance in the execution of justice. "We have appointed also certain councillors of estate, whose discretion and experience may much help you in matters of government of that kingdom; whom we do require you to hear and use with all respect."
False certificates have usually been sent over of the numbers serving in our pay, as you know; and our bands have been continually filled up with Irishry, "in such sort as commonly the third person in any one band hath not been English, and the Irish have run away with their arms to the traitor." The rebels have thus been enabled to withstand our forces, and even to besiege and take from us our castles and forts, a matter seldom seen before in that kingdom. Look into all such corruptions and abuses. We are pleased with the order already projected by you for reformation of them.
Inform yourself of the state and strength of our forces, and how they are provided with munitions and victuals; "and because we have, as you know, resolved within compass of what numbers we will have you contain our charge," and there have been continual levies and transportations in excess of those numbers, "send us a perfect declaration what numbers you have, how you have sorted them under captains, colonels, and superior officers, and what are the names of those commanders and captains."
We have of late sent over great masses of victuals, which are to be defalked out of the soldiers' pay. Direct the Treasurer at Wars to see due defalcation made, and "to have special care for the better preservation of our people in health, that the officers for the victuals may keep the same from waste or putrifaction." The soldiers to be ordered to take them from our victuallers in time convenient, and not to leave them upon our hands till it become unwholesome. If any merchants be licensed to bring over victuals, the sale of such victuals is not to be to the prejudice of ours.
The ordnance, powder, and munition is not to be wastefully expended, and defalcation to be made out of the pays of such as receive them. Cause the Treasurer at Wars and the Muster Master to inform you what persons in our pay "pretend to be exempted from being checked." All who have warrants for such exemptions are to be ordered to have ready such horse and foot as are allowed them.
You have authority to order payment of extraordinary sums "by way of concordatum, but we have caused to be made and signed with our hand an establishment of an army, consisting of divers principal officers, newly increased from our former lists, with an allowance to every of them of several entertainments, and likewise have set down in the said establishment the number of 1,300 horse in bands, with their captains and officers." They are to be paid accordingly.
Our Council here have signed another list of persons not contained in the establishment, being principal officers, governors of provinces, with their retinues, governors of castles, forts, and wards, pensioners, almsmen, and such like, amounting to 15,000l., which sum is not to be exceeded.
Great sums of money have been granted by our Deputies and Council by concordatums for very mean services and unnecessary causes. Be sparing of such concordatums, which are not to exceed the sum limited in the said establishment, and are to be enrolled in our Council books; certificates to be sent to us every month.
We have given you extraordinary power to grant pardons to all persons in rebellion.
In consideration of our infinite charges, endeavour to procure us "profits by way of fines or otherwise." The rebels are to be tied by the same tenures, rents, and services as formerly. "Give them their pardons with reservation of some beeves yearly payable to us, or else some competent rising-out of horse and foot. You shall also bind them to keep open the dangerous passages, to use English habit and language, to yield yearly some works to the maintenance of some several forts."
"We have given you liberty in Ulster to pass the lands of certain persons named in your commission," [The Earl of Tyrone, O'Donnell, O'Rowrk, McGuire, and McSurley Boy.] but you are not to pass away the lands of O'Dohortye or Sir Arthur O'Neale, as we have reason to believe their defection is rather of necessity than of disloyalty.
We have also given you liberty to let lands in fee-farm. Inform yourself of the plot devised for the Undertakers in Munster, and take the opinion of the Council.
Reduce the numbers of 16,000 foot and 1,300 horse, which we have granted, as soon as possible.
Confer knighthood upon none who do not deserve it by some notorious service, or who have not in possession or reversion sufficient living. That order has been hitherto granted without moderation.
It is not unlikely that the capital traitor, upon your arrival, will make some means to be received to our mercy, and profess, as formerly he did to our cousin of Ormonde and Norreys, that he desires to show himself a good subject. Let it at first appear "that you will not receive him upon any capitulations, but upon simple and single submission." If that seems to increase his despair, grant him our pardon only for his life, without any further favour. You know how weakly others dealt with him, after he had received our pardon. Therefore, after his pardon is granted, you are not to let him depart without good security that he do not return to his disloyalty.
As you would lose time by sending to us for instructions, in case he should refuse the above conditions, we give you further authority "to take him in upon such conditions as you shall find good and necessary for our honour and safety of that kingdom."


Former reference: MS 601, p. 174

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 297.

Licence by the Queen, at his own request, "to return to her Majesty's presence at such times as he shall find cause," leaving two Lords Justices there in his absence.
Under the Signet Manual, Richmond, 27 March 1599.

"BRIEFS of LETTERS PATENT, WARRANTS, COMMISSIONS, &c."  MS 601, p. 135  27 March 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 135

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 298.

1597, 20 Sept.--Sir Thomas Norris, upon the death of his brother Sir John Norris, by her Majesty's warrant to the Lord Bouroghe, Lord Deputy, was established Lord President of Munster.
1597, 29 Oct.--Thomas Butler, Earl of Ormond, upon the death of the Lord Bouroghe, by virtue of her Majesty's letters to the Council, was made Lieutenant General and Captain of the army, and a commission was sent him by her Majesty.
1597, 1 Nov.--The Earl of Ormond, by virtue of her Majesty's letters to the Lords Justices, was allowed 100 marks sterling per mensem for the execution of the office of Lieutenant General, 30 horsemen and 30 footmen; and the said Lords were allowed 33l. 6s. 8d. per mensem, to be divided between them, and 10 horse and 10 foot each.
1597, 15 Nov.--Sir Thomas Norris, elected Lord Justice by the Council upon the death of the Lord Bouroghe, was discharged from the said office; and Adam Loftus, Archbishop of Dublin and Lord Chancellor, and Sir Robert Gardiner, Chief Justice, were made Lords Justices.
[1598], 7 Aug.--Sir Samuel Bagenall appointed colonel of the forces sent to Loghfoile, consisting of 2,000 foot and 100 horse; and Charles Egerton nominated lieutenant colonel of the said forces.
1598, 31 Aug.--Sir Richard Bingham, by virtue of her Majesty's letters to the Lords Justices and Council of Ireland, upon the death of Sir Henry Bagnall, slain at the Blackwater, was established Marshal of the army of Ireland.
1598[-9], 22 March.--The Lords Justices were commanded by her Majesty's letters to deliver up the sword to the Earl of Essex, Lord Lieutenant.
1599, 27 March.--Sir Henry Walloppe, by virtue of her Majesty's letters to Robert Earl of Essex, Lord Lieutenant, was discharged of his office, and Sir George Cary was appointed Treasurer at Wars in his place.
Her Majesty also directed special letters to Walloppe to render up his office to Cary.

The QUEEN to the EARL OF ESSEX, Lord Lieutenant.  MS 601, p. 179a  19 July 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 179a

5 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 307.

We perceive by your letters to our Council, brought by Henry Carye, that you have arrived at Dublin after your journey into Munster. You do not inform us when you intend to proceed to the northern action. Much time and excessive charges have been spent to little purpose.
"Your two months' journey hath brought in never a capital rebel, against whom it had been worthy to have adventured one thousand men; for of these two comings in that were brought unto you by Ormonde (namely, Mountgarret and Cahir), whereupon ensued the taking of Cahir Castle, full well do we know that you would long since have scorned to have allowed it for any great matter in others to have taken an Irish hold from a rabble of rogues with such force as you had and with the help of the cannon, which was always able in Ireland to make his passage where it pleased."
Nothing has been done which the President (Norris) might not have effected. On the other enterprise depends our greatest expectation. What displeases us most "is that it must be the Queen of England's fortune (who hath held down the greatest enemy she had) to make a base Irish kerne to be accounted so famous a rebel." Ormonde assured us that he "delivered you a charge of a kingdom without either town maritime or inland or hold possessed by the traitors." Tyrone has been pleased to see our army employed against "those base rogues," who were not strengthened by foreign armies, but only by his offal. "Little do you know how he hath blazed in foreign parts the defeats of regiments, the death of captains, and loss of men of quality in every corner." Surprises would have found better success than public and notorious marches. Regiments should not be committed to young gentlemen; and you have not informed us "who they be that spend our treasure and carry places of note in our army."
"Your pen flatters you with phrases, that here you are defeated, that you are disgraced from hence in your friends' fortune, that poor Ireland suffers in you." These are the effects of your own actions, which are contrary to our will, and cause an opinion that any person may dare displease us. We will not tolerate this. "Whosoever it be that you do clad with any honours or places wherein the world may read the least suspicion of neglect or contempt of your commandments, we will never make dainty to set on such shadows as shall quickly eclipse any of those lustres."
"You allege such weakness in our army by being travailed with you, and find so great and important affairs to digest at Dublin, [but you] will yet engage yourself personally into Ophally (being our Lieutenant), where you have so many inferiors able enough to victual a fort, or seek revenge of those that have lately prospered against our forces." In order to plant garrisons in the North and assail that proud rebel, we command you to pass thither with all speed.
"For the matter of [the Earl of] Southampton [Wriothesley], it is strange to us that his continuance or displacing should work so great an alteration either in yourself (valuing our commandments as you ought) or in the disposition of our army." His counsel and experience can be of little use; nor do we believe your assertion that the "voluntary gentlemen are so discouraged thereby, as they begin to desire passports and prepare to return."
Greenwich, 19 July 1599.

The QUEEN to the LORD LIEUTENANT and COUNCIL of IRELAND.  MS 601, p. 182  10 Aug 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 182

4 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 308.

"The letter which we have received this day of that Council concerning your opinions for the northern action doth rather deserve reproof than much answer." We see you dissuade that which must be done. Courtesies have made it of greater difficulty. You (the Lieutenant) are following the examples of the late Deputies Russell and FitzWilliams. You of that Council have been the cause of that corruption in religion, by favouring Popery; and it was you who persuaded our Lieutenant, on his landing, to make so long a journey into Munster. Now we receive new arguments framed to keep our army out of the North, and thus to increase the rebels' pride. "Do you forget that within these seven days you made a hot demand of 2,000 men for this action, and now, before you have answer, send us tidings that this huge charge must leave Tyrone untouched? What would you have us believe, if we did not think you loyal, but that either some of you cannot forget your old goodwills to that traitor, or else are insensible of all things save your own particulars?" As for Lough Foile, "which still you ring in our ears to be the place that would most annoy the rebels, we doubt not but to hear by the next that it is begun, and not in question."
In answer to the letter from you our Lieutenant, "where you describe unto us how strongly our Presidents of Munster and Connaught (Norris and Clifford) are mustered in those provinces, without doing anything upon the rebels, that Ophally with 1,500 cannot save themselves, that the northern garrisons are able to do nothing with 3,000 men, that within two miles of Dublin there are stealths and incursions; if it grow out of negligence of our governors, it were fit to know it; if otherwise, then we wish they had occupied fewer numbers, seeing that they ran no worse fortune before this great army arrived. And for the places which you have taken, we conceive you will leave no great numbers in them, seeing our provinces where they are seated receive no better fruits of their plantation; nor that we can hope of more success (by the Council's writing) than to be able to keep our towns that were never lost, and some petty holds of small importance, with more than three parts of our army, it being decreed for the head of the rebellion (as it seems by them) that our forces shall not find the way this year to behold them."
"Howsoever you seem to apportion the numbers only of 4,750 foot and 340 horse for the journey of Ulster, yet ought you to reckon the greatest part of the forces of Connaught as one of the portions always designed to correspond that service; to which, if you shall add these 2,000 which we have granted you, with such extractions as upon better consideration you may draw both from divers places that serve rather for protections of private men's countries and fortunes than for the good of the public cause, besides what you may carry out of the frontier northern garrisons (which are near his country), you may not reckon under 10,000 or 11,000 for that service."
"Out of your own letters we may sufficiently gather the small success of your painful endeavours, where we confess our army hath lost no honour under your person; and out of our letters you may collect some sufficient matter to prove that we command you no impossibilities."
Nonesuch, 10 August 1599.

RETURN of ESSEX.  MS 601, p. 243  3 Oct 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 243

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 321.

"The Earl of Essex his Answers to the Articles whereto his Lordship's opinion was desired, 3° Octob. 1599, concerning O'Donnell and the dividing of the Army into the several Provinces."
[I proposed to Tyrone?] "that her Majesty should in Ulster have as much profit and obedience as ever she was answered; and in the other provinces all lords of countries and gentlemen that had land should yield her Majesty such rents and duties as had been usually paid to the Crown. And as he assured himself they would all do as he would have them, so, if any were unruly, he would not only abandon them, but assist their prosecution; but all upon this condition, that I procured him that secret and inward satisfaction from her Majesty which I have heretofore signified, and that I would give my word and protestation that I had received it from her Majesty.
"After he came from O'Donnell he made no new offer, but sent me word that O'Donnell and the rest would be ruled by him...... He urged that it might be general, for he said that it was best for her Majesty, and best for that poor country, but there should be no delay." He expects restitution to lands and livings for himself and all that shall be pardoned.
"I came over resolved upon the very knees of my heart to beseech her Majesty to accept of this opportunity to reduce that miserable kingdom; and if this band were once broken, I doubt not but to weaken them and break them by degrees, without any hazard or great charges." I purposed to reduce the army to 9,000 foot and 800 horse--in Leinster 3,000 foot and 300 horse, in Munster 3,000 foot and 200 horse, in Ulster 2,000 foot and 150 horse, in Connaught 1,000 foot and 150 horse; "and as I had daily grown upon the Irish, so I would have still more and more lessened her Majesty's charge."
"The disclaiming of his wriaghrs and receiving of sheriffs are not things to be urged to him till her Majesty be stronger and he weaker;..... but if this composition were once made there should be means enough to draw his wriaghrs from him, and arctiores imponere leges..... He will admit garrisons, what there usually of late years hath been."
"I have his oaths and vows that, if there be no stop of her Majesty's side, he will give me any security, saving his own coming in."
I advise her Majesty to allow me at my return to Dublin to conclude this treaty, yielding some of these grants for the present, and when her Majesty has made secret preparation to enable me to prosecute, I will find "quarrels enough to break," and give them a deadly blow.
I crave pardon for this "confused style, which my present state of body causeth."

The QUEEN to the LORDS JUSTICES, LORD LIEUTENANT, and COUNCIL.  MS 601, p. 183a  6 Oct 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 183a

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 323.

"You shall understand that upon the arrival of Essex from his charge, he hath delivered us particular relations of the state of our affairs. First, that he hath left the government of that kingdom to you two [Archbishop Loftus and Sir George Carey.] as our Justices, and to you our cousin of Ormond as Lieutenant of our army, of which distribution we do allow, and hereby do confirm the same in manner and form as he left it by virtue of our commission.
"Secondly, he did impart unto us many particulars of the courses which our forces held, and of the ill success happened in his time to divers ill-guided and conducted troops of ours, wherein we took occasion to expostulate with him, his long tergiversation in the Northern action, whereby all opportunity was past, our army weakened, and the rebels grown strong and increased in their pride, and so our whole year's charge consumed to no purpose.
"He did plainly answer us, that whatsoever he did in that point, he did it contrary to his own proposition and desire, rather choosing to assent to so general a contestation in all you of the Council, who dissuaded it, than to venture to be taxed for a singularity in a matter whereof the success was doubtful.
"Lastly, he declared that upon a meeting with Tyrone he had found in him an internal desire to become a good subject, and that he had made divers offers and petitions, whereupon to be received to our grace and favour; which being examined by him, and appearing in many things unreasonable, he would no way conclude until our pleasure was first had, but suspended all final answer therein, and yielded to a cessation from six weeks to six weeks, if 14 days' warning were not given; which in effect is but an abstinence for 14 days. And therein also we do note that it had been an argument of more duty in Tyrone to have submitted that condition to a less equality, seeing he is to win our grace by lowly and humble conditions, and not by loftiness. Nevertheless, for that point of the cessation, our pleasure is that you do [no] way break it, for in whatsoever any word is passed from him that representeth our person, we will have no pretext to warrant any violation of that which we have ever held so precious.
"And yet to you we cannot hide that we are displeased that our kingdom hath been so ill ordered as that we must accept of such proceedings before the rebel had tasted somewhat of our power; neither could we like his [Essex's] judgment in coming over so suddenly to us in person, knowing well that upon this abrupt departure every ill spirit would fashion sinister conjectures, some that the State was desperate, others that himself (upon whose judgment it was likely that we would rely) would imagine it fit to have his offer taken in all points, or else that he would rather have written than come. In which consideration, to the intent that no man hereafter should leave such a charge so suddenly without making any end one way or other, we could do no less than sequester him from our presence for some time into the house of one of our Privy Council, as an argument of our mislike thereof. For although it be known to us that the treaty set on foot between the King of Spain and us taketh away any doubt that he will now give any succours to those rebels, yet was it more than he knew but that the remain of the forces at the Groyne, [Logroñ in Spain.] being frustrated of other attempts, might have been sent thither; which, if it should have happened during his absence, could not but have wrought confusion in that State.
"Of this much we think fit that you be informed, lest it might be conceived that we misliked to hear of any submission, or that the traitor might think we meant to reject him. And, therefore, we would have him understand from you our cousin of Ormond, that although we mislike divers particulars in his offers, yet do we both allow of his desire to be forgiven, and are resolved (if the fault be not in himself) to restore him to our grace and favour. But forasmuch as his petitions consist of many considerable circumstances, wherein we must have regard to our honour above all things, we will defer our final answer for some few days, and then return to him our pleasure under our hand by some so confident personage, as when he looketh down into the centre of his faults, and up to the height of our mercy, he shall find and feel that he is the creature of a gracious Sovereign, that taketh more contentment to save than to destroy the work of our own hands.
"If you shall think good to choose our Secretary Fenton, with some assistant, to deliver them this much, and thereby to see how he stand affected, we shall well allow that election, or of any other that you shall think fit for our service, if sickness or any other sufficient cause do hinder his employment.
"It remaineth now that we command you, the Justices, to forbear making knights, granting of leases, wards, pardons, or pensions, and further to advise us what is the state of our army and of our treasure, and what accidents have happened since Essex his return; and whensoever you shall have heard anything from the traitor, to certify that also to our Council here. And where we have heard that some of our Council there are desirous to come over for their own private business, our pleasure is that you do not license any of them until you receive further order from us, or that we shall have with some further time settled a more certain course in that State.
"At the Court at Richmond, the 6th of October 1599."

The QUEEN to SIR JEFFREY FENTON, Secretary for Ireland.  MS 601, p. 185  5 Nov 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 185

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 326.

When, on the return of Essex out of Ireland, we commanded you to confer with Tyrone in order to learn "in what sort he did crave our mercy," we promised to send over some person with authority to conclude. As the nobleman whom we intend to send to rule that kingdom cannot be ready so soon as we expected, we impart our pleasure to you.
"We do find by the manner of Essex his report that he (Tyrone) seemeth to have been much carried on to this course of submission in respect of the opinion he had of him, and the confidence he had by his mediation to procure all his desires; Tyrone professing, as it seemed by Essex his words, that such was his affection to himself for his father's sake, as he would not draw his sword against him, but he would do that for him which he would not do for any other. Herein we have thought good to require you to let him plainly understand that, although we do no more mislike that he should address himself to us by Essex than by any other that should hold his place (it being always proper for men in his degree to make their suits known by those to whom the Prince committeth the trust of her kingdom), yet we would have him consider and remember, that as he is our subject born, and raised to honour by us only, and not born to depend upon any second power (as long as he shall carry himself like a good subject), so if, after his offences known to the world so publicly, this submission [of] his shall not as well appear to the world by all clear circumstances to proceed simply out of his inward grief and sorrow for his offences against us, and from his earnest desire only to satisfy us his Sovereign, but that it must be bruited abroad, that for any other man's respect whosoever he takes the way, either sooner or later, to become a good subject, or that it shall be conceived that Tyrone would forbear to draw his sword against our Lieutenant rather than against us, we shall take ourself thereby much dishonoured, and neither could value anything that shall proceed from him on such conditions, nor dispose our mind to be so gracious to him hereafter as otherwise we might have been induced.
"And therefore we would have you assure him, first, if he be put in the head, that though we should vouchsafe to pardon him presently, yet there might be some courses of injustice or hard measure offered him hereafter by those to whom the rule of that kingdom should be committed, that he shall never see the day, whensoever we have vouchsafed to pronounce the word of mercy and pardon to any, have he been never so notorious an offender, that any subject living shall use him in other sort than for such a one as we shall have received him. And, therefore, if any such suspicion may be raised in his mind, let him distrust those that so tell him, to care more for their own particular ends than for his good.
"And further, because we have understood that, in respect of our restraint of Essex here, it may be surmised or devised there that we have so proceeded with Essex because we mislike that he hath come over to persuade us to a course of mercy, as though we had a heart so hardened from compassion of the miseries of that kingdom, that we should be dealt withal to relieve the same by any other course than by the shedding of our people's blood, we would have you let him know from ourself that our displeasure towards him hath no such relation, but hath grown by his breach of our commandment in bestowing our offices and honours contrary to his instructions, for issuing great sums of money contrary to our warrant, and for divers other things, besides his last presuming to come personally over out of that kingdom where we had absolutely commanded him to stay till we had sent him licence under our hand, and sent over some other nobleman to take his place; all which we could not suffer to pass unpunished, unless we would have given encouragement to others to have offended us with the like presumption.
"So as to conclude: although there be some points in his petition to Essex concerning others his confederates in rebellion which we can neither clearly understand nor can accept in the form he seeketh (except he explain himself the better), it seemeth by Essex' own speech that the short time of their conference made him not fully conceive the particular meaning of Tyrone in divers of those articles; yet forasmuch as we have heard that since his meeting with Essex he hath showed no ill affection towards us (to our knowledge), but hath observed the cessation for his part inviolable, whereby in the eye of the world there is some show that he hath a desire and purpose to please us, which he hath not performed heretofore upon like occasions, our pleasure is that you confer with him more particularly at this meeting, and drive him from his follies by letting him know what we have been and may be to him if he deserve it, and by making him see what it is to trust to foreign princes that despise him but to serve their turns, and whensoever they should help him, would esteem him but as a traitor, where by returning to his Prince he might escape misery, which must be his end, as the condemnation of ingratitude hath been [Sic.] for so notorious and unnatural offending her that made him what he is, and will at last make him feel her power, rather than to be still dishonoured. The remission of all which you may assure him by virtue hereof, if he shall give us just cause by such reasonable and dutiful offers to believe that he hath a remorse of his former errors, and a resolution to become and continue a good subject. Our purpose being, at his earnest and humble suit, notwithstanding so many his just provocations of our indignation, to receive him now at last into our grace and mercy, so to live and to be used by us as shall be for his greatest comfort, without any thought of taking other revenge towards him than Almighty God doth use after he hath forgiven the greatest sinners, upon their speedy and sincere craving of mercy."
Richmond, 5 November 1599.

The QUEEN to the LORDS JUSTICES, LORD LIEUTENANT, and COUNCIL.  MS 601, p. 186a  6 Nov 1599

Former reference: MS 601, p. 186a

6 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73, vol. III, document 327.

"We have understood that you our Secretary (Fenton) are now to go to the borders to speak with Tyrone, and that Warren is appointed to assist you in this service, as one of whose person the traitor is not suspicious." If he present such offers as prove his intention to become a good subject, "we will rather vouchsafe mercy than spend the lives of our subjects one against another."
When Essex returned, he acquainted us with Tyrone's offers, which "are both full of scandal to our realm and future peril in that State." What would become of all Munster, Leyx, and Ophally, "if all the ancient exiled rebels be restored to all that our laws and hereditary succession have bestowed upon us?" It is probable that, "by the ill carriage of all our actions of late, he had discovered that the likelihood of prevailing by present prosecution or plantation of Northern garrisons was taken away, and therefore sought to possess our late Lieutenant with these demands."
Consideration should be had of the expense and charge at which we have been to so little purpose; but if we may do so with honour, and without raising him "to a greater exorbitancy, we will pardon his past faults." It would be an indignity that those who were always his enemies, until they united in rebellion, must now publicly work their good by him that wrought them into their treasons.
"For himself and the Northern traitors, if he did only seek to compound, so might the matter be carried,--as it was heretofore in Norries' time, which is well known to you our Secretary,--that he might be assured under hand that they should be pardoned upon their own reasonable submission, though in the face of the world they should be left single to crave our mercy. For any other personal coming in of himself, or constraint in religion, we can be content for the first that he may know he shall not be peremptorily concluded, and in the second that we leave to God, who knows best how to work his will in those things, by means more fit than by violence, which doth rather obdurate than reform [...] And therefore, as in that case he need not to dread us, so we intend not to bind ourselves further for his security than by our former course we have witnessed; who have not used rigour in that point, even when we might with more probability have forced others, then those [Qu. mistake for "than those who," &c.] are so far from religion as they are scarce acquainted with civility.
"That the last cessation was kept by Tyrone we do understand, and therefore allow better of that point in him than before we had cause. For those things that were done by you our cousin of Ormonde, in revenge of them that brake it in Wexford, we think it done both valiantly and justly if it be as we do hear. Only this we must recommend unto you, as a matter of consequence, that you do not irritate nor oppress any such as have submitted themselves to us, and do continue obedient, in respect of any private unkindness of your own, as Mountgarrett, Cahyre, or others, if they do not fall from their duties again. Of both which we would know on what conditions they were received, and what surety they have given for their continuance; it being strange to us, even for honour's sake, that when Tyrone assented first to a cessation, that he did not, as in all former times men have done, put in pledges for the observation.
"For the secret satisfaction which he pretended by Essex to receive from us by him that was our Governor, we have written to our Secretary to make him know our pleasure, which we conceive he cannot be so senseless as not to esteem all one, though he hath it not by the mean he would receive it; for that were to make us think that he were more carried and addicted with private affection to our subjects and servants than with loyal and entire humbleness and love to his Sovereign. For what can any man's power be to do him, or any, good, which must not be derived from us?" He is not to pretend fear or doubt of our mercy, "because those who have deserved our displeasure for other things are not still honoured with our employments." On this subject we have written to our Secretary Fenton.
"Though we will not assent in other provinces to the restitution of all traitors to their livings, or the displantation of our subjects that have spent their lives in the just defences of their possessions which they have taken and held from us or our ancestors, yet if any of them, by voluntary encroachment, by packing false titles, or unjust oppression, have drawn any into misery or rebellion, we will see these things justly and duty with all speed reformed, and in the point of justice make no difference of persons when justice shall be craved by all in one fashion."
If we be driven to use our sword, "we do think all courses vain that shall be carried on with plantation of garrisons, thereby to make the war in another sort than it hath been; and therefore can we not but still challenge you all, and you especially, our cousin of Ormonde, that contrary to that counsel you did so strangely urge our Lieutenant against his own mind (as he protesteth) still to range so far from place to place in Munster, and to spend so long time as not to arrive at Dublin before July were a third part spent, whereby you know that all the forces he carried (which were the flower of our army) were tired and harassed, and it [was] accounted honour enough to bring them back again; whereof you saw this effect to follow, that in some corners whole regiments were defeated in many places, divers disasters happened, and in all places, wheresoever the army itself marched, some losses fell of our best commanders, which was to those base rebels an honour, though not a victory, and to our nation a discouragement, whilst the traitor triumphed, whom all you [knew we ?] so earnestly wished to be first attempted, who contrarywise sat still and kept our army [in] play with the overplus of his loose men, which he was desirous to rid of himself.
"Surely we must still say that the errors were excusable in none of you that prolonged the time, though in him less than any other who best knew our pleasure in that and all other things, wherein he more directly and more contemptuously disobeyed us; and though we did not disallow it for some short time at first in all you when we heard of it, yet we dreamed not of such a prolongation as should make it impossible either to plant at Loughefoile, or prosecute him in other places of his country, but that both the time and means should be so consumed and disjointed for such an action; for he that shall read any of his letters after he came last to Dublin shall only see great words, what he meant and wished to be done, but in the substance of his letters nothing appeared but impossibilities to do anything."
Should gracious dealing be unavailing, we will cause Loughfoile to be planted, and make war upon Tyrone, "being now in great terms to compound the wars with Spain; wherein, to the intent you our cousin of Ormonde may see your mistress, after the old fashion, loveth rather to be sought to than to seek to, we have caused our Secretary by his particular letter to inform you, and to show you how the Lieutenant of the King of Spain's army in the Low Countries, being by the House of Austria his cousin, and a Cardinal, made the first overture of that peace, and still pursued since by letters and messages earnestly, until the King of Spain and the Archduke with his wife, the Infanta, have declared themselves in it so far as it is now reduced to the terms it stands on; so as the rebels of Ireland shall have little cause to look for help from him, nor we be distracted from a considerate and judicial proceeding to end that war."
"What will be the answer of the traitor for the last treason of the bridge where Esmond's company was defeated, we do attend by your next despatch, and what reason he will yield for usurping so unjustly in the time of the cessation to place Bremingham in the county of Kildare. But of these things we could wish that you would cause Fenton to expostulate as from you our Governor there, rather than to take it from us, because we are desirous--if there may be appearance of any good means to save that kingdom from the curse of continual war--rather to seem for a beginning to be ignorant for some offences, than by taking notice of them to make them desperate." [The following proverb is quoted here: "He goes far that never turns."]
Although we purpose to send over some nobleman of this kingdom to make prosecution if there be cause, yet we repose so much upon the judgment and fidelity of you our cousin of Ormonde, that we wish you to make your greatest residence at Dublin in the meanwhile.
We hear of soldiers continually coming over, "not only sick men, but very able bodies."
Richmond, 6 November 1599.

The LORD DEPUTY'S JOURNEY into the QUEEN'S COUNTY.  MS 601, p. 195  26 Aug 1600

Former reference: MS 601, p. 195

6 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. III, document 442.

Before his departure from Dublin, on 11 August 1600, the Lord Deputy left order with the Treasurer (Carey) and the Council "to expedite all things in his absence for the Northern journey, to despatch all victuals and munition, as they should arrive, to the Newry, and to send unto all parts letters for the general hostings and for beoves." The Northern borders were left well guarded against any incursion.
The 12th, Thursday, he went to the Nas, having given order for the victuals and munition to meet him at Castledermode.
The 13th to Moone, where the forces met--800 foot and 100 horse. His Lordship wrote to the Earl of Ormond that his and Sir Chr. St. Lawrence's companies should fall into Leixe by Idough on the Saturday night following, and on Sunday night meet him at Culinagh.
The 14th he marched towards Donill Spaniagh's country, and in the evening turned to Catherlogh. By the way he left Sir James FitzPeirs and Sir Henry Folliott, with 400 men, " to fall into Leix another way (that night) for some prey."
The 15th, FitzPeirs and Follyott returned without any prey, having fallen upon Keating's house in the midst of his fastness, where Wony McRory with 100 kerne skirmished with us. " The Lord Deputy removed from Carlogh to the foot of the mountain into Keating's country, burned and spoiled both it and the corn thereabouts."
The 16th he sent 600 foot under Sir Oliver Lambert, " who marched through all the fastness of Slemarge, spoiling their plots of corn within the woods, and burning their towns, with some skirmish in the passes." His Lordship coasted along the plains, spoiling and burning likewise, " passing quietly over a ford between two woods, where the Earl of Ormond, entering into Leixe heretofore with 1,500 men, was soundly fought with." At evening the forces met at the camp, where a boy came from Wony with a letter desiring some gentleman might be sent to him for conference. His Lordship would not receive it, but caused it to be delivered to Neale Moore, his Irish fool, to answer. At the river, where the army was to water, there were some skirmishes, because the river was near a wood.
The 17th the army encamped at Ferny Abbey. In the way, the army marching along the valley, the rebels coasted along the mountains. His Lordship having sent the Marshal before to make the encampment, and waiting for the rest of the army, " divers of the rebels came from the hill, waving us to them with their swords and calling us, as their manner is, with railing speeches." Our men fired certain houses, beat back the rebels who came to the rescue, " and fell into their greatest fastness with them." In this skirmish Wony McRory was mortally wounded, and died that night. Callogh McWalter, the most bloody rebel in Leinster, " was killed in helping of Owny, who for the time was in a sound, and left till night hidden in a bush." Callogh's head was brought in. " This man, besides the killing of Capt. Bozwell and Sir Henry Dockwray's lieutenant last year, and divers famous murders in these parts, was, as it is reported, the first man that laid hand on the Earl of Ormond when he was taken prisoner by Owny." The next day we heard that Wony, "fearing his head should come into the Lord Deputy's hands, had willed it to be cut off after his death, and buried, and appointed Owny McShane, a man of no spirit or courage, to be O'Moore." Upon Owny's death the Moores dispersed by six and ten in a company, every man seeking to save his own.
Two parties were sent out to search the woods for cattle. They returned the next day, the 18th, with six or seven score cows and great store of sheep and goats. The rebels having driven most of their cattle into Ossery, the prey could not be very great. A base son of the Earl of Ormond's took 400 head of cattle. This day the Earl and Sir Christopher came with 300 foot and 120 horse.
The 19th the army passed the pass of Cashell to Ballyroane; and the 20th to Kilgighy in Ossery, by way of the castle of Gortende, where the Earl had been kept during his imprisonment. Ormond received letters from Donill Spaniagh and Redmond Keating, craving safeconduct to come to the Lord Deputy. " All the way we burned all their houses in their fastnesses and woods. In one of them was found the Queen's picture behind the door, and the King of Spain's at the upper end of the table." Sir Christopher took a prey of 700 cows, besides sheep and goats, of which few came to the camp. " The rest, as it is said, were shifted into Kilkenny and the counties near adjoining." His Lordship was persuaded to draw down into Ossery, the nursery of the rebellion in Leix, to burn their corn; the Earl being of opinion that the chief rebels there would give in their pledges.
"The 21st we encamped by Teig FitzPatrick's castle, the Lord of Upper Osserie's son, but in rebellion," who on our approach set his own town on fire. Here Redmond Keatinge submitted, with condition to deliver the Earl of Ormond's pledges remaining in his hands.
The 22nd the army, having spoiled the corn about the castle, crossed the Nore, which it could hardly have done afterwards by reason of 28 hours' rain. The Kellies and Lalors were protected for a month, upon condition to bring in the Earl's pledges in their custody within 10 days. Redmond Bourk made complaint by letter of wrong done to him, and was willing to do service.
"The 23rd the Lord Mountgarrett's sons, Richard and Edward, took their oath to be true subjects, as by the act thereof may appear.
"The 24th recognizance of 2,000l. was signed by the Lord Mountgarrett and his sureties for the redelivery of Ballyraggott upon 20 days' warning," The pass of Cashell was said to be possessed by 2,560 rebels, according to a list delivered to the Earl of Ormond by one that affirmed on oath he had seen so many mustered. A little before the entrance of the pass Donnill Spaniagh, who was to have maintained the fight on the right hand, came and fell down on his knees before the Lord Deputy, and desired protection for 12 days till he might come to Dublin, which was granted, for at that time his Lordship could do him no harm. Thereupon his men drew up to the mountain to see the event of the fight. We turned with our carriage through an upper pass, in the midst whereof they charged us, with a great cry, but our men beat them into the lower pass and into the bog beyond, and from thence into their woods. Captain William Tyrrell was shot into the reins, and is said to be dead. The army then marched to Stradbally. His Lordship with 20 horse went to see the fort of Leix, and came that night to the camp. The 25th the companies were sent to their garrisons. His Lordship came to the Naas, where he found 700 of the new men placed; and the 26th to Dublin.

Carew Manuscript  MS 602  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602

The EARL of NORTHAMPTON and the "Act of Absentees." [Apparently a proposition to be made to Northampton.]  MS 602, p. 83  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 83

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. V, document 231.

Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, being seized of sundry lands in Leinster, which descended to him from his ancestors, was dispossessed by an Act of Parliament passed in Ireland, 28 Hen. VIII., named "The Act of Absentees," by which all his lands and those of the Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Bartley, and others were given to the Crown, because he and his said compartners were absent and demeurant in the realm of England; "and seeing no defence to maintain and preserve their dominions in Ireland, but permitted in the rebellion of Th. Fitz Gerald, son and heir to Gerald, Earl of Kildare attainted, and his accomplices to enter into the possessions for want of defence, for six months (for the rebellion continued no longer), in which time the King was fain to send an army royal into Ireland to recover the said lands, and for the overthrowing of the said Thomas and his accomplices, and the adopting of the said possessions from the said rebels." Notwithstanding this the Earl of Shrewsbury had lands in exchange there for those in Ireland taken from him. Most of the forfeited possessions passed from the Crown to private persons, to some in fee simple, to others in fee tail, to others in fee farms, and otherwise, so that the Crown obtains little revenue from them. It is therefore requisite that the Earl of Northampton should beg all those possessions of his predecessors, forfeited by the said Act, by new grant from the King to be confirmed by Parliament. The said possessions are of the yearly value of 1,000l., and are held by private persons for small considerations or none at all. If they be resumed the tenants cannot be greatly indemnified, considering what commodities they have gained since the time of their grants. Upon obtaining them, the Earl may acquire sundry forts and places, which it is unsafe to leave in the hands of the present possessors. If the Earl should be pleased hereafter to exchange them for possessions in England, the Crown would gain 1,000l. a year at least in rent. The Earl of Shrewsbury had that exchange because his estates in England were of far greater value than those in Ireland, and it was not requisite he should reside upon his lands in Ireland. Another cause was that the rebellion continued so short a time that he had no time to send defence to his possessions, as the rebels were soon suppressed by the King's forces. This is the Duke of Norfolk's case also. Sir Garrate Almere, Chief Justice of the King's Bench in Ireland, was "the cause of this Act, in spleen to the Earl of Shrewsbury who was his mortal enemy. If his Lordship (Northampton) affect this or purchases in Ireland he shall be instructed in matters of great moment both of that nature and others, that concern the avayle of the Crown.
II. "A Breviate of the Conquest of Ireland." [This a copy of MS 621,p. 92 as far as the end of the sixth paragraph.]
In a hand of the reign of Eliz. or James I.

THOMAS WALKER'S PROJECT.  MS 602, p. 170  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 170

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. V, document 232.

A PROJECT touching some abuses done by the Victuallers during the wars in Ireland.
First, I collect that in all sea journeys, a provision may be made for six months or eight months, without any waste, the means of stowage being nothing so convenient as it is for land services.
If so be that in sea journeys the victualling be so profitable, there is much greater reason that the victuallers for a land army should do the like, their contracts being but from 6 months to 6, many times 3 months and 3.
In like manner in these late Irish wars the victuallers had time enough to make choice of the best victuals most necessary for the service, and to pack it up in that substantial manner that little waste or none at all could be in transporting it, the passage from the west of England being no more than 2 or 3 days' sail at most; so upon their arrival it was always put into very convenient storehouses.
In all reason these passages could cause little waste to be required, yet notwithstanding these victuallers, upon their general accounts, were allowed not so little as 10,000l. for their waste; but had they performed their services faithfully, and contented themselves with other large gains which they had, which was too much, neither respecting the misery of the poor soldier or their duties to the State, it might well have given them royal satisfaction without any demands for waste at all.
If the victualler made choice of victual which would not continue good during the time of the contract, or that the packing was the defect, must the King allow waste to the victualler in this case ? By your Honor's leave no, the fault is the victualler's.
It is not unknown to most Governors in Ireland, but that the greatest waste the victuallers could demand during those wars was for waste of victuals in the chief magissons (magazines), and not for victual which was wasted in remote garrisons by transportation. Then the stowage being convenient why should the victuallers lay any charge upon the King ?
It is true that by transporting victuals from the magazine into inland garrisons, the carriage being all on horses, much victual was spoiled, as with the rain, bread and cheese being transported in linen bags, taking wet, there was some waste, but that being monthly supplied the soldier was fain to eat it or starve.
The victuallers might well have borne with such a loss, if there had been any, for that their substitutes did curtail the poor soldier upon the delivery of their week's victuals by weight, to the clerks of every company; else how could a poor commissary of victuals, considering his beginning, prove worth 30,000l., in 12 year's space, of a noble a day's entertainment, and divers other inferior officers or substitutes, in 3 or 4 years, prove worth 3,000l. a man?
Then look what waste was demanded during the wars by the victuallers for six years' wars. I esteem not so little as 10,000l., but if the general accounts may be surveyed, your Honor shall find it much more.
It ought less to have been charged on the King, because the King's stock was ever employed in these services, to be stocked by the King, and to cozen him was not well. Therefore to call the victuallers to an account your Lordship may do very well.
Although the victuallers have found colour to demand these allowances for waste, yet in the passages of their contracts their gains was sufficient to countervail any extraordinary matters of charge, for they had so many natures of victuals to work upon that they would ever find me extraordinary cheap to pay for all on their sides.
Also this matter of waste was never demanded of the Lords upon their contracts, but a trick which they used to get a Governor's hand to allow it; so was this matter of waste always foisted in upon their accounts.
Your Honor's humble servant to the uttermost of my power.
Signed. THO. WALKER.

LIST of the ARCHBISHOPS and BISHOPS in the year 1148.  MS 602, p. 1  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 1

It contains a passage respecting the Cardinal Legate Papyron and Christian Bishop of Lismore, similar to that in MS 621.

BRIEF NOTES of RECORDS concerning IRELAND.  MS 602, p. 3  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 3

Commission to John Hothum, clerk, to proceed to Ireland, and reform the state of the same, etc.--Pat. 9 Ed. II. p. 1. m. 24. cedula.
Licence to Richard FitzJohn to use the English laws.--Ibidem p. 2. m. 18.
Coinage of the bishopric of Durham (Donnolm.) to be assayed and tried.--Claus. 12 Ed. II. m. 22.
Appointment of John Bermingham Earl of Louth, as the King's Justiciary, with 50 marks a year, etc.--Pat. 14 Ed. II. p. 2. m. 9.
Consimile pro Ric. Gorges."--Ibidem m. 23.
Errors in records to be corrected in Ireland.--P[at.] 17 Ed. II. pt. 1.
Articles ordained by the King and Council at Nottingham concerning the state of Ireland and the King's ministers there.--Pat. 17 Ed. I. m. 3. and m. 18; "et m. 11. offic.
Ordinance concerning the state of Ireland.--P[at.] 17 Ed. II. pt. 1.

INQUISITION, 14 Ed. II.  MS 602, p. 4  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 4

Mandate to John De Dufford, Escheator in Ireland, to make inquisition p. m. on Thomas son of Richard De Clare. Gloucester, 10 April, 14 Ed. II.

BRIEFS of RECORDS concerning IRELAND.  MS 602, p. 5  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 5

Letters to the magnates and prelates of Ireland to do fealty, etc.--Claus. 1 Ed III. pt. 1. m. 16.
Grants of lands, liberties, etc. from 1 to 12 Ed. III.--"Rott. per se, anno 1 Ed. III.
Resumption of such grants.--Rot. Fin. 15 Ed. III., m. 24.
Parliament to decide whether the King may without damage allow the Irish to use English laws without obtaining royal charters.--Claus. 2 Ed. III., m. 27.
Fees pertaining to the office of engrosser of the Exchequer.--Ibidem m. 13.
Maur. FitzTho. De Desmond de terris suis in Hibernia."--Claus. 3 Ed. III., m. 13, dorse.
Articles to be observed in Ireland. [Claus?] 5 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 25.
The same laws and customs respecting minors to be observed in Ireland as in England.--Ibidem (same membrane.)
Ordinances for the reformation of Ireland.--Magn, Rot. Scac. temp. Ed. III.; Pat. 5 Ed. III., m. 25; and Pat. 35 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 9.
The mere Irish not to be made King's ministers.--"Part 3. m. 7. et part. 1. m. 42.
Mandates to W. De Burgh Earl of Ulster and other nobles to assist Anthony De Luci, justiciary, with their counsels and aids.--Claus. 5 Ed. III., [p. 1 ?] m. 22, dorse; and p. 2. m. 12.
The English laws respecting wardships to be observed, notwithstanding the custom there, that the chief lords ought to have the custody of lands held of them by homage.--Claus. 5 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 25.
The lands of the Templars granted to St. John's of Jerusalem, 17 Ed. II.; confirmed in Claus. 6 Ed. III., m. 12., and Pat. 6 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 5. and p. 3, m. 7, "in Anglia.
Ordinance that none of the King's ministers in the lands of the Irish shall have the custody of liberties or lands there.--Claus. 10 Ed. III., m. 23 dorse.
Letters to the justices and others to administer even-handed justice.--Same roll.
Ordinance respecting the coinage.--Fin. 10 Ed. III., m. 15; et Fines, anno 12, m. 10.
Grant to St. John's of Jerusalem in Ireland of the manor of Salmon-leap; rent 50l. yearly.--Fin. 12 Ed. III. m. 20.
Resumption of the excessive grants of lands made by Ed. II. and Ed. III.--Fin. 15 Ed. III., m. 14.
Remembrances al Roy touchant la terre d'Ireland. Bundell Brian R. Anno 16 E. III. part 1.
Ordinance respecting the fees of ministers, the seal in the King's Bench, custody of the plea rolls, sheriffs, escheators, liberties usurped, &c.--Claus. 18 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 20, m. 17, m. 9; et anno 20, p. 1, m. 5, dorse; et anno 22, m, 30.
Inquiry ordered by Parliament to be made, why the King hath no benefit of this land.--Parliament [Roll ?] 21 Ed. III., m. 40.
Indenture between the King and his justiciary respecting the government of Ireland.--Claus. 23 Ed. III., p. 1, dorse.
Power to Tho. Rokeby, Justiciary, to remove sheriffs, etc., to seize into the King's hand lands wasted by war, and to lease the same to fee-farm.--Pat. 23 Ed. III., m. 13,
Articles propounded to the King by the justiciary and other officers touching the state of Ireland, with the King's answers.--Claus. 26 Ed. III., m. 1.
Articles concerning the state of Ireland and the officers there, and especially touching the King's revenues.--Ibidem.
Articles (with the King's answers) respecting the fruits of Ireland, and the reformation of the same.--Ibidem.
Survey to be made of the King's lands there, and of the lands granted by the King.--Claus. 18 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 9.
Appointment of Tho. Rookeby as justiciary and custos of Ireland.--Pat. 23 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 29; Pat. 30 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 7, and p. 2. m. 9; and Pat. 26 Ed. III., p. 1. m. 17, "Vid. 30, pt. 2, m. 10, pro. Jo. Talebot.
The King's ministers, while in office, not to acquire lands within their bailiwicks, without his licence.--Pat. 34 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 30; 35 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 18; and 40 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 19.
The mere Irish not to be made King's ministers.--Pat. 34 Ed. III., p. 3, m. 7; and 35 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 4.
Certain ordinances to be observed in Ireland.--Pat. 35 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 9.
Order that, on account of the incursions of the Irish, Lionel, the King's son, Earl of Ulster, shall proceed [against them] with his army: and that all who have lands there do betake themselves thither. Also, an indenture between the King and the said Lionel touching the manner of his government there.--Claus. 36, Ed. III., m. 21, dorse.
A Council convoked of the magnates and of all having lands in Ireland.--Ibidem m. 36.
Commission of Inquiry as to the doings of the King's ministers there.--Pat. 34 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 11, and m. 10 dorse.
Licence to appoint justices and other officers there.--Pat. 37 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 4.
Office of usher of the Exchequer at Dublin [granted] to W. De Pendham.--[Ibidem?] m. 9.
Office of marshal in the King's Bench granted to Merlowe.--Pat. 34 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 30.
Ric. Stury, custos and assayer of weights and measures in Ireland.--Pat. 38 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 36.
Office of Marshal there granted to Thomas De Stafford.--Pat. 38 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 39. [Page 8, which commences here, follows p. 11, being bound up in wrong order.]
Charters of liberties granted by the King to be surveyed and examined.--Ibidem, p. 2, m. 27.
Ric. Aston made Chancellor of Ireland, with 6 men-at-arms and 12 archers in the King's pay.--Ibidem m. 30. Similar grant for the Treasurer, m. 31.
John FitzMorrice, Earl of Desmond, made Justiciary of Ireland.--Pat., 41 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 29, and p. 2, m. 20.
General pardon to the men of Ireland.--Ibidem p. 1, m. 30 and 31.
Certificate to be made of the conduct (gestu) of the King's ministers in the Exchequer of Ireland.--Ibidem p. 2, m. 20.
Office of Chief Justice ad Placita Regis there granted to William de Skipwith.--Pat. 44 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 29.
John Bothby, clerk, made the King's Chancellor there.--Ibidem m. 10.
Ordnance that all having possessions there should send subsidy for defence of the land.--Ibidem pt. 3.
Merchandise to be conveyed thither without fine or redemption.--Pat. 45 Ed. III., p. 2., m. 25.
Office of chief serjeantcy in co. Kildare.--Pat. 46. Ed. III. p. 2, m. 26.
Same in cos. Louth and Cathirlagh confirmed to Rob. Baron.--Pat. 47 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 21.
Covenants between the King and William of Windsor touching the custody of Ireland, viz., for 11, 213l. 6s. 8d. per annum.--Ibidem m. 24 and 26.
James Boteler Earl of Ormond, Justiciary of Ireland.--Pat. 40 Ed. III., p. 7 (1 ?) m. 2, 3, 4, and 5.
Office of chief serjeantcy in co. Meath granted to W. Weme.--Pat. 50 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 3.
Constableship of Wexford Castle and chief serjeantcy of co. W. granted to John Botleton, during minority of heir of John Hastinges, Earl of Pembroke.--Pat. 1 R. II., p. 2, m. 23.
Lionel, the King's son, made Lieutenant in Ireland.--Pat. 38 Ed. III., p. 2. m. 33; and anno 35, p. 2, m. 10.
Certain ordinances to be observed in Ireland.--Pat. 35 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 9.
Ordinances touching the state of Ireland.--Claus. 42 Ed. III., m. 4, dorse.
Office of Marshal of Ireland, of the inheritance of William de Morle. knight, seized into the King's hand.--Pat. 44 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 22.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 9

4 Pages.

Appointment of James le Botiler, Earl of Ormond, as Lieutenant of Ireland. Westm., 1 March, 3 [Edward III.]
Quoted in full, but reference not given.
Similar patent, 35 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 10.
Similar patent for Lionel the King's son.--Pat. 18 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 33.
Declaration of the King's intention, "etc."--Pat. 43 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 25.
William Duke of Windsor undertook to govern Ireland for 11,213l. 6s. 8d. yearly.--Pat. 47 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 24 and 26.
Similar patents, 8 R. II., p. 2, m. 26; 19 R. II., p. 2, m. 7; 4 H. IV., p. 2, m. 34; 6 H. IV., p. 1. m. 32, and p. 2, m. 1; 7 H. V., m. 9; 1 H. V., p. 2 (for Sir John Stanley); 1 H. V., p. 5, m. 13 (for Sir John Talbot of Hollandshire); 1 H. VI., p. 4, m. 33; 2 Ed. IV., p. 1, m. 15; 5 Ed. IV., p. 1, m. 12; 12 Ed. IV., p. 1, m. 14 (for the Duke of Clarence).

For JOHN de PEMBROKE.  MS 602, p. 10b  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 10b

Letters patent uniting to his present office of Chancellor of the Exchequer at Dublin, that of Third Baron of the Exchequer; the number of Barons having been reduced to three. Westminster, 12 July.--Pat. 29 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 10.

ARTICLES to be OBSERVED in IRELAND.  MS 602, p. 11  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 11

3 Pages.

Mandate to the Chancellor and Treasurer of Ireland to cause certain articles ordained by the late Parliament at Westminster, for the amendment of Ireland, to be observed.
The articles are 22 in number, and relate to charters of pardon, felons in woods, the King's marriages and debts, sheriffs and coroners, mainprisors, hostages of peace, protections, officers, fines, truces between the English and Irish, outlaws, ministers' accounts, surveys of the King's castles, collectors of customs, inquisitions as to ministers' proceedings, kerne or idle men, possessors of lands in the Marches to reside on them, and Irish insurgents.
Crandon, 3 March. (Quoted in full.) [Part of this on p. 12, which follows p. 3.]
Pat. 5 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 25.

APPOINTMENTS of LORDS LIEUTENANT.  MS 602, pp. 13, 14  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, pp. 13, 14

Related information: This is another copy of MS 602, pp. 9 and 10

For JAMES LE BUTTELER, Earl of ORMOND.  MS 602, p. 15  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 15

Licence to acquire lands in Ireland to the value of 60l., notwithstanding the statute that none of the King's officers should do so while in office.
Extract from Pat. 34 Ed. III., p. 2, m. 30; 35 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 18; and 40 Ed. III., p. 1, m. 19.

A SUBSIDY.  MS 602, p. 17  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 17

4 Pages.

Payments made unto James Earl of Ormond, the King's Lieutenant in Ireland, in the 9th year of King Henry the Fifth, by way of subsidy.
I. "Tertium Subsidium, anno ix. dicti Regis.
Co. Wexford, by the clergy, 13l. 5s. 4d.
Co. Kildare, by the commons, 34 marks, 10s. 5d.
Daren. (Kildare), clergy, 6 marks, 2s. 10d.
Co. Tipperary, commons, 8l. 11s. 4d.
Co. Cashel, clergy. 19s. 4½d.
Liberty of Meath, by Sir Thomas Bacon for the commons there, 83 marks; by Philip Blake for the clergy there, 40 marks.
Diocese of Dublin, clergy, 11 marks, 11s. 8d.
Co. Drogheda, commons, 4 marks, 3s.
Co. Cath[erlagh], commons, 4 marks, 16d.
Diocese of Ossery, Dean and Chapter, 2 marks, 11d.
Co. Kilkenny, commons, 18 marks 5s. 11d.
Co. Louth, commons, 25 m. 12s. 5d.
The Ardes, clergy, 8 m. 8s. 9d.
Co. Limerick, mayor and commonalty there, 43s.
Co. Dublin, commonalty there, 40 m. 10s.
City of Dublin, mayor and commonalty, 6 m. 10s.
Limerick, clergy, 8s. 1½d.
Dublin, deans and chapters of St. Trinity and St. Patrick's. 11 m 11s. 8d.
Total, 300 (?) marks.
II. "Secundum Subsidium anno viij. dicti Regis.
Co. Kildare, commonalty, 25 marks.
Co. Tipperary, commons and clergy, 7l.
Co. Louth, commons, 19 marks.
Co. Drogheda, commonalty, 42s. 2½d.
City of Limerick, mayor and commonalty, 33s. 4d.
Town of Rosse, governor and commonalty, 5s. 7d.
The Ardes, clorgy, 4l. 4s. 6d.
Ossory, clergy, 20s.
Leghlyn, clergy, 40s.
Diocese of Dublin, clergy, 6l. 5s.
Meath, clergy, 20l.
Diocese of Fernes, clergy, 19s.
Town of Weisford, com., 10s.
Co. Dublin, com., 25l.
Waterford, clergy, 7l. 10s.
City of Cork, citizens, 17s. 5d.
Town of Kilkenny, com., 9l.
Weis[ford], clergy and commons, 9l. 10s.
Meath, commons, 42l.; clergy, 20l.
Daren. (Kildare), clergy, 4 marks 6s. 8d.
Cork, commons, 14l. 6s. 8d.
Total, 300 marks.
III. "Primum Subsidium, anno viij. dicti Regis.
Limerick, clergy, 21s. 6d.
Dublin city, commons, 10 marks 10s.
Kilkenny town, commons, 17l. 12s.
Dublin, St. Trinity and St. Patrick's, 12l. 13s. 4d.
Co. Louth, commons, 40 marks.
Co. Limerick, commons, 14 m. 6s. 10d.
Waterford, clergy, 21½ marks.
Limerick city, commons, 5 m. 5s.
Dublin dioc., clergy, 12l. 13s. 4d.
Meath, commons, 162 marks.
Wey[sford], commonalty, 19l. 4s.
Meath, clergy, 80 marks.
Fernes, clergy, 2l. 2s. 8d.
Leighlen, clergy, 6 m. 6s. 8d.
Co. Dublin, commonalty, 76 marks.
Kynsale town, commons, 36s. 8d.
Co. Drogheda, commons, 4l. 11s. 1d.
The Ardes, clergy, 9l. 2s. 3d.
Co. Kildare, commonalty, 53 m.
Ossory, clergy, 44s.
Cork, clergy, 3 m. 2s.
Co. Tipperary, commons, 24 m.
Kildare (Daren.) diocese, clergy, 10 m.
Total 700 marks.

BRIEFS of RECORDS concerning IRELAND in King H. VIth's reign.  MS 602, pp. 19-23  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, pp. 19-23

Union of the sees of Down and Connor.--"2 pars. patent. H. 6.
Proclamation for all men of Ireland to return to their country.--Claus. 17 H. VI., m. 20, dorse.
James Le Botiller earl of Ormond made Lieutenant.--Pat. 20 H. VI., 20 pt. 1, m. 2.
Office of the king's serjeant-at-law in Ireland granted to Thomas Sudterby.--Pat. 20 H. VI., p. 1., m. 15.
Sir John Talbot, son and heir of John Earl of Shrewsbury, appointed Chancellor of Ireland.--[Pat.] 30 H. VI., p. 2, m. 17.
James B. Earl of Ormond, lieutenant, appointed the archbishop of Ardagh? (Ardern.) as his Deputy in his absence; wherefore the King commanded him to attend to the same.--Pat. 31 H. VI., p.--, m. 24.
Germayne Linch made master of the mint in Ireland, "with a limitation of such sort and kinds of coin as he ought to make."--Pat. 4 Ed. IV., p. 2, m. 25.
George the King's son made Lieutenant in Ireland.--Pat. 18 Ed. IV., p. 2, m. 28.
Edward IV. by letters patent incorporates a fraternity by the name of Christ's Guild, with power to purchase lands to the value of 40l. a year to the use of certain priests, to sing masses for certain dead men's souls. "The patentees incorporate themselves, there being no words in the patent of constituimus, nor no place limited whereof they shall be a corporation." There was "no statute at this time to inhibit lands purchased in mortmain," until by that of 10 Hen. VII. the English statutes were made of force in Ireland. "These lands are holden of the King, and by a private Act of decimo H. VII. in this kingdom, not printed, all lands given from Edward II. by any the progenitors of King H. VII. are resumed to the King, his heirs and successors, except some private men's lands, whereof these are none.

NICHOLAS, BISHOP of WATERFORD and LISMORE, to the KING.  MS 602, p. 43  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 602, p. 43

1 Page.

Petition, that, as he is old, and too feeble to exercise his cure, the King would discharge him thereof. Begs the King, having in regard the rude disposition of his subjects there, ("whose common speech for the most part is the Irish tongue,") and the good learning and virtuous conversation of Sir Balthasar Butler, priest, M.A. of Oxford, to prefer him to the bishopric by letter of recommendation to the Pope, upon the resignation of the petitioner. [The date of this petition is uncertain. Nicholas O'Henisa was Bishop from 1480 to 1482, and Nicholas Comin from 1519 to 1551. It is probably the latter who is the author of this letter.]
Orig. Endorsed: The Bishop of Waterford's Letter.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 36

8 Pages.

Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 3.

Certain fragments of Philostratus "De Liberalitate, ad Cyrum, Persarum regem," came into his hands, and reminded him of King Henry, who at a time when he might have given himself up to youthful pleasures, undertook a war against France, and returned into his own kingdom after bringing King Louis to his will. Enters into a long dissertation concerning the qualities of a miser and a tyrant, though Henry is neither. But does it not seem miserly for the Queen to withhold from the Bishop the rewards which he deserves as her tutor, and tyrannical to rob him of all the days of his youth? Has lost all the inheritance of his ancestors, through instructing the Queen in distant lands for so long a time. It has been seized and partitioned by his kinsmen. Begs redress.
Headed: Enrico Angliæ et Franciæ regi florentissimo Alex. ep'us Geraldinus s. p. d.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 65

2 Pages.

Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 4.

Complains of the enmity which the Queen manifests towards him, although he has been her tutor. Does not expect such a reward as was given him for five months instruction by Lady Margaret, daughter of the Emperor Maximilian, who made him Bishop, but beseeches some favour from her for his whole youth spent in her service. Requests advice as to what he shall do with the Pope's briefs. [See a letter in the Record Office from Margaret of Savoy to Queen Katharine in favour of the Bishop of St. Domingo, dated 28 May 1518, calendared in "Letters and Papers" of Hen. VIII., vol. ii., no. 4195.]
Addressed: "D'no Car'li d'no meo.

THOMAS, EARL OF SURREY, LORD DEPUTY, to HENRY VIII.  MS 602, p. 52  23 July 1520

Former reference: MS 602, p. 52

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 5.

Related information: State Papers II. 35.

The Archishop of Dublin, the Viscount of Gormanston the Lord of Trimlettiston, and the Chief Justice, returned on the 10th instant from Waterford, where with much difficulty they had taken a day of truce between the Earls of Desmond and Ormond, to endure till Candlemas next. They have taken the Earls' oaths truly to serve the King, and the oaths of Lord Barry, Lord Roche, Sir John FitzGerot, Sir John of Desmond, Sir Thomas of Desmond, Cormok Oge, Sir James Butler, Sir Edmund Butler, and Sir Piers Power. At their return here, Surrey was in the country of Connyll O'More, with the company which the King sent with him out of England, and 120 horse of this country and 300 kerne in wages, "having the least assistance of the Englishry that ever was seen," for he had but 48 horse and 120 foot, "of all others of this country.
After he had burnt divers towns and forayed the country, and men had been slain on both sides, the Earl of Ormond came to him, having about 100 horse, 200 galoglas, and 200 kerne of his own, and with him one of the MacMorghoos with 24 horses, and the Lord Steward's seneschal with 24 horses and 100 kerne and foot, who came for Surrey's sake, and not for Ormond's. The said Earl also brought O'Kerroyll, who since Surrey's coming had made an invasion, to speak with Surrey. He is the most esteemed captain of the land, and with much difficulty was sworn to the King. After his oath, examined him upon what grounds he had moved war, considering he had promised Sir William Darcy to be loving and serviceable to Surrey. He said he was so much hurt by Englishmen in times past, and now he saw a good opportunity to take revenge. Told him it was not for that cause, but because he had received a letter from the Earl of Kildare, brought him by an Abbot dwelling near to him; at which he smiled. Ormond and Darcy then desired him to show the truth of the said letter. He answered that "he would not distain his honour for the pavilion full of gold, ne, if he had received any such letter, would disclose the same." Then Ormond, O'Kerroyll, and Darcy, "communing to gathers in Irish," the Earl and Sir William advised Surrey to examine O'Kerroyll's brethren concerning the said letter, "for O'Kerroyll would it should come out by them." They both swore that they had stood by and heard the said letter read. Examined them if it were signed with the Earl of Kildare's hand. They said they could not read, and therefore knew not. Has promised them 20l. to bring the said letter, if it be signed with Kildare's hand, but they fear the letter was burnt. Trusts within 12 days to take the man who brought the letter.
O'Kerroyll has confessed to Conyll O'More and to Brene O'Conoghour, who have showed Surrey that he made war for fear of Kildare, who "sent" to him so to do. He would not be sworn to the King for all that Ormond and Darcy could do, till Surrey assured him that the King would never suffer Kildare to be Deputy here again, and promised him to take a reasonable peace with Conyll, such as Ormond, Darcy Cormok Oge, and he (O'Kerroyll?) would make. So the peace is made, and Conyll sworn to the King. Has received his son and heir and his brother in pledge, and delivered them to Ormond to keep. Ormond, O'Kerroyll, Cormok Oge, and one Moriartagh Oge McMorgho, the best of the McMorghoos, are sureties for his good bearing, and sworn to make war on him, if he do not as he is sworn to do.
Thus, notwithstanding the malicious practices of Kildare's servants, this country is now at peace with all the Irishry, saving only O'Nele, and a few light captains. Tomorrow will ride 40 miles to parle with O'Nele who has done much hurt, in despite of Surrey's coming to Ireland. Unless he make right large amends and give sufficient pledges, will invade his country within 16 days. On returning to Dublin, found O'Downyl there, who is a right wise man and [...] detertermined to serve the King. He has confessed that a little before Surrey's coming, O'Nele desired him to move war against Surrey as soon as he was landed, "saying that for his part he would do so, for he was desired by the Earl of Kildare so to do." O'Downyl answered that he was the King's true subject, and would serve whomsoever the King appointed to have the rule here. He has promised to invade O'Nele on his side, and Surrey will invade him on his own side. He said, "If ever the King send the Earl of Kildare hither in authority again, let the King make him an assurance by indenture of this land to him and his heirs for ever.
Since coming into this land has been troubled with war in so many places that he has never had leisure to call the Council to devise what ways were best to be taken to bring the Irishmen to some good order, and to look upon such causes as might increase the revenues here; but now, as soon as he has made an end with O'Nele, will assemble the Council, and he and others of the Privy Council will do their best, though they all fear that the Irishmen will not be brought to good order, unless it be by compulsion; which will require men, money, and time. When the King puts forth his power, he will "obtain the conquest of this land, the soil whereof may be well compared in goodness unto your realm of England.
The great sickness is so universally spread in the English pale that he can scarcely find the means to lodge the yeomen of the guard by 40, 30, and 20, in towns where no infection is. Many of them call daily upon him to have licence to go home, some alleging that they cannot live on their wages, some that they have farms and husbandry at home, and others, being a little sick, that they will die unless they may return to England to take the air there. Has made one answer to all, that he dares not give such licence till he knows the King's pleasure. Nothing is so troublesome to him as this great sickness, which daily increases in this town, "which is the only refuge of us all here to be victualled for any exploit or invasion to be made, for without the help of this town and Drodath all the Englishry cannot victual those that came with me out of England to make any invasion for six days.
Trusts the King will grant the petition in his letters sent by Applyard for authority to diminish the footmen here, and with their wages to wage horsemen, as well those whom the King will send out of England as others of "this country birth," for money spent upon footmen here will never come to good effect.
Dublin, 23 July. Signed: T. Surrey.
Addressed: To the King's most noble Grace.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 63

3 pages + 1 page.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 6.

Related information: State Papers II. 42.

Since the departure of Sir John Wallop, 18 soldiers have conspired to steal a fisherboat of 16 tons here, with intent to put to sea to get a better ship, and then to go to the sea coasts of England and be rovers. I have taken them all, and put them in prison. As they confessed, I asked the advice of the judges and learned men here, who say that considering they have done nothing, but only proposed to do, the common law will not suffer them to die. My patent contains no authority to put them to death except after the course of the common law. I had moved your Grace to have as great authority as my Lord Marquis had in Spain, and as I had upon the sea, to punish those in wages. Unless I have it, it is impossible to keep this company in good order.
The victuals are so dear here, and especially drink, that the soldiers cannot live on 4d. a day and reserve anything to buy raiment. My own men being in wages out of my house make such pitiful complaint that I am forced to take them into my house. There was never so little corn in this country as now, and the unusual number of soldiers here causes the more scarcity and dearth, so that wheat is sold for 16s. a quarter and malt for a mark. I beseech you to increase the wages of the soldiers one penny more a day. It were better to give it them by way of reward than as wages, "because of the precedent that might ensue thereof.
There is some business between the Earls of Desmond and Ormond and their supporters, which I have sent to pacify, but as yet have had no answer. I intend to go shortly into those parts, and to get them in good order. All Irishmen are at peace, and show themselves desirous of my goodwill. I cannot assure you of long continuance thereof, for little trust is to be placed in their promises. "The death continueth in every place in the English pale, and hath been sorer in this city this week than it was any time this year.
Since my coming into this land I have never heard from the King or you, and none of my servants whom I have sent to you have yet returned. "I think the winds at the sea coast of England will not serve them to come." I beseech you that money may be sent hither shortly, for there is none to borrow, "and the winds many times continue long contrarious on England coast to come hither." If the army should lack, as I do already, I know not how to order them. I have much trouble to keep them here now, though they are well paid. I beseech you "to see that no licence of absenty pass the King.
Since writing as above "O'Conour and O'Karoyll's brother" called Donogh ("another than any of the two that I wrote to your Grace of before,") came hither to me. "He" has sworn that he was present when Abbot Heke delivered to his brother O'Karoyll a letter from the Earl of Kildare. As he can speak no English, I caused Justice Brymygham and Sir William Darcy to examine him. I send his confession inclosed, signed with their hands. I have done all I can to get the said Abbot, but as yet cannot come by him. If you accuse Kildare of sending such a letter to O'Karoyll by the Abbot of Monaster Evyn in Irish, and [tell him] that both the said Abbot and O'Keroyl have confessed the same, and that the said Abbot is coming to avow the same before him, he can not well deny it. It is thought by the Council here that the King should cause one William Delahide to be taken and put in the Tower, "and to be pained to confess the truth," as no man can disclose more of the Earl's counsel than he, for he is the Earl's secretary and, it is thought, wrote the said letter. Undoubtedly either the Abbot or he wrote it, and the Abbot and he came together out of England in the same ship as my servant Cowley, 16 days before Easter.
There are daily reports out of England that the said Earl will marry the King's kinswoman, and have his room and rule here again. Both English and Irish are afeard of this, and daily come to me, saying that, if he come again, "this land was never in such trouble as it shall be;" for such Irishmen as have followed my mind, and served me, expect to be destroyed by him, and therefore combine themselves together that they will rather adventure to destroy all the Englishry than be destroyed themselves.--Dublin, 6th September. Signed: T. Surrey.
Addressed: [To my] Lord Legatis [good] Grace.
II. Confession of DONOGH O'KEROYLL, brother of O'KEROYLL.
In Easter week last the Abbot of Monaster Evyn, called Heke, brought a letter to O'Keroyll out of England on behalf of the Earl of Kildare, wherein were written these words in Irish--"Life and health to O'Karoyll from the Earl of Kildare. There is none Irishmen in Ireland that I am better content with than with you, and whenever I come into Ireland I shall do you good for any anything that ye shall do for me, and any displeasure that I have done to you I shall make you amends therefor, desiring you to keep good peace to Englishmen till an English deputy come there. And when any English deputy shall come thither, do your best to make war upon Englishmen there, except such as be towards me, whom you know well yourself." Being examined if the Earl of Kildare's sign manual were upon the said letter, Donogh said he did not know his sign, but noticed that it was sealed with a seal having a cross, which he thought was the Earl's seal.
Signed: "Patrik Bermynghem, Juge--William Darcy.

HENRY VIII. to the EARL OF SURREY.  MS 602, p. 71  [Sep] 1520

Former reference: MS 602, p. 71

15 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 7.

Related information: State Papers II. 51.

By the letters, instructions, and reports which we have received through Sir John Wallop, and by other letters of yours, dated in August and 23, 24, and 25 Sept., we understand what you have done for the reduction of that our dominion, and of our disobedient subjects there, and your daily labours in causing the chief captains to come in to you, and removing causes of discord amongst the greatest Lords by good mediation. We shall not forget these services.
As O'Nele and the other Irish captains have not only come in and recognized us as their sovereign lord, but also have bound themselves to you for their fidelities towards us, we and our Council think that you will bring them, to further obedience, though rigorous dealing must be avoided. To spend so much money to bring the Irishry in appearance only of obeisance, without observance of our laws, resort to our courts of justice, and restoration of our dominions, would be of little policy. We therefore think it expedient that, when you call assemblies and common councils of the Lords and other captains before you, you should declare to them the great decay of that fertile land for lack of politic governance and good justice, in consequence of which the weaker is subdued and oppressed by the stronger. They may also be told that, though we are above the laws, yet we will take nothing belonging to them, and therefore they ought to restore us our own. If they allege that our laws used to be too rigorous, you may inquire "under what manner and by what laws they will be ordered and governed." By these means they will be compelled to conform, and not live at will as heretofore. If, by these drifts, part of our lands might be restored, "either of the earldom of Ulster (whereunto, as ye write, O'Nele hath promised his assistance), or of any other which notoriously appertaineth unto us," we might hereafter recover the rest, and the lands detained from all other Lords might be brought to their former state. This is the best and most speedy way to bring that land to good order, and to cause it to be inhabited and "manured,"--for every Lord, having his own, would be able to live there honourably, subdue tyranny, and cultivate his lands.
Whereas we advanced to you and our treasurer, Sir John Stile, for the entertainment of you and your retinue there 3,300l. 15s. 11d. for the first half year, trusting that the wages for the other half year would be paid from the revenues and other casualties of that land, we now understand by your writing, that our rent there due at the Annunciation last was received by the Earl of Kildare, and that the revenues due at Michaelmas cannot be levied till near Christmas. We therefore send 4,000l. by Sir John Wallop, and have allowed him 20l. for his costs, which is a right great charge to us. We desire you to look to the speedy recovery of our revenues there, that our charges "may be borne upon the same." Our pleasure is, that you and your retinue shall be paid from our revenues there, for "we purpose not to advance out of our coffers hereafter any manner sums of money, but only such as shall be in surplusage over and above our said revenues.
You write that, at the arrival of Sir John Bulmer with 100 horse, you discharged 117 of our guard, and assigned them 1d. a day, to be paid out of our coffers till the wars of Ireland were finished, "to the intent the wages of them and of the other 17 there deceased, should furnish" the horse brought by Bulmer. You also state that the said horsemen are not so apt and able for the wars as you looked for, and for that cause you and our Council there desire to be authorized to engage and discharge as many as you think good, trusting to furnish us, with the wages they now receive, with far better men. We had supposed "that the Northernmen by you desired should have been more acceptable to you under the leading of Sir John Bulmer, whom ye heretofore have much praised than of any other; howbeit, if ye had not discharged the Welshmen, we think ye should have been better purveyed of spears." Nevertheless, we are contented to give you full authority to discharge as many of the Northernmen in Bulmer's retinue as you think unmeet, and to substitute such apt horsemen as may be agreeable to your appetite, so that our charges be not increased;--"foreseeing always that ye put not your full trust in Irish horsemen, which, being more in number and strength than ye with your English horsemen be, may percase put both you and them in danger, or ye be ware." "And thus, if ye choose able men, the ill bruit there touching the discharging of tall personages shall soon cease.
You write that it has been accustomed hitherto for our Lieutenant-General to have ample commission to execute our authority against "criminous persons," and to give the order of knighthood. We accordingly send you our commission, believing you will not proceed to condemn or execute any noble person till advertised of our pleasure, and not advance any mean person to the order of knighthood. We are willing that that you should make O'Nele and other Lords of the Irishry knights, and give to O'Nele a collar of gold of our livery, which we now send. If you could induce O'Nele and others of the greatest personages to repair to our presence, we will entertain them well, in order that they may the better obey us hereafter, and change their old Irish manners.
We perceive, moreover, that you cannot "get other sufficient proofs against the Earl of Kildare and his servants, of and upon such detections as were laid to his charge, than ye had before, by any inquisition or examination that ye have taken there; yet ye have put Delahide and the other servants of the said Earl under sureties." As you write that O'Nele and others whom you have examined "declare the said Earl in such crimes as were objected against him," and as we have no "evident testimonies" to convict him, but only uncertain conjectures; therefore we think it right to release him, and put him under surety not to depart from this realm without licence. "We shall so order the said Earl that he shall not repair to that land for many considerations; wherefore both ye and all our subjects there may settle their minds in quietness, for any distrust or hope of his return." For this reason we desire you "to determine yourself there to remain and make your abode, and to order your provisions and affairs accordingly," till that land be brought to better obeisance and order.
According to your desire, we will "take such an order with outward princes, our confederates and allies, that all manner ships repairing from outward parts to that land, shall arrive in the havens under our obeisance specified in a bill delivered unto us by the said Sir John Walop.
We thank you for your determination to establish concord between the Earls of Desmond and Ormond. As you desire us to contrive a marriage between the Earl of Ormond's son and the daughter of Sir Thomas Bolain, Comptroller of our Household, we wish you to gain the Earl's consent. We will advance the matter with our Comptroller, and certify you how we find him inclined.
Draft, corrected by Ruthal.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 40

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 8.

Your safety depends on the King, and you should therefore show him all observance. You should cultivate a mind worthy of your abilities and character, and no longer take delight in wild and barbarous manners, and be unacquainted with the comforts of life. It is much better to live in a civilized fashion, than to seek a living by arms and rapine, and to have no thought beyond pleasure and the belly. I therefore beseech you to consider how many evils and perils you will be exposed to, if you make the King your enemy, and on the other hand how happy you will be, if you gain his favour.
Headed: Joh'es Dei gr'a Armachan' archep'us, Hiberniæ primas, filio suo, &c., Onell Wultoniæ, nacionisque suæ principi clarissimo, S.

RICHARD PACE to CARDINAL WOLSEY.  MS 602, p. 59  7 April 1521

Former reference: MS 602, p. 59

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 13.

The King commands me to send you the letters which he has received this day from Ireland. He in no wise likes the news, and therefore desires you diligently to consider the said letters. The Council in Ireland has written to him for the preferment of the Prior of Conall to the bishopric of Limerick, now vacant, and he is minded that the said Prior shall have it, considering his good qualities. You will also receive with these all such letters as the King had in his hands, comprising the news of Almayne, which he did not read till this day after dinner; "and thus he commanded me to write unto your Grace, declaring that he was otherwise occupied: in scribendo contra Lutherum, as I do conjecture."--Greenwich, 7 April.
Addressed: To my Lord Legate's Grace.

RICHARD PACE to CARDINAL WOLSEY.  MS 602, p. 60  8 Oct 1521

Former reference: MS 602, p. 60

2 Pages.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 17.

Related information: State Papers I. 69.

The King, remembering that his Lieutenant in Ireland will be in danger of his life, if he continue there, by reason of the disease which he now suffers, as it is reported to his Grace by Musgrave his servant, thinks it expedient to revoke him, both for the recovery of his health and for the service which he can do in "such his Grace's affairs as are like to ensue." The King desires you and the rest of his councillors to devise some meet personage to succeed him, and to debate whether it would be more expedient to have an Englishman ruler there, and for the King to be at the same charge as now, or else to make some Irish Lord his deputy, in the same manner as the Earl of Kildare was, and so to save the money now expended there in waste and without profit. The King proposes two persons, the Lord Ferys, if you can induce him thereto, or the Earl of Ormond, "if he may stand with the surety of his said land." But he will be content to accept any other person who shall be thought more fit by you and his Council. He desires you to certify him of your mind with diligence.--Windsor, 8 October.
Addressed: To my Lord Legate's Grace.

HENRY VIII. to the EARL OF SURREY.  MS 602, p. 70  [Oct] 1521

Former reference: MS 602, p. 70

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Related information: State Papers II. 88 (note).

It is right displeasant to us to hear of your grievous disease and sickness. As we require your services in greater matters, and as you suppose that your abode there in that contagious air will increase your infirmity, we are agreeable to your return to this realm, if a substantial and active personage can be found to supply your place.
We and our Council, considering "the marvelous great charges which we yearly sustain by entertainment of you, our Lieutenant, with the retinue under you there, as also the little effect that succeedeth thereof," have determined that to employ such sums of money upon any English Lieutenant with like retinue as you have now, would be consumption of treasure in vain, which, being saved, "might stand in good stead for the advancement of other higher enterprizes that may percase be set forthward within few years hereafter." Therefore, "if any substantial gentleman of the English Irishry might be found to take upon him that room," with such entertainment as the Earl of Kildare received, it would be most expedient. We have thought of Sir Piers Butteler, pretending to be Earl of Ormond, who, as we are informed, is now reputed for the best amongst our obeisant subjects of that land; and desire you, as of yourself, to search whether he be meet and able to take the said room, and to "feel his mind whether he could be agreeable to be our Lieutenant there." If you could thus "convey the said room to him," we will appoint him thereto, and license you to return to this realm with the retinue under your leading. This matter should be so closely handled that neither Butteler nor any other of the Council there may take suspicion; otherwise they will "so extremely stick to their advantages, that hard shall it be to bring them to any reasonable ways.
Draft in Ruthal's hand.

RICHARD PACE to CARDINAL WOLSEY.  MS 602, p. 62  18 Nov 1521

Former reference: MS 602, p. 62

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Related information: State Papers I. 92.

I send you letters from the King's Lieutenant in Ireland, delivered to me by a servant of the Dean of St. Stephen's, who arrived here this day. Sir Thomas Neville, Sir Thomas More, Mr. More, the judge, and Mr. Broke have, by the King's command, debated the substitution of a Deputy in Ireland by the Lieutenant there, and they are of the same opinion as your Grace. However, they will make no resolute answer to the King till they have further communication with the rest of the judges, whom his Grace has sent for. The King somewhat sticketh at sending the patent devised by you, because Sir Piers Butler may refuse to be his Deputy according to the patent; which refusal would be dishonourable to his Grace.--Windsor, 18 November.
Addressed: To my Lord Legate's Grace.

JOHN ALEN to CARDINAL WOLSEY.  MS 602, p. 58  1 June 1524

Former reference: MS 602, p. 58

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Related information: S.P. II., 102.

As you have admitted me to your service, I have thought it my duty to write to you from time to time "of the causes committed to me." Enclosed is a "scrow" of the dispensations and other things which have been sped by your authority "since our coming into these exile parts, containing what sums of money have and shall be received for the same." It it great marvel that so much is done, considering the poverty of the Irishry, which is said to be greater than hitherto. "We have no resort to us ought (out) of the Irishry for any of your faculties," and although messengers hitherto might pass safely, yet they have often been robbed and murdered. If my Lord of Dublin were not Chancellor, with temporal power to punish those who resist your authority, it were not likely to be executed here with so much honour as it is; "for much doubt is made about your Grace's bulls, whether ye be Legate here or not, [Here occurs a note in the margin, as follows: "D. Primas cum eius suffraganeis ac consiliariis tenent expresse et palam, quod non est Legatus in Hibernia, et multum nocent, quia ejus ecclesia Armachana et tota provincia, præter dioc. Miden., sunt inter Hibernicos in Ultonia."] insomuch we be in fear to show the transumpts of them, and besides that we have neither bridgements nor transumpts according to your Grace's commandment." I beseech you to let me have the transumpts of all your bulls from your first creation as Legate; "for your Grace hath some faculties that ye use not, whereof one is, after deprivation by your Grace made of an abbot or prior, &c., from their dignity, ye may make provision of the same, notwithstanding election." This was granted to Laurence [Campeggio] and your Grace jointly, but Leo confirmed it to your Grace, as though it had been granted to you alone.
About the degrees of consanguinity and affinity, your Grace's bulls are not very clear for this country. I therefore send you "a copy of a bull of this Pope granted heretofore to the collector, which Raphael Maruff did use in Ireland, wherein the doubts that I moved to your Grace about the same you shall mowe see right well declared; trusting your Grace will have yours after the same wise.
My Lord Chancellor is very difficile in granting of your dispensations, which hindereth your Grace and is less to be regarded in this land than anywhere; for many parts under the King's obeisance there been penal statutes that no Englishman shall marry with the Irish, so that they be so intricate in consanguinity or affinity, and besides that the people of themself be so propine to evil, they would marry without dispensation, or else be enforced to sue to the Court of Rome, whereof hath ensued the decay of the Church of Ireland; for when an idle person goeth to the Church of Rome, the compositions be to Irishmen so small for their poverty, that by him many other exorbitant matters be sped; so that in this land your Grace's dispensations be necessary to be granted with less difficulty than elsewhere, for the avoiding of contempt of holy canons, and the occasion of the inconvenience that followeth of these Rome runners." If the compositions be reduced from sterling money to the money of this country on account of the poverty, we should speed three dispensations then to one now.
May it please your Grace to remember us, who are "returned from our own, living here as it were in captivity in great fear daily of our enemies; insomuch the Chief Justice sheweth me, that if English power cometh not shortly, we shall be fain to return from hence at Michaelmas; and I by the Deputy's and Council's indifferent election, occupying (unworthy) the clerkship of the Council, do perceive and know the patched and inhonorable treuges, which by inforcement of pure necessity be tolerated.
Dublin, 1 June. Signed: J[ohn Alen].
Broadsheet. Addressed: Rmo. &c. D. Thomæ, &c. Cardinali, ap. sedis in Angl. et Hibern. de latere legato. Endorsed: "Letters from John Alen.

EARLS of ORMOND and KILDARE.  MS 602, p. 30  23 May 1525

Former reference: MS 602, p. 30

10 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 25.

Related information: State Papers II., 125.
State Papers II., 121.
State Papers II., 118.
State Papers II., 120.

I. [The Earl of Kildare to Henry VIII.]
By your letters dated the 20th of May last, you commanded me to make payment to the Earl of Ormond within 20 days of the "halfyndele" of your subsidy and other parcels of your revenues to the sum of 800l. due to the said Earl, which your Commissioners, at their being here, willed me to levy. I did not receive those letters till last Saint Lawrence's Even, but before their receipt the Earl was clearly paid, though the amount was not so great, as shall appear by the account of your Under-Treasurer here. I beseech your Grace not to regard the untrue surmises of my adversaries, till the truth be tried. I never did or thought anything whereby I should deserve your displeasure. In my youth I was brought up in your service. When I came to discretion it pleased you to make me your Treasurer, and subsequently your Deputy; and you gave me lands to the yearly value of 100 marks. "My first wife was your poor kinswoman, and my wife now in like manner." In all my troubles before this, by untrue surmises against me, you were good and gracious to me; and though there were no such cause, yet could I find in my heart to serve you before all princes in the world. Besides I know that, if I did the contrary, it would be the destruction of me and my sequel for ever. "From my manor of Maynoth," 17 Aug.
At the top, but struck out: "The copy of the King's letter sent by my Lord Leonard" [Grey]. (See no. v.)
II. "The Deposition of Fergennaynine, eldest son to O'Keroll, in the presence of my Lord Deputy, my Lord Chancellor, my Lord of Gormanson, and the Chief Justice, sworn on the Holy Sacrament and the Evangelists, the 23rd day of May, a° 17° H. VIII.
(1.) That Piers Clynton, Donyll Wony, Nicholas Anel's son, and another black fellow, gunners and servants to the Earl of Ormond, came from the said Earl to O'Keroll after Easter last, to ward his castle of Lemebanan, and to defend the same castle and O'Keroll against the Lord Deputy and all others. (2.) That my Lord of Ormond promised O'Keroll at sundry times to defend him from all men for all the hurts which he had done to the King's subjects while Ormond was Deputy. (3.) That, as far as Ferganaynine and O'Keroll could understand, Ormond promised to come with all his people and power to defend O'Keroll against the Deputy or any other that would invade him in his country. (4.) That O'Keroll showed him that the said Earl promised to go with him upon any man that would invade him.
III. "Copy of the letter of the Earl of Ormond, sent to his son [James Butler], which Thomas Houth hath.
I have lately heard that certain of the Council, by the Deputy's means, have written "over thither" to have the King's letters addressed to me, prohibiting me to take any Irishman's part. You must ever have good, secret, and diligent espial, lest the King's letters be so obtained, which would not only be great prejudice to me and to you in time coming, but also great discourage to all my adherents. "Now ye may perceive the partiality of them that so certified, being ordered and conducted therein as the Deputy would have them; and during my being in the authority, they never certified any of the Earl of Kildare's apparent misorder or transgression in any manner. Show the King's Grace and my Lord Cardinal of the sudden wilful invasion done by the Deputy upon O'Keroll long after the date of the King's letters now directed, whereof I have rather certified you by a friar of Mowskery; whereupon ye must devise in my name to the King and my Lord Cardinal, as my trusty servant Robert Couly shall pen and indite.
As for the indentures, they be infringed by the Deputy and in manner no point observed; and as for my part, I will justify I have truly observed them to my own great losses, in suffering my adherents' and servants' destructions. The Deputy now afore Easter did set such coyne and livery in the three obedient shires, that marvel it were to hear two little towns of mine, called Castle Warning and Oghterarde, with any other town, did bear 220 galloglas. For four miles the poor tenants be so impoverished that they cannot pay my rents, and the lands like to be clear waste. Now lately he hath sent out of the Exchequer a writ to Waterford, that all mayors and bailiffs that were there since the first year of our Sovereign Lord that now is, should appear in 15 pã (the quindene of Easter), to give account before the Barons for all manner the King's duties, revenues, and poundage there, which is done for a cautell to put me to losses and my heirs; for Waterford hath a sufficient discharge, but only for my half of the prises, and the 10l. of annuity with the 20 marks to the church; and as for the prise and 10l. of annuity, I must see them discharged. Wherefore ye must labour to get an especial patent of the King of all the prises in this land, according to my grant made to mine ancestors by his most noble progenitors, and specially in Waterford, and the 10l. of annuity, without any account making; with this clause, absque aliquo compoto, &c. If it be not had, it will be much prejudice to you in time coming, for this is done to drive you ever from the principal wines and the said annuity, and not to have your prises. Till ye have a discharge out of the Exchequer from time [to time ?] in any wise sleep not this matter; and if ye do, the most losses and trouble will be yours in time coming. Immediate upon the receipt hereof, send for Robert Couly, and cause him to seek remedies for the same; and, if James White be not coming, let him endeavour himself to obtain it. Furthermore, I desire you to make diligent haste hither with the King's licence, for surely, unless I see your time better employed in attendance of my great business than ye have done hither, I will be well advised or I do send you any more to your costs." From Kilkenny, 22 April.
To my son James Butler, with the King's Grace in England.
IV. "Articles to be showed on the behalf of the Earl of Kildare to the King's Grace by my Lord Leonard Grey, touching the misdemeanor of the Earl of Ormond, sethens the departure of the King's Commissioners out of Ireland.
(1.) Whereas the said Commissioners, by the advice of the King's Council here, ordered that the Earl of Ormond should take no coyne or livery of any of the King's subjects, except his own tenants, "without the consents of the givers thereof, the same consents to be approved" by the Council; notwithstanding the said Earl has since continually taken coyne and livery of all the King's subjects within the counties of Kilkenny and Tipperary, "not only for his horsemen, kerne, and galloglas, but also for his masons, carpenters, [and] taillours, being in his own works, and also for his sundry hunts, that is to say, 24 persons with a 60 greyhounds and hounds for deer hunting, another number of men and dogs for to hunt the hare, and a third number to hunt the martin, all at the charges of the King's subjects, meat, drink, and money; the whole charges whereof surmounteth 2,000 marks by year.
(2.) Whereas the said Commissioners indented with the Deputy that he should not suffer any to occupy the King's manors and lands without his Grace's letters patent, the Earl of Ormond has ever since occupied the manors of Callan in co. Kilkenny, and Kilmore and other lands in co. Tipperary, of the yearly value of 60l., without any patent or other authority; "and besides this, usurpeth on all the King's royal jurisdiction within the said two counties, taking all the King's escheats, fines, forfeitures, and all other casualties there as his own.
(3.) When the Deputy invaded O'Kerull's country (who has ever been one of the King's greatest enemies in this land, and done most hurt to the King's subjects), Ormond sent four of his gunners with guns and powder to defend O'Kerull's castle, and made fast promise with him to take his part against the Deputy.
(4.) Whereas certain controversies depended between Ormond and the Brenys, which are of the greatest power of any of the Irishry, the same Earl communicated with them for a concord, offering them "their own desire touching their said controversy," if they would take his part against the Deputy, which they refused.
(5.) The late Bishop of Leghlyn was heinously murdered by the Abbot of Duske's son, who was the said Earl of Ormond's nigh kinsman, that the Abbot might enjoy that bishopric. Three of the Earl's servants were at the murder, but he has not yet punished them. Moreover, he succoured the said Abbot in his country when the Deputy "did persecute him" as the procurer of the same murder.
(6.) The servants of Ormond burned, robbed, and spoiled a town of the Deputy's called Lyvetiston, within the county of Kildare, "where they cruelly murdered and burned 17 men and women, divers of them being with child; and one of them that fled out of the fire to the church was slain on the high altar; and burned and took with them goods of the value of 200l." This notwithstanding, the Earl kept them still in his service, knowing burning and wilful murder to be treason by statute here. The Council decreed that the Earl should pay 200 marks as amends to the Deputy at the last Michaelmas and Easter terms, which are not yet paid. Besides this, his servants have been at sundry times in company with Irishmen, taking divers preys of the King's subjects.
(7.) The Earl of Ormond keeps a ward of evil-disposed persons in a "pyle" adjoining the sea, called Arclow, who rob and spoil the King's subjects passing thereby, and ravish women, maidens, and widows. When divers of the King's subjects before the peace were chased by Bretons at sea, and took land there for their safeguard, the said ward set upon them, and spoiled them of all they had, and put them in such danger of their lives that they were glad to yield themselves to the Bretons.
(8.) On the Deputy sending his nigh kinsman Thomas Fitzmaurice into a certain waste ground of his, called the Fasagh O'Bentre, for the inhabiting of the same, ("whose father was slain in the King's service at my Lord of Norfolk's being here,") certain of the Irishry, accompanied with part of Ormond's servants, lay in wait for the said Thomas and took him prisoner.
(9.) All the churches for the more part within cos. Kilkenny and Tipperary are in such extreme decay by provision, that no divine service is kept there; "and [it] shall be well proved that few or none laboureth to the Apostle for any benefice there without the consent of the said Earl or my Lady his wife, by whom he is only ruled, which are the very maintainers of all such provision, in so much as they lately maintaine[d] certain provisors against the said Earl's son being Archbishop of Cashel, contrary to the King's letters directed in the favours of the said Archbishop." If the King do not provide a remedy, there will be no more "Cristentie" there than in the middle of Turkey.
(10.) The Earl, before his late sudden departure out of this land without making the Deputy or Council privy to the same, levied "by coertion and extort power," 4d. from all the King's subjects passing the age of 12 years in co. Kilkenny, "for a subsidy towards his charges at this time into England," and appointed collectors, as if it had been granted by Parliament. The masters of shepherds and others, who had nothing to pay, were compelled to pay for them. "A miserable clamour is throughout all the country, for like extortion hath not been hitherto seen in this land." The Earl also levies subsidies on the country to his own use "against their wills," and would suffer no penny of the King's subsidy granted by Parliament to be levied there.
(11.) "He hath used to send over sea unto one Robert Cowley, by whom divers untruths hath been proved, to indite complaints at his own pleasure or discretion against the said Earl of Kildare, having with him a signet of the said Earl of Ormond's to seal the same.
(12.) "In case the Earl of Ormond make any new matter of the letter that the Earl of Kildare sent to the Earl of Desmond, the truth thereof was this. After that the same Earl of Kildare repaired last out of England, he had with [Sic.] O'Keroll, O'Mullowy, O'Connour, O'Dympsye, O'Doyn, O'Mallaghlyn, McMaurice, and others of the Irishry, whom the said Earl of Ormond, then being the King's Deputy, maintained and bare in the same, contrary to the tenor of the King's letters directed unto him, for to have aided the said Earl of Kildare against the King's said rebels; in so much as, notwithstanding the great controversies and wars that before this time were between him and the Earl of Desmond, whose country for the more part the said Earl of Kildare invaded, burned, and destroyed, yet was he then fain to write to the said Earl of Desmond to have metten with him at a certain place, where he thought to have desired his aid against the King's said rebels, and by his said letter advertised him to have been at unity and concord with his kinsmen, so as thereby the rather he might have had the same, and the same Earl of Desmond the more able to resist his enemies of the Irishry there, as both the McCarties, Cormok Oge, and other the King's Irish rebels; which letter his sister, the Lady of Ormond, caused to be taken from one of his servants that bare the same, he being then lodged at her own house; at the writing of which letter, the said Earl of Kildare knew nothing of the said Earl of Desmond's misdemeanour towards the King's Grace, ne no knowledge had thereof till it was at the Commissioners being here, by whom he sent instructions of his mind unto the King's Grace for his punishment." He also wrote sundry letters to the King and the Lord Cardinal, to know their pleasures how he should use the said Earl, but never had answer. The letter sent to Desmond was showed to the Commissioners against him by the Earl of Ormond; and they took it to proceed of no evil intent. "When it shall please the King's Grace to command him to do anything for his [Desmond's] reformation or punishment, then it shall well appear whether he shall do his devour to accomplish the same or not.
(13.) Ormond took 40 marks of the seneschal of the county of Wexford for a penalty, because he took part with Kildare against the King's Irish rebels, notwithstanding that the King wrote to Ormond to assist Kildare against them.
V. "The copy of the King's letter sent to the Earl of Kildare.
Complaint has been made to us, on behalf of "our right trusty and right well-beloved cousin" the Earl of Ormond, that whereas our Commissioners awarded to the said Earl half of our subsidy and other parcels of our revenues there due to him, which the Commissioners authorized you to levy and receive to his use, and to make full payment of the same to him at Michaelmas last, as appears by indentures between you, you still retain and keep in your hands the said subsidy and revenues to the sum of 800l. or thereabouts. We command you, within 20 days next after the sight hereof, to make full delivery of the same. Under Signet, Greenwich, 20 May. [These five documents are placed under the date given in No. II.; but the King was at Windsor on 20 May in that year. He was at Greenwich on that day in 1524, 1526, and 1528.]
This letter was not delivered till Saint Lawrence's Even, in the presence of my Lord Chancellor.
Contemp. copies. Endorsed: "The copy of my Lord Leonard's letter sent unto the King's Highness.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 56

2 Pages.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 26.

Related information: State Papers II., 140.

While Lord Ossory and his son attend your pleasure and deliberations concerning the affairs of Ireland, "others ryne in at the window the next way, making immediate pursuits" to the King, and obtain all they desire by means of Anthony Knevet and others. The destruction of Ireland will ensue without speedy redress. The Archbishop of Cashel, by sinister means and without your knowledge, make importunate suit at the Court for sundry unreasonable grants, liberties, and privileges, tending to the maintenance of the Earl of Desmond and his confederates, and to the utter destruction of Lord Ossory and his son. The Archbishop has a bill signed by the King, directed to the Chancellor of Ireland, and he and his chaplain have fraudulently obtained the King's letters to the Council of Ireland against Ossory and his son in favour of Sir James Butler, who is the greatest friend, ally, and succour of the Earl of Desmond. He has also transgressed the King's commands, "taking open maintenance" with Desmond. He and Sir James, "by the seditious practice of the man that your Grace knoweth," have confederated to disturb Ossory's country, "the one with his spiritual power, and the other with his strength," in order that my said Lord or his son should not be able to serve the King against Desmond, or defend himself.
The room of secondary justice of the Common Pleas in Ireland is given to Sir Gerald Aylmer, "menial servant to my Lord of Kildare, and hath a bill signed to the Chancellor of Ireland. Other divers mean offices be also given away.
Knevet has obtained the bishopric of Kildare for "a simple Irish priest, a vagabond, without learning, manners, or good quality, not worthy to be a holy water clerk." I hear the King will pay for his bulls.
It might please you to send a commission to my Lord of London, Master More, Master Dean and Master Secretary, to call before them the Archbishop, his chaplain, Gerald Aylmer, and the Irish priest; to examine all such warrants, bills, and letters as they have obtained of the King; to keep the same until they know your pleasure, and to hear such articles and matters as I shall object against them. It might also please you to send to Sir John Russell, Doctor Bell, "and such others as promote bills or letters to the King's sign," to pass none concerning Ireland till you be made privy to them. I desire to know whom you will appoint to be Deputy, and remember your old servant James, "the rather that the King is well minded.
One Bath, of Ireland, has made a book to present to you, feigning it to be for the reformation of Ireland; but the effect is but to drive the King to the extremity to send home my Lord of Kildare with authority. He has no more experience of the land than I have of Italy. He deserves to be "a little touched for his presumption.
Addressed: "To my Lord Legate's good Grace." Sealed.

H. [INGE], ARCHBISHOP OF DUBLIN and P. BERMINGHAM, to the DUKE OF NORFOLK.  MS 602, p. 81  15 May 1528

Former reference: MS 602, p. 81

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 29.

Related information: State Papers II., 129.

We have often made supplication to the King and Council for "some good defensour" of this poor land, ever fearing lest some misfortune might chance, the Baron of Delvyn having the governance of it. We have always counselled the Baron rather to suffer for a time than to give occasion of war to any Irishman, especially O'Chonour; "for betwixt them hath been continual contention sith the Earl of Kildare's departing from hence, for divers robberies made on Englishmen, and conveyed to his country, for which the Vice Deputy hath stopped such wages or tribute that O'Chonours have had in times past." On the 12th inst. they appointed a parliament near O'Chonour's country, by a castle of Sir William Darcy's called Rathyn, where the Vice-Deputy "was (by trayn) taken, all his footmen slain, divers of his horsemen sore wounded, and some taken," amongst whom was Christopher Cusake, as you will see by the copy of the Prior of Conalle's letters inclosed, to whom and Sir Walter Delahide we wrote, desiring them to speak with O'Chonour for deliverance of the Vice-Deputy and observance of peace, according to his oath made while you were here, and since to the Earl of Kildare.
These parts are destitute of good captains, and few are apt for war, except the Garrantynes, so that we are compelled to make Sir Thomas Fitz Garrat a "a general captain" for these parts, considering the distance of the Earl of Ossory, and the great affairs which he has in his country. Beseech help from England. The King's revenues do not suffice for the ordinary charges as there is no subsidy. The Irishmen, never so strong as now, "have spied their time and our debility." Send the bearer with instructions to be shown to you, and by you to the King and the Lord Cardinal. Our chief hope is in you.
Dublin, 15 May.
Signed: H. Dublinens.; P. Bermyngheam, Justic.
Addressed: Duke of Norfolk, Treasurer of England.

THE EARL OF OSSORY to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 89  1532

Former reference: MS 602, p. 89

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The bearer has petitioned me to ascertain you of the value of a bishopric in Conaght near Galwey; it is called Enaghdulen, far from the English pale, amongst the "inordinate wild Irishry," is not meet for any stranger of reputation, and does not exceed 20l. yearly. The clergy of it are far out of order, and the see church in ruin. It is necessary that there should be a "herd" there who has the favour of the country. Signed: P. Oss.
Addressed: Mr. Cromewell, of the King's most honourable Council.

SIR JAMES FITZ GERALD to HENRY VIII.  MS 602, p. 42  31 Aug 1533

Former reference: MS 602, p. 42

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 40.

Related information: State Papers II., 179.

I have received by the Master of the Rolls of Ireland, lately appointed, your letters to me and my brother Richard. Am most bounden for your gracious respect towards us. Whatever the Master of the Rolls shall advise us to do touching our fidelity and service to your Grace, we will not fail to follow. If it shall be your pleasure to have me repair to you, I will come with him at his return. My brother, your Deputy, bears me most extreme displeasure for the service I did to Sir William Skeffington, "then your Deputy," daily oppressing my lands with such unreasonable impositions that they are wasted. I am thus deprived of my rents and living; and unless you look to the redress and relief of your poor subjects of cos. Kildare and Carlow, they will be utterly destroyed and the land left waste. The county of Carlow, which is my Lord of Norfolk's, is for the most part laid waste, for the tenants of are forced to forsake their habitations.--Dublin, 31 August.
Signed. Addressed: The King's good Grace.

J. RAWSON, PRIOR OF KILMAINHAM, to HENRY VIII.  MS 602, p. 44  7 Aug 1534

Former reference: MS 602, p. 44

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 45.

Related information: State Papers II., 201.

On the 13th ult., Lord James Buttelar, the Bishop of Waterford, the Mayor of the same, and I certified your Highness how it was then reported at Waterford that a chaplain of the Emperor's was arrived in the west parts of Ireland, at a port called the Dangyll, of whose business at that time we had no knowledge. Afterwards, while the Earl of Osserr was at Waterford, he received a letter from Lymeryke, which his Lordship and I inclosed in ours of the 25th ult. On 31 July, knowledge was brought to Waterford that the Archbishop of Dublin, "being in ship to depart towards England," was caused to be taken by Thomas, son to the Earl of Kildare, brought before him, and murdered in his sight and by his command, with divers of his chaplains and servants. It is feared that he will subdue and destroy your English subjects in default of aid and defence, "for such as were thereunto appointed did little good." He has also allured O'Connor to him and all other Irishmen that he can get, burning and destroying your English subjects. As there was no knowledge of the arrival of Sir William Skevington, named your Deputy, I showed the Mayor of Waterford that I would depart into England or Wales to certify you of what I knew, and arrived here at Seynt Davis in Wales on the 6th inst. As I am much diseased with the palsy, and unable to ride, "my brother archdeacon," your chaplain, who has continually been this half year in my company, is repairing to your Highness. He can inform you of what he has seen and heard in Ireland.
Seynt Davis in Wales, 7 August. Signed.
Addressed: To the King his most noble Grace.

THOMAS AGARD to [CROMWELL].  MS 602, p. 96  24 May 1535

Former reference: MS 602, p. 96

4 Pages.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 52.

Related information: State Papers II. 243.

On 19 May, I arrived in Dublin with the King's treasure. At that time the Treasurer, Baron Aylmer, and the Master of the Rolls were riding into Kildare, to keep courts, to survey the lands of the late Earl of Kildare, and to let them to the King's profit; and they are still absent. I trust the borders about Dublin are in good stay, for the Lord Deputy lies at Maynewthe, Sir Rice Mawnxell at Trym, Mr. Salsburye at Dundalke, Mr. Brewerton at the Castle, and Sir John Saynctlow at Conwey; so that the army is well divided to the great safeguard of all these parts. If an army come next spring, all will be soon in order. I think Mr. Pawllett will come with the next wind, and with him Thomas the traitor's wife. "He loves her well (a primâ facie); howbeit I cannot perceive that she favours him so tenderly." This journey is profitable to him, as you shall perceive at my return. He has at least 16 or 20 hobbies, the worst worth five marks, and 3 or 4 "caste" of hawks; "and as for privy stuff, God knows what." He will probably endeavour to come again, "for he makes his reckoning even now, that much of this good expedition in these parts of the King's affairs doth rise of him." Few men desire his return hither again. "He came hither with a small male, but he cometh home with his trussing coffers. I am well assured that he hath get more clear than the Treasurer shall if he were here this seven year, yet shall their services never be like to their master. Here is perfect good and true servants to the King's Grace of Irishmen, even the good Earl of Ossory, Sir James his son, O'Donell, Baron Aylmer, and even there rest; for all others, as well the Chancellor, Justices, and other they may all go in one number." I have delivered to the Lord Deputy the King's and your letters. He mends well. I beseech you to be good to the Prior of Kilmainham. One letter from you would be more comfort to him than 500l. He desires you to take of his gift 20 marks yearly, which he will send by me at my return. Remember the commission for the Treasurer, that no man may meddle with the revenues to the King's loss.--Dublin, 24 May.
P.S. If you examine Serjeant Whitt, you will learn "what the demeanor of the Chancellor was with the Chief Justice at the siege of Dublin. He hath showed me that the Chancellor said these words: 'Serjeant Whitt, if you will, you may save this city, as this, to deliver the King's castle to the Lord Thomas, and you shall have liberty to pass with bag and baggage; and in case you will not, you shall destroy this city, and cast away yourself.' These words are not insedent for a true man. For when the Chancellor sat on judgment of Bathe, with the red head, there could no man find that ever he rode nor went journey with Thomas, but unless that he said to them of Dublin these words, that Thomas the traitor commanded him to say, 'Sirs, if the Englishmen come, you must do your best to resist them, and let us drink all of one cup;' and the Chancellor was with him at that same time, and had with Thomas half an 100 men but to serve the King at Maynewthe, with himself and a lad. Such is his truth with other. As for Talbott, that is in the Fleet, I have, in the absence of Mr. Treasurer, caused an inventory to be taken of all his goods to the King's use, to he have tried himself and put safe keeping over them. I doubt he will be proved neighbourlike." In the next I shall ascertain you of all things here.

SIR WILLIAM FITZWILLIAM to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 85  7 July 1535

Former reference: MS 602, p. 85

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 55.

Related information: State Papers II., 341.

The King has shown me a matter about which he forgot to speak with you yesterday. "As he hath now made a new conquest of Ireland to his great cost and charge," he wishes you to devise an Act of Parliament to be passed there, whereby he may have the lands of all persons both spiritual and temporal in Ireland; or else that the said persons shall become contributors to support the said charges, and like charges in future. He was in doubt whether to take their lands by reason of his conquest, or by Act of Parliament. He wishes you to debate this matter with the Council, and take such order as you and they think best.--Windsor, Wednesday, 7th July. Signed.
Addressed: "Master Th. Crumwell, squire, Chief Secretary.
Endorsed: "Mr. Treasurer of the King's house" [Fitzwilliam].

JOHN TALBOT of Dardyston to THOMAS AGARD.  MS 602, p. 130  11 Sep 1535

Former reference: MS 602, p. 130

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 60.

Related information: See a letter from Robt. Cowley to Cromwell, in "State Papers," II., 323.

I beseech you to help me to get some remedy of Sir William Darey of Platyng, who dwells in Drogheda, at the Grey Friars, for his lies about me. He has said I was indicted of treason for going to the siege of Dublin; [Siege of Dublin, Sept. and Oct. 1534, by FitzGerald.] that a bill was brought to him containing the name of 12 men who should suffer death, and that I was one of them; and that caused me to go over the sea, which was to my great charge, as you know. There was no such bill. Darcy himself has good cause to be troubled, for he sent his counsel to Thomas FitzGerrot, the which may be well known if you will examine Thomas FitzGerrot. Master James FitzGerrot married Darcy's own daughter, Margery Darcy; Master Richard FitzGerrot married his son and heir's daughter; Master Walter FitzGerrot married his daughter's daughter, the Lord of Dunsany's daughter; and Gerald McGerrot McShane married his son and heir's wife; "and they would come once or twice every week to Drogheda to Sir William Darcy to fetch his counsel to Thomas FitzGerrot; and that proveth well," for neither Darcy nor his tenants lost a single beast or any goods, and they had not one house burnt in all his lordship, during the war. My tenants were robbed, and my land burnt to the value of 40 marks a year. When Drogheda was "closed upon" Gerald McGerrot McShane, and other servants of Thomas FitzGerrot, in order to take them and send them to the King or the Deputy, Darcy conveyed the said Gerald over the town walls with ladders; but the others were taken (Brod being one of them), and put to execution. If Thomas FitzGerrot cannot deny this, Darcy ought to make amends for much of the hurt that is done.
I defy Thomas FitzGerrot to say that I ever gave him counsel, or that I ever was privy to any of his acts. I did my best against him. I beseech you cause FitzGerrot to be examined. If he say true, it will clear me. "The Deputy is rearing a great holding of 18 score pound upon Meath for McGwyyr's kerne, and another great holding for Gerald McGerrot McShane and his horsemen, the which cometh to 40s. every plowland through all Meath; and for because I spake against that for the King's poor subjects, the Deputy is not content with me.
Dardystown, 11 September.
Addressed: To my right heartily beloved master Thomas Agar, being with Master Secretary in the place [of the] Rolls in Chancellor Lane [in Lo]ndon. Endorsed.

GERALD AYLMER, Justice [of the King's Bench], and JOHN ALEN, Master of the Rolls, to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 90  31 Dec 1535

Former reference: MS 602, p. 90

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 64.

Related information: State Papers II., 295.

According to your command to us and Master Treasurer of the Wars, since the coming of the army into Ireland we have always kept company together from place to place. Irishmen were never in such fear as now. The King's sessions are being kept in five shires more than formerly. Many male-factors have been taken and hanged, especially in co. Kildare, where, at the last sessions, 18 were hanged, and part of them quartered. I, Aylmer, have received by the Master of the Rolls your letter, willing the Master of the Rolls and me "to persevere in our old amity with Master Treasurer, and to join in one conformity" to serve the King. We have at all times given our attendance on Master Treasurer, who has followed our advice. But of late reports have been made that we have not been friendly disposed towards him, and have written to you that he did not the King such service as he might, labouring to put him from his office of Under-Treasurer. You well know that we were never of such mind towards him; neither has he deserved dispraise of us or any others. These informations have "been especially ministered by Mr. Agarde, who hath procured the said Master Treasurer, by secret practice and device, to be in displeasure with us;" and we doubt not but the Lord Deputy, from his old displeasure towards us, "will stir, procure, and continue" them. We beseech you to write to Master Treasurer, not to regard such light reports. Since our departure from Dublin we have written to Agarde on this subject.--Kilkenny, 31 December.
Signed: Gerald Aylmer, Justice; John Alen, Mr. of the Rolls. Addressed: Master Crumwell, Principal Secretary. Endorsed.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 87

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 70.

The effect of the letters addressed from the King's highness, Treasurer of the Wars in Ireland, to Mr. Secretary.
It is intended that the Deputy, captains and others of the Council shall repair towards Dundalk on the north border in Ireland, where will meet with them O'Nell, O'Donell, McGwyer, and Manus O'Donell, with all the best of the north parts, for a concord to be had between O'Donell and Manus his son. When the Deputy was at Dungarvan, the Chief Justice and the Treasurer had a meeting with O'Nell and others of the north parts, and concluded that Manus O'Donell should come to the Lord Deputy, to be ordered by him and others for a peace between his father and him, which is like to take effect, so that the north parts will be in quietness, and all at the King's command, except certain Scots, who within these six years have inhabited a great part of the King's lands, and must be expelled, or else they will wax a strong band.
The Treasurer of late was at Carlingford, to see the King's castle there, and another called the Green Castle; which castles and the country about them are almost destroyed. The English fleet was there at their herring fishing, and were 600 sail. They offered, if there were any war in those parts, to make three thousand fighting men for two or three days. If the fishing continue there as it has done, the King may have as much rent as ever was paid, and the residue of the profits will, within a short time, make both the castle of Carlingford and the Green Castle to be wardable. If the King continue his wars, as of necessity it must be, it were convenient to send over 100 masons, carpenters, and sawyers, who might be men of war, and also make and repair the castles and fortresses bordering on the King's enemies to be wardable, and do good service in making of piles, for the banishing of Irishmen.
The Treasurer thinks "these mulier Garraunty[n]is" will make war this winter. The King will never have his land there in quiet so long as any of that blood remains. The county of Wexford and the castle of Catherlagh with other lands there, being in the hands of spiritual men of England, are more meet to be for the King than any others; and their possessors might be otherwise recompensed. "If the Toylles, the Burnes, and the Calenayghes, which is McMurgh and his sect, were banished and destroyed, and it inhabited with Englishmen," then the King would have there a goodly country, and no Irishmen who could make wars against them. The Treasurer thinks it requisite to have the King's laws kept sometimes in other places than Dublin, as at Trym, for where they are afraid of the laws, there is good order, and nowhere else.
In a contemporary hand.

ANTHONY COLLY to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 98  13 Feb 1536

Former reference: MS 602, p. 98

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 73.

At the coming last over of the Lord Leonard Grey into this poor country of Ireland, he mustered the soldiers, both horsemen and footmen, which were under the retinue of Sir William Skeffyngton, then being Deputy, with strait and crue fashion, even accordingly as the Earl of Kildare did at our coming last out of Ireland, which was thought by all the Council of England afterward to be ungently handled. These musters was not better, but much worse, for the said Lord Leonard had unfitting words to the King's Deputy, much worse than ever the Earl of Kildare had, beside threttyng of his captains with imprisonment; as also to Leonard Skeffyngton said, after the musters, he would strike him with his dagger, with such a raging fashion that men must needs suffer him to say and do what he would; which demeanor went never from the Lord Deputy's heart during his life, and greatly I think it shortened the same.
Also at the same musters he checked men for default of good horses, which had horses right good and able to do service under any man, notwithstanding they were the more worse for that their masters at the same time lacked money, and were unpaid at the King's hand for seven months, which he would not consider in the said musters. The Master of the Rolls, being assigned commissioner of the musters, did not apparently misbehave himself, but the Lord Leonard showed me afterwards, that he did, the Master of the Rolls, before his coming thither, laboured him to do the same; and if Mr. Brabason had not been good to us, we had in our wages been put to over much losses; but he suffered the said Lord Leonard to speak and do his pleasure in the musters. Notwithstanding, we were well and truly paid for so many months as we had payment for; and I trust he will report, and so will Sir William of Brewerton and Mr. John Assallysberry, that at the musters both men and horses were able to do as good service as any 100 soldiers in Ireland." If Lord Leonard use his commission as he has done, neither I, who am captain of the said 100, nor any other captain, shall be loved by our companies. He will not suffer the captains to put out of or take into wages a single soldier, but reserves this power to himself.
I trust the King will send a Deputy who is able to rule, lest any should "think themselves checkmate with the Deputy in authority." The King is not informed of some things, and misinformed respecting others. "I dare not speak of all: men as so politic nowadays, that which is written to your Mastership at London, many times they read the same in Ireland, greatly to the displeasure of the writers." The bearer, John Amore, [Or Anore.] can show you divers matters which require amendment, and especially concerning Dame Anne Skeffyngton, wife to the late Lord Deputy, who is not well handled in her causes, and "cannot be suffered to send her friend with her to come into England to solicit her causes to your Mastership." "He can show you of much ongenne (?) matter against her and her husband's retinue, who, without your favours, knoweth not how to do, but that good Mr. Brabasson is good to us." I desire you to give him thanks, and also to the Master of the Rolls and the Chief Justice. My Lady Skeffyngton has written to you "by a more stranger than this bearer is, for fear that her letters should have be stopped by them that ruleth here.
Dewllyng (Dublin), 13 Feb., 27 Hen. VIII.
Addressed: Mr. Th. Crumwell, Chief Secretary.

[SIR] FRANCIS HARBART to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 94  21 March 1536

Former reference: MS 602, p. 94

2 Pages.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 74.

Related information: State Papers II. 307.

Since the departure of Sir James Feis Gerrot and his brethren, these parts have been in quietness. The army here makes the peace so well to be kept. My Lord Deputy has spoken this last week with O'Mor and MacMorro at a house of the King's, named Kylka. I was with him, and perceived they were desirous of peace. Nevertheless, the report was that O'Konnore, O'More, McMorro, O'Dowyn, O'Molmoye, and all the Irishmen of these parts were confederated against us when Sir James and his brethren were taken, but they dare not stir. At the same house my Lord Treasurer and my Lord his father met the Deputy, and told him and the Council that O'Bren intends to move war against my Lord of Osre and his country. This O'Bren is the most powerful Irishman. The Deputy is valiant and forward in doing service. Mr. Treasurer has great pains with the army for lack of money. "The soldiers may not ride abroad in the borders for lack of money, for rather they do steal than otherwise, many of them." The gentlemen of co. Kildare are "the most sorriest afraid men in the world, for they thinks that they shall be taken one after another of them, as Sir James Fis Gerrot was and his brethren." The country is waste and void of inhabitants, for there are no farmers able to inhabit it. Would God the King sent Englishmen to inhabit here!--Dublin, 21 March.
Addressed: Mr. Th. Cromwell, Chief Secretary. Endorsed.

WALTER COWLEY to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 92  19 June 1536

Former reference: MS 602, p. 92

3 Pages.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 81.

Related information: State Papers II. 332.

I wrote lately by one Sonnyng, parson of Wykloo. Master Treasurer will be occupied here for three weeks in making up his account books, and then must follow the Parliament into Munster. All next winter he will be diminishing the army till next March, or whatever time is thought meet for its thorough reformation. Every person in authority should attend to his own charge. The Deputy to follow the wars and debate with the Council. The Treasurer to attend his office, and, "forasmuch as he is even the best captain and fortunatest in the army without comparison, [to be] with the Deputy in places of great stead, when his absence elsewhere may be spared." As William Seyntlo's 300 foot will do little stead this winter, he should have 100 horse, and discharge the foot; "Mr. Treasurer to have another 100 horsemen at his leading, and my Lord Treasurer 100 horsemen, whereof 50 to be Englishmen, and the other 50 of this country; and that 300 to be resident in the com. of Wexford and in the castle of Fernis, now in possession with my Lord Treasurer." They could survey the said county, now the King's, and win the castles, holds, and cattle of the Kewanaghes and Brines "between Dublin, the English pale and the Earl of Ossory, the Butlers, and the said com.," so that by next March it would be desolate of Irishry and made habitable. Thus all the Englishry in Leinster and Munster, which contain three of the five parts of Ireland, would be linked together. Two hundred horsemen resident in the English pale will be sufficient, with aid of the lords and inhabitants there, as the other 300 before expressed are ready at any time to accompany the Lord Deputy on any business. These 300 "may as well at times peruse Munster as Leinster," in order that the whole army shall not be resident in the English pale, "but so part of them alway to be so occupied to step further, and not to trust to that ground they stand on alonely." My Lord of Ossory is a great stay here, and greatly furthers these devices. "Sir John of Desmond is dead, Cormok Og and MacWilliam." This day Ossory has sent to the Lord Deputy and Council [to inform them] that this new MacWilliam, who is son to the MacWilliam that was in my Lord of Norfolk's days, and was son-in-law to Ossory, will serve the King and follow such order as my Lord Deputy will have him. 19 June.
Addressed: Master Secretary, &c. Endorsed.

ROBERT REYLEY.  MS 602, p. 138  5 Aug 1536

Former reference: MS 602, p. 138

7 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 84.

The examination of Robert Reyley, detained for suspicion of treasons done in the parts of Ireland, received the 5th day of August anno 28 H. VIII.
Is 24 years of age; was born in Gyrley, co. Meath; was brought up in the house of the late Earl of Kildare. When the said Earl was sent for by the King, my Lady his wife came to the King to make his excuse. At that time this deponent came to London with my Lady his mistress. Was sent by her into Ireland to the Earl with two letters, the one from the King and the other from my Lady. Knows not what was contained in the said two letters, but supposes that the Earl was to come personally to the King. Received no other letters, token, message, or credence from the said Lady or any other to the Earl or his son Thomas FitzGerald. If such were sent, they were sent by Edmund Sexton, who was put in greater trust than deponent. Sexton rode towards Ireland a little before deponent. Overtook him at the waterside and from thence they went in company to the Earl. Knows not what letters were conveyed by Sexton. The Earl received the letters with reverence, and made no answer, but prepared himself for his journey to London. The Earl sent for his son Thomas and for all his brethren, with whom he had several communications. He heard say in the Earl's house, that the said Thomas FitzGerald was ruled by the advice and counsel of James FitzGerald his uncle, Thomas Eustace, James Delahide, Sir Walter Delahide, and Jenet Eustace, wife of the said Sir Walter. When the Earl was ready to depart, he caused the Council to meet with him at Tredath, whither the Earl went. He caused Thomas FitzGerald to be made Deputy and to be sworn before the Council, and delivered him the sword. Then he took his journey towards England.
Attended on the Earl till the May following, a quarter of a year after his arrival in England. Departed from the Earl because the Earl was sick and not like to live long; and his son Thomas FizthGarret being Deputy in Ireland, deponent was minded to go to his service. Edward Rokes and Humfrey Sexton, servants to the Earl, went with him to Ireland, but neither he nor they carried any letters. About eight weeks after his return to Ireland, (deponent then being in service with Thomas FitzGerald) a poor fellow, an Irishman, dwelling by Kilkulleyn, who had a business to do at London, came to the said Thomas, did him recommendations from the Earl, and delivered him a little heart of silver and gilt, and a pair of black dice, saying in Irish "that he should play the best or gentlest part, and that he should not trust to the King's Council there, for if he did he should be brought perforce into England and there should lose his life; and that he should keep him out of the way as much as he might." A month after one Doctor Hykey, Edmund Nele, and two gentlewomen named Katharine FitzGerald and Rose Eustas, came from the Earl to the said Thomas. Also Thomas FitzGerald "had knowledge of a letter which was sent from one Thomas Canon, the contents whereof were, that as well the said Thomas FitzGerald, as all other his uncles and all other of his name and stock, if they were taken, should be brought perforce into England and there put to death; and saith that the report was further that Garet Eelmer and Thomas Cusak had undertaken unto the King's Gouncil to take the said Thomas FitzGerald and all his uncles, and how that the said Eelmer and Cusak had received a sum of money of the King's Grace for the doing of the same.
Supposes the first occasion of Thomas FitzGerald's rebellion was the receipt of the message from the said poor man, and the letter sent from Canon. James Delayhide and Sir John FitzGerald and one Parson Welshe were "chief a counsel" with the said Thomas, as well before the rebellion as after. The said Thomas also took counsel of all the residue of his uncles, although the said Richard FitzGerald never bare the said Thomas his good heart and favour. Shortly after he had knowledge of the letters from Canon, Thomas FitzGerald went to Dublin, accompanied by 1,000 horsemen and footmen, amongst whom were the said James FitzGerald and John FitzGerald and respondent. At that time Thomas FitzGerald surrendered his oath and delivered his sword to the King's Council. Within a month afterwards the said Thomas, accompanied by John FitzGerald, respondent, and 40 other persons, went to Artayne to a gentleman's house called Mr. Hothe, where the Bishop of Dublin then lay; and at that time the said Bishop was murdered, but whether by command of the said Thomas or not, respondent knoweth not. Immediately after the murder, on the same day, the said Thomas spoiled the house of Mr. Talbott, three or four miles from Dublin, and drove away his cattle; but meanwhile respondent was sent by the said Thomas to Mynuth, with a casket taken from the said Bishop.
After this, the said Thomas gathered a host of 2,000 or 3,000 men, and assaulted one Mr. Bedlow, a knight of that country, "beat" his castles, killed divers of his servants, and took his wife prisoner. From thence he went and met with the Great AnNeale, and recovered a castle from one NeleMore, which he delivered to the Great AnNeale. Then he returned home, gathered a greater host, set upon the Earl of Ossory, and burned divers towns of his country. From thence he returned home again, and then laid siege to the castle of Dublin, and afterwards to the town of Dublin. Then he went to Tredath, and brought away a great gun that lay there. All his uncles and respondent were present at the seige of Dublin, but not at the seige of the said castle. They were with him in Ossory's land, as also were most of the gentlemen of the English pale. After this respondent was at the killing of Mr. Musgrave and 25 others; "at which time" 19 Englishmen were taken prisoners. James FitzGerald was present, but no more of the uncles of the said Thomas. Was present at the skirmish at the town of Tryme, the said John and Walter his uncles being there with the said Thomas. 15 or 16 Englishmen were slain. Shortly after Easter following the said Thomas went into A'Bruen's country, meaning to take his journey from thence into Spain. He continued there till after Whitsuntide, and then returned home, leaving respondent there to keep certain plate to the value of 400 or 500 marks, which was left in the custody of McBriennary, an Irish Lord. The said Thomas left his apparel and two great gilt pots in the custody of A'Bruen, and other plate to the value of 400 and 500 marks in the keeping of Morough O'Brien. Respondent continued in O'Brien's country until the Saturday before Saint Peter's day last.
The said Thomas FitzGerald sent one Charles, his chaplain, to the Bishop of Rome, to obtain absolution for killing the Bishop of Dublin; and James Delayhid and Parson Walshe to the Emperor, to treat with him for succour and aid.
Because O'Brien's country is very rude, and respondent liked not the manner of the country, he thought it good to come into England and submit himself to the King's mercy. Came from O'Brien's country to Bristowe, and there went to Mr. Shurloke, an Irishman, servant to the Lord Privy Seal, and desired to be brought "to the speech of the said Lord Privy Seal." Kept company with Mr. Shurloke till his "now coming" to London, being always at liberty. If he had been so minded, he might have departed at his pleasure, for he lay only two nights with Mr. Shurloke since his coming to London on Sunday last.
Signed at the foot of every page by Robert Relye. Endorsed.

LORD JAMES BUTLER to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 100  11 Aug 1536

Former reference: MS 602, p. 100

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 87.

Related information: State Papers II. 357.

After the prorogation of our parliament from Caishell to Limerick, we immediately advanced forwards into the county of Limerick. As Sir John of Desmond's sons would incline to no good conformity, "we foraged and committed semblable destruction." A manor called Loghgyr belonging to James, son to the said Sir John, the pretended Earl of Desmond, "was left open, and the doors and windows carried away, and burned the roof themselves." I set up doors and made it defensible, and warded it with my own men, who continue there. Passing thus to Limerick I kept the foreward, and my Lord my father the rearward. We continued the parliament one day in Limerick, and the next day after we set forwards to O'Brenis bridge, and on our way received hostages of some of the Borkes for their offences against the King and the citizens of Limerick. "There was such a tower of thickness and for defence at the bridge foot as I have not seen in Ireland, and well warded." On Saturday and on Sunday morning last we shot our ordnance at it, but made very little battery. Certain of William Seintlo's retinue adventured the assault, which they achieved without loss of one man. The ward escaped through the bridge. That Sunday and the next day, we were breaking the bridge and both the towers "that on the ends defended the bridge." On Tuesday we returned to Limerick, and I was appointed by the Council to come hither "to convey more ordnance thither, that was conveyed hither by sea from Dublin." On Wednesday O'Brene desired to commune with my Lord my father; to which the Council assented. If he conform not himself, "we will not leave him thus without further prosecution, and yet peruse Munster;" so that, ere we return, this Sir John of Desmond's sons shall be of no power to annoy much the King's subjects; "which danger, if there were any, my Lord my father and his country is next unto.
You have written to me and to the Baron of Delwyn not to repair thither for a season, but to set the King's affairs forward here. "I wot well that the same cometh by some procurement, as who say I would be accompanied with such a sort as would crave of the King." I never intended to have with me the Baron, his son, or "others that much desired it;" or to repair thither till the end of this hosting. I beseech you that, after this war in Munster, and when my absence may be forborne, I may resort to the King and you.
O'Nele, O'Rayle, and others who promised to come to this hosting, failed. The Barons of Delwin and Slane are not here, and there are very few from all the English pale. For the building of certain garrisons and for the defence of the English pale, Master Treasurer was willed to continue there, who goes well about the same, and is well beloved; though some "would have him in many enterprises no partner." There is no one in Ireland, except my Lord Deputy, I would rather have in my company.
To day I journey with the ordnance to Caishell, and trust to be with the army at Limerick on Sunday. Master Body has taken much pains, and, after our homely fashion, lay in his clothes, "willing to see the towardness of every man's service there.
Carrik, this Friday after Saint Lawrence's Day. Signed.
In Walter Cowley's hand. Addressed: Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.

MARTIN PELLES to [CROMWELL ?].  MS 602, p. 135  4 Dec 1536

Former reference: MS 602, p. 135

3 Pages.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 91.

One Steven Apary cometh into England, who was next unto my Lord Deputy of any servant that he had," and therefore knows more than many others concerning the authors of the sedition among the Council here. He also knows "much of the fashions and of the subtil working of this land" and how the King's matters are hindered. The English pale is in sore decay, and especially Euryell. Unless it have help next summer, the rest of the country will be in sore decay, for they have very ill neighbours--Nele More, Bryan Row Hanloo, Phelam Row Neele, and the country of Farney. Covetousness should be "avoided from the rulers of this land." The principal rulers must be native Englishmen; for otherwise, if any of the lords of the Irishry come and rob within the English pale, they will probably have friends among the rulers, and be able to make peace on returning a portion only of the spoil. Your Lordship should cause the Lord Deputy, the Treasurer, and the Master of the Rolls "to be all three in one assent, above all other.
The saying of all the country is, that the changing of so many Deputies has been the chief hurt of this land. It is a year or two before a new Deputy becomes acquainted with the condition of the pale and of the Irishry. If the King should send next summer four or five thousand men, the Lord Deputy, Mr. Treasurer, and the Master of the Rolls, being in one assent, and having experience of the country, could cause such service to be done in one summer as many would think impossible. My Lord Deputy has more discretion than he had when he came last out of England. He is also pityful to the poor people, and executes justice with charity, and without corruption, and is very "painful, forward and hardy in the field." He is very sorry for Steven Apari's going from him, for Steven was very hardy when he went about any business, and very forward in the field.
Mr. Treasurer is very well beloved, is a good justiciary, favourable to the common weal, and very hardy in the field. The Master of the Rolls is a man of great capacity and good wit in compassing any of the King's causes, and favours the poor people. If this country were in quiet, it would be as profitable for the wealth of England as any land in the world is to its prince. Mr. Poole [William Pole, provost marshal.] is discharged out of his office, and goes to England. He was well beloved here in the army, but men marvel that he was so quick with my Lord Deputy as he was, for Justice Hothe heard the words which were spoken. He said he would never love Steven Apary. They were wont to be the greatest friends. When they both come together before your Lordship, you will hear many strange matters betwixt them.
The Archbishop of Dublin [George Brown.] preached his first sermon in this land the Sunday after Saint Andrew in Cree Church, Dublin, and set forth the word of God so sincerely, that those men that be learned and unlearned both give him high praise. Those who favour the word of God are very glad of him.
Dublin, 4th Dec.
P.S. I have written truth as God shall judge me.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 155

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 94.

A remembrance to your Honorable Lordship [Cromwell?] for the dispatching of my Lord of Desmond.
As the said Lord has been so long out of his native country, his former servants, and others who supported him in recovering his right, are forced to take part with his adversary. He has received no money from his country since his coming into England, but is at the King's finding, "of the which he is now destitute, so that for lack of maintenance he is not here able to live." It may therefore please your Lordship to see him dispatched. He will serve the King all his lifetime. It may also please the King to lend him a certain sum of money in mortgage upon such lands as have descended to him from his father, being without claim, in order that he may retain men of war. A letter to be sent to his said adversary, commanding him to appear before the Council in Ireland, and to "bring forth such right and title as he pretendeth to the earldom of Desmond." If he refuse to abide by the Council's decision, the Lord Deputy and Council to prosecute him as a traitor, and to put "the said James" in his rightful possession. Letters to be written accordingly to the Deputy and Council, and to the Earl of Ossory and his son, the Lord Treasurer; and others to the gentlemen and lords of the country, as he himself will declare to your Lordship.
Same hand as Rob. Cowley's Declaration on p. 150. Endorsed.

The SOVEREIGN and COUNCIL of WEXFORD to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 124  29 Jan 1537

Former reference: MS 602, p. 124

1 Page.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 95.

The lands of the monastery of Selskyr, joined to St. Peter's parish church of the same, in Wexford, (its prior having the cure of the parishioners,) do not exceed 7l. yearly. The greater part of their tithes are in the power of the King's enemies. Were it not for the tithes and alms of the said parishioners, God's service and good hospitality could not be observed there. The prior and convent are "stewards and purveyors to other men's use for our said Sovereign Lord's honour, keeping many poor folks as scholars and orphans." The King's soldiers and officers repairing into those parts are lodged and succoured by them. We therefore beseech you to be "the only mean" to the King that the said house may be changed into a college, the canons into priests, and the prior into parson and governor of the same.
Wexford, 29 Jan.
Signed: "The Suffryng and Council of the aforesaid town in Ireland, Per me, Patricyum Stafford, superiorem villæ prædictæ. Per me, Nichom Rychford, recordatorem villæ prædictæ. Paulle Tornour. Wyllam Meyller. Per me, Walterum Talbott. Per me, Pat. Staff. Per me, Thomas Synet. Per me, Robert Stafford. Per me, Jamys Dewros. Per me, Water Bollan. John Stafford. Symon Talbott.
Addressed: Lord Cromell, Lord Privy Seal, and Vice-gerent in spiritualty to the King's Highness.

MARTIN PELLYS to [CROMWELL?].  MS 602, p. 133  6 Feb 1537

Former reference: MS 602, p. 133

4 Pages.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 96.

The subtil compassing of the Irishmen, as well within the English pale as without, doth almost pass the capacity of any man without it be your Lordship, or other like that hath been used to have communication with them, or by writing from them that be continuers and dwellers among them." They daily consult together how they may find means that "no English gentleman nor other" shall have rule or authority in Ireland but only Irishmen. They are sorry that Englishmen know so much of the country as they do, as the bearer can inform you from the experience which he had here in the Duke of Norfolk's time. If your Lordship do give command to the Deputy, the Treasurer, the Prior of Cellmaynam and the Master of the Rolls "to avoid covetousness," then the King and you will hear of such things done as will please you, which cannot be done so long as the Irishmen know as much of the King's counsel as the Englishmen who are the King's Council.
The Butlars be of a high courage and liveth here like princes." Many fear they will be loth to live in subjection, if any other means may be found either by fair words, subtil wit, or for money; "for all the country prayeth daily to God that the Butlars especially may never be their head rulers," nor any that are native born in this land. They also pray for the prosperity of your Lordship, for they say you moved the King "to go so graciously through with this country as his Grace hath done," whereby they are brought out of misery.
I have seen some countries more than England, [Qu. a mistake for Ireland ?] yet I never, nor no other man that ever I have communed with but saith for all things it is the goodliest land that ever they have seen, not only for pleasure and pastime of a prince, but as well for profit to his Grace profit (sic), and for the whole realm of England." I would your Lordship were in this land but three months; you would make the noblest journey that ever was made. The King can lose no more than is lost, unless he lose all. If the King and you cause the country between Dublin and Waterford to be inhabited, then the King might say Ireland was clearly won, and after that he would be at little cost and receive great profits, with men and money at his pleasure.
Dublin, 6 February.

WILLIAM SAYNTLOO to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 118  17 March 1537

Former reference: MS 602, p. 118

2 Pages.

Holograph. (?)

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 97.

By your means the King appointed me for life seneschal of the liberty of Wexford and of all his lands. You have been informed that I have received the revenues of the liberty and lands "otherwise than at the keeping of the King's Grace's courts of the four manors for bloodsheds, lederwikes, and such like perquisites," as appears by the verdict of the "said" inquest. If you do not wish me to take such petty things, I will never intermeddle with them. "I never had to have extreme punishment." You have also been informed that I refused to go to the Deputy at his sending for me; but I have always been prompt to do his pleasure. In the journeys on James FitzJohn I have served without wages; and my retinue [...] had but eight marks for a horseman and four marks for a footman. We followed the Council to Dublin, and when we had spent all, we had licence to repair to the county of Wexford. Of the soldiers' wages, due at Michaelmas last, 76l. are unpaid. I have had no wages for the year ending Michaelmas last.
The county of Wexford borders on the Kavenaghes; "this notwithstanding the King hath certain lands named the fasaghe of Banauntrey, parcel of the said liberty, let to farm by the King's commissioners, as Mr. Sentleger and others, to Mr. Richard Butler, where inhabiteth Kavenaghes, McMorghowe's judges, and Irish rymers, victualling daily such enemies as burn, spoil, and destroy the King's poor subjects the inhabitants of his Grace's county of Wexford; and in the said fasaghe they divide the poor men's goods, and I dare not follow the hurts unless I had sufficient power to match the pretensed tenants, as well as his Grace's manifest Irish enemies. There is another sort of Irishmen named termoners or pensioners. These in like manner destroy this liberty by continual spoils; so that if I have spial on the said Irish enemies, and find him and all his followers in his house, and find the goods of the King's subjects there in like manner, being evertofore a grievous offender for his death and followers, I have been complained on to the King's Council. These pensioners of Kavenaghes, when I had power, did bear yearly rents to the King's Majesty and now by tribute of other powers destroy the King's obedient subjects.
Addressed: The Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.

The LORD DEPUTY and COUNCIL of IRELAND to HENRY VIII  MS 602, p. 46  20 April 1537

Former reference: MS 602, p. 46

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 98.

Contemp. abstract of the preceding, MS 611, p. 34
Headed: 20 April 1537.

The DUKE OF SUFFOLK to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 115  3 June 1537

Former reference: MS 602, p. 115

1 Page.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 99.

Of late we have written sundry times both to the Bishop of Dublin and the Deputy of Ireland, concerning the restitution of the prebend of Malihedrit to Christopher Lynam, dean of my chapel. He hears they will not restore him to his prebend unless the King's letters be obtained. I desire you to obtain them. Give credence to my servant Thomas Holmes, the bearer.
Hoxon, 3 June. Signed.
Addressed: Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.

PATRICK BARNEWALL to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 116  17 Aug 1537

Former reference: MS 602, p. 116

1 Page.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 103.

I have letters from my friends that my Lord Deputy, Master Treasurer and a few more of the English pale made a journey lately upon the Kevanages, and have received pledges from all the Kevanages, the Moris, O'Kerall, Fergownamyne, and O'Kenedy. They have also received "the money of O'Connour concluded upon the peace with him, which is the value of 600 kine; and for the same he hath no other liberty, but that he, his wife, and family, which is but few, shall be suffered to abide with the Earl of Ossory and others of his friends till the King's Highness' pleasure therein be known, so that he in no wise shall repair to Offaly, where he lately dwelled, in the mean time." If provision of inhabitants be had, that country is clearly won to the King. In your letters to the Commissioners it will be necessary to put them in remembrance "to inhabit as much as they can." The Baron Fynglas is deceased; I fear the King will miss him. Last Thursday the Commissioners took their journey to the Holyhede, and as soon as the wind serve, we all shall be in readiness to take shipping.
At West Chestyr, 17 August.
Addressed: Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.

[...] LORD LEONARD GREY to HENRY VIII.  MS 602, p  1 Sep 1537

Former reference: MS 602, p

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 104.

Related information: A letter of the same date to Cromwell is in the Record Office, and printed in the "State Papers," II. 471.

After I had finished the other journey against the Cavenaghes, O'Karuile, and others mentioned in the other letter from me and the Council, I was ascertained both of the death of O'Donell, and that O'Neil had constrained certain of the borderers being upon your peace to adhere to him; and also that his son and servants were making a voyage to your castle of Ardglas "to evict the same out of your Grace's possession." By the advice of the Council I proclaimed a general hosting, to march into those parts, provided with a month's victuals, in order to repress O'Neil, and to prosecute others for their disobedience. As the Council did not wish me to proceed rigorously if O'Neil would conform himself, I appointed him to come to the border three days before the host should march, and on his so doing I sent the Chancellor, the Bishop of Meath, and the Chief Justice to commune with him, who found him very reasonable, and willing to abide "the order of them being of your Grace's Council" and of McQuyer and McDonell, captain of his galoglasses. They therefore advised me to accept this offer, as I did; though, seeing he delivered no pledges and had there a great power both of Irishmen and Scots, I would, if I might have followed my own will, have so handled him that he should have had no cause to boast of that voyage. During my thus being upon the border with the host, the new O'Donell sent me certain letters, which I inclose, with my answer to the same. He may do your Grace good service, "especially in the stay of O'Neil." I and the Council think it good that you should accept him to grace. I desire to be advertised of your pleasure, how I shall use myself in this and such like things, for else I shall be at no more certainty or stay with the said O'Donell than I am with James of Desmond, "who, upon like submission having no answer hitherto from your Highness, standeth in such doubt as he inclineth not to his duty, as he saith he else would.
At the late monastery of Bektif in Meath, 1 Sept.
Signed: Leonard Gray.
Addressed: To the King's high Majesty.

EARL OF OSSORY AND ORMOND.  MS 602, p. 161  1537

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Extent of the lands comprised in the Earl of Ossory's bill, by the year, 140l. Although he pretends to have an undoubted title to 60l. thereof, yet he does not intend to "try with the King," but to be a petitioner to his Majesty for the whole. He "cannot dispend by all his lands by the year above the sum of 500 marks st.
Extent of the land that Burnell had in his possession, by the year, 42l. Extent of the reversion that his mother has in possession, by the year, 30l. Extent of the lands that his brother has in possession, by the year, 13l. 6s. 8d.
The said Earl of Ossory, on the death of Thomas [Butler], late Earl of Ormond, [Died 1515.] was found "by office" to be Ormond's next heir male. Thereupon he sued out his livery, and was named Earl of Ormond, both by the King's letters patent, and by his Grace's letters missives; and he was so reputed and accepted for 16 years. "And now the Earl of Wiltshire [Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond, 8 Dec. 1529; died 1538.] is contented he be so named Earl of Ormond in Ireland, semblably as the two Lords Dacres be named the one of the South and the other of the North.
In a contemp. hand. Endorsed: "The extent of the lands of Combmertyn, for my Lord Butler." Also: "My Lord Butler's suits.

COUNTY of CARLOW.  MS 602, p. 162  1537

Former reference: MS 602, p. 162

4 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 113.

Related information: See "State Papers," II. 447.

Devices for the ordering of the Cavenaghes, the Byrnes, Tooles, and O Mayles for such lands as they shall have within the county of Carlow, and the marches of the same county, and also of the marches of the county of Dublin.
(1.) He that is now called McMorughe and every one of the gentlemen of the Cavanaghes have certain lands appointed to them and the heirs of their bodies, to hold of the King by knight service, some by a whole knight's fee, some by half a knight's fee, some by the fourth part, and some by the sixth part, after the rate of the land appointed to them.
(2.) It shall be lawful to each of them to make freeholders under them.
(3.) None of them to be "obeisant to any other of them," but to the King's Majesty only, or to such as shall have the rule there under his Highness.
(4.) Every gentleman's freeholder to be obedient to his Lord, unless he do not keep his duty of allegiance to the King.
(5.) Every gentleman to pay a small yearly rent "for a knowledge to his Majesty.
(6.) Considering "how miserably the gentlemen and men of war do handle the poor husbandmen with coyne and livery in those parts, and also forasmuch as the said gentlemen's countries are not marching upon any Irishmen, but that the counties of Dublin, Kildare, and Kilkenny do lie between them and the said Irishmen, it is thought they should no more need to charge the poor tenants with coyne and livery than the county of Dublin;" and therefore the King will not allow the said gentlemen to take coyne or livery of any of his tenants, or to keep or wage any galoghglas or kerne; and the countries shall be charged with such impositions only by the Deputy "in time of great need, and when he shall put the like upon the county of Dublin.
(7.) All the said gentlemen to answer the King's Lieutenant or Deputy in all times of war, as the gentlemen of the county of Dublin do.
(8.) As no part of the county of Carlow is above 45 or 46 miles distant from Dublin, where the King's courts are kept, it is thought convenient that his writs should run there, like as they do in cos. Dublin, Meath, Uryell, and Kildare.
(9.) All the King's holds and fortresses within the said countries, that is to say the castles of Carlagh, Leyghelyn, Duske-Abbaye, Balkynglas, Fernes, Tynterne, Arclowe, and Wyclowe, to be occupied and kept by such as his Highness or his Lieutenant and Council shall appoint; and no man of inheritance dwelling beyond the water of Barowe to keep or meddle with any of them.
(10.) "All the gentlemen and inhabitants of those countries do clearly relinquish and leave all their Irish apparel, save only their harness and habiliments of war in time of need, and go arrayed of such sort as those of the county of Dublin do.
(11.) "That all the Byrnes be ordered of like sort as the Cavenaghes, and that the Toles and O'Mayles be in like manner ordered.
(12.) As the county of Waterford has no Irishman dwelling within it, and is environed by the main sea, by "the river that cometh to the city of Rosse, which is not passable but only by boat," by the county of Kilkenny, which is wholly under the Earl of Ormond, and by the lordship of Dongarvan, which the said Earl now has of the King's gift, it is thought that all its inhabitants should not only answer the King's writs, but also wear English apparel, and that coyne and livery should not be levied upon the King's subjects without licence of the Deputy and Council.
(13.)"It is thought that the premises being well handled and finally brought to perfection, which never was so like to be done as now, as well for the good inclination it doth appear, by the Council's letters, the gentlemen of the Cavenaghes, Byrnes, and Toles be of, as also for the good strength the King's Highness hath now of mere Englishmen in those parts, much to his Majesty's costs and charges, ready to chastise offenders, that the rest of Englishmen of Munster, as the Earl of Desmond and his kinsmen, the White Knight, [John FitzGerald.] the Lord Barry, [John Viscount Barry.] the Lord Roche and such others as reckon themselves for Englishmen, would, for their own commodity and for their heirs after them, with good will follow the same, being assured that the King's Majesty's Deputy will at all times help with his Highness' power in that land to defend them for their duties to be done to his Majesty. Finally it is thought that, those parts being reduced to this good order, the rest of the Burkes will call themselves Englishmen, and the King's kinsmen will ensue the said order, and consequently the rest of all Irishmen of that land will follow the same for their own commodity; and nothing shall sooner bring them thereunto than the good handling of the said Cavenaghes, Byrnes, Toles, and O'Mayles.


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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 114.

Related information: State Papers II. 539.

Since my coming over I have been unable, even in the diocese of Dublin, to induce any, either religious or secular, to preach the Word of God, or the King's just title as Supreme Head over the Church. "They that then could and would very often, even till the right Christians were weary of them, preach after the old sort and fashion, will now not once open their lips in any pulpit for the manifestation of the same, but in corners and such company as them liketh, they can full earnestly utter their opinions." The Observants are worse than all others, for I can make them neither swear, nor preach amongst us. This comes "of the extreme handling that my Lord Deputy hath used towards me, what by often imprisonment, and also expelling me mine own house, keeping there no hospitality at all; and so contemptuously he vilipendeth me, that I take God to record I had, but that hope comforteth me, rather forsake all than to abide so many ignominious reproaches." For the love you bear to "the mere and sincere doctrine of God's Word," and the setting forward of our Prince's title, send to Master Treasurer, the Chief Justice, the Master of the Rolls, or any two of them, "such a straight commandment over me and all other ecclesiastical persons, as I perceive the King's Grace hath sent of late into England to the sheriffs of every shire." "There is never an Archbishop or Bishop but myself made by the King, but he is repelled even now by provision. Again, for all that ever I could do, might I not make them once, but as I send my own servants to do it, to cancel out of the Canon of the Mass or other books the name of the Bishop of Rome." As for lack of dispensations they are compelled to sue to Rome, I think it necessary that we should have dispensations, a vicar general, and a master of the faculties. A pardon is lately come from Rome "much of consonant to a pardon granted by Julius the second in time of the wars between the French King and him; and that was, that they that would enjoy it should fast Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday next after they heard first of it, and on the Sunday consequently ensuing to receive the communion." Many have received it. If such things go unpunished, while the King's High Commissioners are here, "seeing these men so ready and prompt to admit the Bishop of Rome's letters, and so sturdy and flinty against our Prince's power, what will men think ?
Dublin, 8 January. Signed.
Broadsheet. Addressed: Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.

ROBERT COWLEY to the DUKE OF NORFOLK.  MS 602, p. 67  20 Jan 1538

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While my Lord Deputy and the Council were in Munster last summer, "James of Desmond, pretending himself Earl of Desmond, would not come in to the Lord Deputy, but inveigled him with fair promises and indentures written, till the Deputy's victuals were spent." On the Deputy's returning homewards, the said James disgressed from all his covenants and promises. The King's Commissioners went to Clonmell to commune with him, but he would not come to them or to any walled town, so that they "were fain to meet him in the plain fields in his danger, he having at his heels all his host of horsemen and footmen in harness." I suppose he will not observe anything he promised to do, for he is endeavouring to strengthen himself by alliances with Irishmen. Sir William Darcy shows me "there is privy intelligence and secret brewings of bands and confederacies betwixt the said James and O'Nele and part of the Brenes with this new O'Downyl." The Deputy's servants are often with the said James, but the Deputy is deceived if he give credence "to his surmises and forged accusations" against those that most truly serve the King, whom he seeks to bring to confusion, in order that he may "usurp upon the earldom." He should be compelled to conform to due allegiance to the King, and to have his pretended title judged by the King's laws.
One of the Burkes of Clanricard, called Rowland Burke, is lately come over from Rome with bulls from the Bishop of Rome upon the bishopric of Clonefert in Conaght, which the King has given to Doctor Nangle, provincial of the Friars Augustine in this land, who is in Galway, "and dare not issue out for fear of his adversary and his complices.
The bearer, Barnardyn de Valois, late Master of the Ordnance here, has served the King right diligently.
Dublin, 20 January. ["1537" is added in Carew's hand.]
Addressed: To the Duke of Norfolk's noble Grace. Endorsed.

EDWARD BECK, of Manschester, to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 121  [15 April] 1538

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At Drodathe, this present Monday next after Palm Sunday.
My Lord Deputy went into Farnay upon Paschen Sunday on a journey, and got a prey of four hundred k[ine]. Your servant Gerram Lyme was slain. The Irishmen have since been twice in the English pale, "and taken both prey, and burnt first three towns, and took men pledysches (pledges) with them." After my Lord came to Drodathe on Palm Suneven, the husbandmen brought him word, on Palm Sunday, that the Irishmen had done great harm and burnt as far as the town of Arde on the said even. This day I was ready to go with this shipping to your Lordship, but my Lord Deputy commanded me, upon pain of 600l., to be with him tomorrow by 10 o'clock, "to answer before him and my Lord Chancellor," to the intent that I should be hindered from going. He has said that I get your favours by my untrue reports.
Martin Pellus is put in the room to be constable of Carllyngford, and your Lordship may know of my masters the Commissioners if he be a man meet for it.
Addressed: My Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.


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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 120.

Related information: State Papers III. 6.

Dublin, 8 May.
The first Sunday in May was with us the Translation of Saint Owen, in whose church a Prebendary of St. Patrick named Humphrey, the author of the contempt that I am in, and of the discord between me and my friends, sang high mass, because he is parson, and "thought scorn" to read the beads after the form which I have devised. His parish priest thereupon went up into the pulpit and began to read them to the people. He had scarcely read three or four lines, when the parson began the preface and the choir sang, so that the beads were unbidden. Certain of the parish represented it to me. Considering that this man, who first swore to the King and also moved others to do the same, contemned my articles devised for the furtherance of God's Word and the advancement of our Sovereign's title of supremacy, I committed him to ward. "They be in manner all at the same point with me. There is an 28 of them, and amongst them all there is not three learned of them, nor yet scarce one that favoureth God's Word. Your Lordship might do a good deed to have a little thing put in practice with them, and that is, de non idoneis removendis; else it is but vain for me or any other to take pains in our Prince's causes.
On the first day of this term, an intercepted letter was brought to me, "which should have been conveyed from the Father of Trym to another of the same coat;" I have sent it to you. "You may perceive their towardness, and yet great men in these parts may evil spare them for their auricular confession, for they may be bold to utter unto them treason and other. If they lacked them, I suppose they should lack much boldness to do evil. Where they rule, God and the King cannot justly reign.
Addressed: Lord Private Seal. Endorsed.

SIR WILLIAM BRABAZON to GERALD AYLMER and JOHN ALLEN.  MS 602, p. 128  [5 June] 1538

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 121.

Related information: State Papers III. 17.

Your bedfellows are in health. As to occurrences, "they be nothing so fruitful as they were at your departure." A great part of Uriell is destroyed, preyed, and burnt by them of Ferney; but now it is likely that there will be peace between us and them of Ferney. When they of Ferney were at the war, my Lord Chancellor was sent to the borders beside Dundalke, to parle with O'Nell; at which parliament O'Nell's company took a prey in the English pale and burned some towns there. He has made no restitution, though he says he will keep peace. "At that time O'Railey was somewhat busy for the death of Kaer Modder, his brother, who now as I think is at good stay; and as on Friday last past Mr. Kelwey had parliament with Tirlogh O'Thoyll and Art besides the Three Castles; who had assembled to him certain husbandmen and freeholders of Rathmore, Newton, the parish of Kill, and others, and would needs chase Tirlogh and Art up to the high mountains, who there had their kerne ready, and turned back and set upon Kelwey, and drove him to the Three Castles, and others with him, and set fire on the top of the castle, so that they yielded; wherein was taken Kelwey and your kinsman Mr. Justice Richard Aylmer, young Flattesbery, Lang, and divers others, and such husbandmen as the kerne met with they slew them, for they had no horses to flee, and, as I am informed, there was slain sixty householders.
Thomas Lang is let forth, and Mr. Aylmer remaineth with them and some others; and after that they had Mr. Kelwey, within a while they killed him, and such of the soldiers as was with him. My Lord at this season was coming from Ferney. O'More came with my Lord of Ossory to Dublin, so that stay might be had between him and the late O'More's sons, but he is arrested and taken to Meynothe." The greater part of the Council is here at Dublin, "and thought to see all matters well stayed here, and in especial such causes as is between my Lord Deputy and my Lord of Ossory, concerning O'More's sons, with others; but my Lord of Ossory, being here and sick, complained of the wrongs done to the King's subjects and his tenants of Oteryn and Tholoo Phelom, by Kedogh O'More and his brethren, but as hereunto there is no restitution made; and Kedogh, who was here, sent home. I have never seen like handling.
The late Earl of Kildare's sister is gone to be married to Manus O'Donell. Young Gerrot Dalahide and others are gone with her, which I like not. "I was never in despair in Ireland till now.
Wednesday before Whit Sunday.
Addressed: To my loving friends the Chief Justice and Master of the Rolls of Ireland. Endorsed.

EDWARD [STAPLES], BISHOP OF MEATH, to MR. SAINTLEGER or MR. MOYLL.  MS 602, p. 131  17 June 1538

Former reference: MS 602, p. 131

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 123.

Related information: State Papers III. 29.

I have received no writing from you. I have written to you by John Plunkett of "my trouble by the Bishop of Dublin." He has made Mr. Treasurer and the Master of the Rolls his friends, and boasts that he rules all the clergy under the King. He has handled me and my friends most cruelly. "He hath gotten one Silvester joined with him, as he saith, in our master's authority--God knoweth a man of what gravity. The common voice goeth that he doth abhor the mass. It were well done my Lord Privy Seal would of his goodness appoint some inquisition secret of the truth of their demeanour and discretion, or his lord put them in such authority." I also advise that his Lordship should find means that such bishops as had their bulls from the Bishop of Rome, by the King's command, may bring them in and cancel them, and "have some remembrance from his Highness which shall stand them in like effect with the same.
The common voice in the Irishry is, that the King's supremacy is maintained "only by power, and not reasoned by learning." Safeconducts should therefore be given to all Irish clerks to come and dispute about it with us, and proclamation made accordingly at Dundalk for the North, and at Kylkeny for the borderers. Remember the instructions which I wrote concerning this country by your command, "and specially to have our master recognized King of Ireland," the lack whereof "doth much hinder their duties to be done," as I showed you at your being here. "In my late scean this Whit Sunday I did set forward my master's cause" before "the honourable audience of all my diocese, and brought my books with me of such as were addict to the Bishop of Rome," offering to answer any disputant. I have heretofore jeopardized my body and my all in the King's service, and now am very sickly and unable to journey. If the King "will have me to ride much to parliaments and his Grace's other affairs as I have done, I beseech you, because of my stranguillyon, get me licence to ride upon a pyllyon, or else I must ride in a litter." Remember me to Master Moyl. 17 June.
Give credence to Master Stephans, touching the triumphing of the Bishop of Dublin. "We lack no P. nor P.
Addressed: Master Saynet Legier, and in his absence to Master Moyll. Endorsed.

ROBERT COWLEY to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 111  19 July 1538

Former reference: MS 602, p. 111

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 125.

Related information: State Papers III. 50.

This Friday evening, the 19th, I have received a letter from my Lord Butler, abusing my Lord Deputy's proceedings as tending to subdue the King's subjects, extol the Geraldine sect, and tolerate the Papists. I have delivered it to Master Selenger to be shown to you. I am sorry to hear of such abuses;--still more so "to hear how the Papistical sect spring up and spread abroad, infecting the land pestiferously, by default of attolerance, by reason that where the King's Majesty preferred one Doctor Nangle to the bishopric of Clonefert, one Rowland Burke purchased bulls from the Bishop of Rome, whereby he expulsed the King's presentee." Although the King wrote to the Lord Deputy to prosecute the provisor, nothing was done. General recourse is had daily to Rome, whereas in times past they repaired to the King. There are "now lately" five bishops in Ireland by the Bishop of Rome's authority, besides abbots and priors. All this comes of "sufferance without any prosecuting." Of such news as Stephen Appary's servant has lately brought, although "glorious and famous," the King is not advertised either by the Lord Deputy or the Council. It is not to be firmly believed till it is certified by credible persons. I would be glad that my Lord Deputy should do such service, but I fear lest he be deceived by sinister counsel. I beseech you to be my good Lord in obtaining "my poor suit of my bill of Holmepatrik." I trust that Master Seyntleger will declare to the King my faithful service in times past, and my diligence in bringing to him registers of all the King's rights and hereditaments in Ireland, showing by whom the King has been deceived, and by what means he might recover his own. "I spake but for one which least offended, and he made a fine exceeding all others," all through Master George Poulet.
London, 19 July.
P.S.--I think it requisite for Mr. Cusack to be despatched. "He is at great charge, and being in Ireland might ensearch matters worthy of advertisement.
Addressed; My Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.

ROBERT COWLEY.  MS 602, p. 150  1538

Former reference: MS 602, p. 150

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 126.

Declaration by Robert Cowley of his true service to the King.
When the late Earl of Kildare had so linked to him the Council of Ireland that none dared to advertise the King of his heinous abuses, I appeared before the Council in England, and exhibited in presence of the said Earl his enormities in "disheriting the King of his hereditaments," and appropriating the same to himself and his sequel; in making officers of his own to receive the revenues, and making no account in the Exchequer; and in binding Irishmen to his own "sect" to serve him and his heirs. "My reward was, all my goods in Ireland taken by the said Earl, and purchased mortal malice of him and all his kinsmen, servants, and adherents, hourly in danger of my life. Albeit the said Earl was retained in England, deposed from his office of Deputy, and my Lord of Norfolk constituted the King's Lieutenant of Ireland.
Then the said Earl married my Lord Marquis's [Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset.] sister, and thus obtained alliance and friendship in England, and also "co..... [Here the MS. is mutilated.] and licence" to repair into Ireland. At length he "readopted the office of Deputy, and then uttered his cankered malice to revenge his reproach." He and his cousin James, Earl of Desmond, sent Anthony Daely to the French King, who was then at open war with our Sovereign Lord, desiring him to send an army into Ireland, and promising that they would join it with all their forces, and subdue all Ireland to the French King's obeisance. All this was certified to the Deputy and Council by the mayors and officers of Limerick, Kinsale, and Youghill, "as laying the whole matter to the said Earl of Desmond, the Earl of Kildare being present, who feigned to know no such thing, or to have any intelligence with the said Earl of Desmond in that behalf." Thereupon it was decreed by the Deputy and Council that Desmond should be reputed as the King's traitor, to which decree Kildare and the Deputy and Council set their hands. It was dated 13 June, and remained in my custody as Clerk of the Council.
Long after this, Kildare waged the Brenes and other strong Irishmen to adhere to Desmond and to execute the practice aforesaid. He also wrote letters dated the 18th July, desiring Desmond with all his power to meet him in the Earl of Ossory's country. Those letters were taken and came into my hands, and I showed them to the Council. Kildare was committed to the Tower, and there remained at the King's pleasure. "My reward was to tarry here almost a whole year, with my servant and two horses, to justify the premises, as I did, and finally departed without any penny of reward, incurring further danger of my life, fain to recede from my habitation, and to dwell in remote parts of the land, half as an exile.
Then, by Kildare's procurement, his brethren, kinsmen, servants, and adherents rebelled, murdering, burning, and spoiling the King's subjects. I repaired hitherward to declare the same to the Council, but "the ways were laid for me everywhere with footmen and horsemen, so that, in avoiding the danger of my life, I was fain in the night to enter into a Pyccarde and to go to sea, and, the wind being contrariant, to go every night from one island to another till the wind served; and after the justification of all the premises, the Earl of Kildare was committed to the Tower, and I departed without thanks or reward.
Once more Kildare was pardoned and suffered to repair into Ireland with Sir William Skeffington, "as to be a principal counsellor, guide, and assister to the said Sir William, and he used the Deputy as an instrument for himself to omit all the King's affairs, and to revenge his malice upon the King's true subjects; and when the said Sir William perceived his practice and would no longer be seducted by him, then the said Earl, after his old custom, supplanted the good said Sir William, and with cruel despiteful handling amoved him from his office of Deputy, and the said Earl readopted the room of Deputy. Then he redoubled his heinous transgressions;" suffered his adherents to destroy the King's subjects; made open proclamations in free fairs and market places to rob and spoil the same; caused his adherents to take prisoners the knights for the shires and burgesses of cities and towns repairing to Parliament, and kept them for their ransoms. All this was declared and proved by Mr. John Alen and me, and the said Earl was committed to the Tower, where he died.
Now, at the being of the King's Commissioners in Ireland, I have taken pains to inform them concerning the King's honour, profit, and detection of offenders, with his right to things concealed.
Lastly, I affirm that, so long as any of the Geraldines' sect be in authority or in the Council, the King's affairs will never proceed to good effect, or the Irishmen be subdued.


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Related information: State Papers III. 65.

According to a letter directed unto your Lordship at the motion of the Chief Justice and Master of the Rolls, and as they say it is your Lordship's commandment, I have disposed myself towards the Bishop of Meath, trusting that your Lordship will me to do nothing that shall sound unto my dishonesty or reproach, namely in my cause being so just as it is, as the very favorers of truth can declare." I have sent you the articles which he devised, "nothing unto the purpose;" and those which I intended to have laid against him, if the matter had gone forward. I have written sundry times to you "that I had suspended the fine of controversy betwixt the Observants and the other named de communi vita, until that mine authority were sent me over. Howbeit my Lord Deputy in that point prevented me in Galway, bearing still his favours towards the Observants. Soon after the return of my chaplain that brought me letters from your Lordship, amongst divers other messengers unto my Lord Deputy, came there over one Baker, an old servant of my said Lord Deputy's, which keepeth a tavern in Newgate Market, at the Three Tuns, which reported unto my Lord, that my chaplain should answer your Lordship, demanding him who was chief of my Lord Deputy's Council, that Stephen Appary, Margaret Bathe, and Richard Lute did bear all the swing with his Lordship; again, that he should report other things unto him at Chester; and it is well known and proved that he never came in his company, nor never spake with him in England, nor yet in no part of Wales, for he was over three weeks or ever the said Baker came there. Nevertheless he was commanded unto the castle as a prisoner, spite of my teeth, and all the friends I could make. Here hath been many such light messengers, and that causeth my Lord many times the less to regard th' advertisement of the Council.
Dublin, 10 August. Signed.
In John Allen's hand. Addressed: The Lord at Private Seal. Endorsed.

THOMAS WUSLE, Constable of Cragfergus, to Mr. LAURANS, Constable of Ardglas.  MS 602, p. 152  [March] 1539

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I am informed that the Bishop O'Donyll [Roderick O'Donell, Bishop of Derry. He went into Scotland in Midlent 1539, to obtain assistance for O'Nele and Manus O'Donell. See "State Papers," III. 139.] is gone into Scotland to obtain from the King of Scots 6,000 "Redshanks," to "give the King's officers in Ireland a field." Keep your person accordingly from all Irishmen. If possible, send me a couple of "passawalans" of your ordnance with some powder against the coming of the Scots. I desire you to be a friend to the bearer, my son-in-law, in his business there.
Addressed. Endorsed: Thomas Vusley.


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Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 133.

It has pleased the King to suppress certain religious places here, and the common report concerning others is, that they are to be suppressed, although they are not expressed, on which account all are in fear, and I do not know in what to take refuge except the clemency of your Highness, at whose intercession the King was pleased to promote me. I therefore commit myself and my monastery of Connall in the adversity of this suppression to your protection and defence, in which my hope rests. The bearer, well known to you, is Canon Nimeas of Connall, to whom you will give credence. He will show you copies of two indentures, from which the King will do well not to withhold his favour. The liberty which you obtained from the King for the House of Connall, when I was last with you in England, almost caused my death, for when the Earl, being at Connall, in the hall at table, at which no fewer than 300 persons were seated, heard of that liberty, he went into a great rage, and drew out a long Irish knife, so that I could with difficulty escape from him; and as long as he lived I durst not speak of it. I beseech your aid because all my friends are dead.
Connall, 15 May. Signed: Walterus, Episcopus Darensis, ac perpetuus Commendatarius de Connall.
Addressed: Thomæ Duci Northfolgiæ. Endorsed.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 120

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Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 134.

You will receive, by the bearer, one of the brethren of the monastery of Our Lady, Connall, (which monastery the King "made in commendam to my bishopric of Kildare") an hobby "of this land breeding." I beseech you to be a mean, by your letters to the Council here, that they may "aid and strength me" in the possessions belonging to the said monastery which "wholly lie in the wild Irish amongst the King's rank rebellers; and the rather for that the said monastery is of foundation of the noble Maylor FitzHenry," son to King Henry II., so that no brother is elected "unless he be of a very English nation; in consideration whereof the wild Irish rebellers doth daily ensue all their extremities for the impoverishing of the said monastery.
Connall, 24 May. Signed.
Addressed: The Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.

EDMUND SEXTEN, late Mayor of Limerick. [Mayor of Limerick, 1535.]  MS 602, p. 157  [May] 1539

Former reference: MS 602, p. 157

6 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 135.

Most honorable Lord." [Cromwell.]
It has been untruly alleged by Bartholomew Striche that your suppliant, Edmund Sexten, never spent any part of his goods in the King's service, but that all his service has been done at the charges of the city of Limerick. The Lord Deputy and Council have often written to the King of his services, which are here set forth.
The King sent Sexten and Justice Hothe into Ireland to the traitor Thomas FitzGerald. Perceiving the most detestable behaviour of the said traitor, Sexten repaired to the King to signify the same, paying 6l. 13s. 4d. for the freight of a ship, and leaving 55l. in Ireland, but has not yet been repaid. Also, within four days after he had repaired to Langley, the King and your Lordship then being there, he was sent again into Ireland, to Munster, with many letters to the lords there, and especially to Thomas, Earl of Desmond, and "brought answer upon the same" to the King. He was immediately sent back again to Munster with letters to the said lords there, and brought answer to the King. He was again sent back with letters to many lords there "to stay and keep the King's subjects of Munster in due subjection in the rebellion time." He also divers times accompanied the Lord Deputy in his journeys to O'Brien and other lords in Munster; and frequently went, at the Lord Deputy's command, to Sir John of Desmond and to his son James of Desmond. He was at the taking of Knok Grafton, co. Tipperary, and at the taking of the castle of Dungarvan.
When the said Thomas FitzGerald was in O'Brien's country, Sexten sent for Donogh O'Brien, O'Brien's eldest son, with intent to take FitzGerald, and Donogh came to Sexten's house at Limerick. He sent for John Arthur, then Mayor of Limerick, to commune with the said Donogh. Arthur and Sexten offered Donogh 1,000 ducats to take FitzGerald, and Donogh agreed, on condition that Sexten should lend him 40l. to pay his gallowglas' wages. Sexten lent him that sum in money and wares, and was at further expense for him and his men, who lay several times at Sexten's house.
All the above services were rendered by Sexten without recompence from the city of Limerick, before he was chosen Mayor thereof.
II. Sexten's services during the time of his Mayoralty of Limerick.
Soon after he was chosen Mayor, he came into this realm with letters from divers lords and gentlemen of those parts to the King and your Lordship, touching the state of the country there. For its reformation your Lordship commanded him to make a book, which was done. This journey continued from Christmas till a fortnight after Midsummer next following, at his own costs. At his coming home into Ireland, he repaired to the Lord Deputy, then in Kilkenny, who sent Justice Aylemore and him to James of Desmond, O'Brien, and other lords and gentlemen. He was at the taking of the castle called Carrik Ogennell, the first time it was taken; at the taking and breaking of O'Brien's bridge, with much danger of his life both by water and land; and at the second taking of the said castle. Being informed that the Bishop of Kylalowgh and two of his sons were at a certain place, Sexten issued out of the said city about midnight to take them, but they, having some knowledge thereof, fled and escaped; so he took their horses and returned home again. Having knowledge that Donell O'Brien's galley was within two miles of Limerick, he went out of the city in the night and took her. He burned a town called Kilqwane, and a village called Clonmowlayne in O'Brien's country. Two of his servants slew one Slogoo, a rebel, who had oftentimes robbed the King's subjects, and threatened to burn Limerick. He caused Edmund Bourke and his sons to restore to the city of Limerick 16l. sterling, in recompense of goods taken by them.
III. Sexten's services since his Mayoralty.
With a small company of men he went out to an island called Ellaneregan to take a castle there, and "was foughten withal with a great number of men," divers of whom were slain and many hurt. The town was burnt. He brought away part of the goods and his own men safe. He caused one Mawhan Bakka's son to be taken, who had captured one of the citizens of Limerick, and received from him 16l. sterling for his ransom. The said Mawhan Bakkagh's son, a great enemy to the King and his subjects of Limerick was by Sexten's means brought to Limerick, and there put into the King's gaol; but he was afterwards delivered by Bartholomew Striche, then being Mayor, without licence of the King's Deputy or any of the Council. Sexten also caused William FitzJames FitzGerald to restore a great prey which he had taken before of the citizens of Limerick. One of Sexten's servants brought back a prey of cattle which the King's enemies had taken the night before.
When the Lord Deputy came last to Limerick, going to O'Brien's bridge, about Lammas last, Sexten brought to him James FitzJohn of Desmond, who met the Lord Deputy 10 miles before he came to Limerick, and lay in his camp all that night; and on the morrow after the Lord Deputy came to Limerick, Sexten and Stephen Ap Harry were sent to meet the said James and O'Bryne at a place appointed, 10 miles from Limerick, where, by persuasion of the said James and Sexten, O'Brien "was contented to serve the Lord Deputy." Next day Sexten was sent to bring the said James to meet with the Lord Deputy at O'Brien's bridge, where the said James met with him with a great company of men, and O'Brien likewise, who continued with the Lord Deputy all that journey, until the Lord Deputy "came unto the borders of Gallwey." All that journey Sexten and his company were with the Lord Deputy, at his own costs.
Also, when one Teg Mak Donowgh, an Irish enemy, broke a weir of the King's besides Limerick, called "the Elewere," Sexten sent his servant William Bourke, to go upon the said Teg Mak Donowgh; and Bourke took seven score kine at one prey. Sexten also took a castle called Clonkeleass soon after the departure of my Lord Deputy from Limerick; which castle Morowgh O'Brien's servants, the King's enemies, had taken before from certain gentlemen in Bourke's country. He went forward "that night" to Castle Conell, where he took a great boat of ten oars with two other boats, and drew them out of the water, and lay there that night. On the morrow after he "drew them forth three miles upon the land, and after put them upon the water, and came home with them unto Limerick." The boats belonged to Morowgh O'Brien, who would rather have lost one of his best castles than the said boats, with which he used to rob and steal upon the King's subjects on the south side of the river of Limerick.

JOHN TRAVERS to MR. FITZWILLIAMS.  MS 602, p. 126  20 Dec 1539

Former reference: MS 602, p. 126

2 Pages.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 137.

We have made the most painful journey I suppose that ye have known this time of the year. We have been in Mounster, as at Clonmell, at Dungarwan, at Youghall, Cork, and Kinsayle, and hath put James FizMorishe, otherwise called with you Lord of Desmond, in possession of as many castles in his country as he thought he was able to keep, and hath also plucked the chief strength that the pretensed Earl of Desmond had, called James FizJohn. These be the names of them that were near unto him: Gerald McShane, the White Knight, the Lord Bare, who came at no Deputy many years, and Makarte Rewghe, the Red Barey, and the young Barey. We have their pledges, their bands, and their oaths also taken." The country needs reformation. My Lord Deputy and my Lord of Ormond "are at this time very great, and so were they not many days here before.
There has been "much juggling and much dissension between the Council, which is now confessed; and in case ye hear who that they be that cometh over, I pray you send me word." Would that my Lord Admiral [William FitzWilliam, Earl of Southampton.] "were content that it should be none other but he." I would go with 2,000 through any country in Ireland. "If there came 6,000 good men, to be divided in three places as I could give instructions, with certain craftsmen to inhabit the places as they win, might do the effect of the same in one summer. Once they never shall be foughten with all, nor no castle shall be kept from them. We were no more than 400 Englishmen with my Lord Deputy, besides my Lord of Ormond's band, which was not in all 400 horsemen, carne and galoglace, yet James FitzJohn and O'Bryen with all those men against us, who are named here before. And as touching any matters of yours, any friend of yours, I had no leisure to do anything in that behalf." I perceive by your last that you have received 80l. of Mr. Wyndonne, and that you have paid my Lord Privy Seal 40l. of the same. I desire you "to do no less with the rest of the same than ye have said ye would do to pay where as ye shall think most meet, according mine instructions, with my fee of the serjeantship, my wages and all other things. I do not think to trouble you much for this year for any money, nor lend none without a bill of my hand otherwise than I have willed you here before.
As for my houses and farm at Ipswiche, I will send you word after Christmas what you shall do therein. As for my house at London, "therein do as ye list, so that Murfeye, my next neighbour, have it not, for that he is a knave." Commendation to my sister your wife, to my brother Fosku and my sister Fosku. I have written to the King, my Lord Privy Seal, and Mr. Broune of affairs here. Pray send me word how they (the letters) are accepted.
Waterford, 20 December.
Addressed: To Master Fiz Wylliams, servant to my Lord Admiral, at London, or elsewhere, give this.

WILLIAM WISE to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 109  23 Dec 1539

Former reference: MS 602, p. 109

2 Pages.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 138.

Mr. White, justice of the liberty of Waisford, and I, waited on the Lord Deputy in the last journey into Munster. His Lordship was accompanied by my Lord of Ormond. Their exploits will be seen by their own letters to the King and you. "As touching James FitzJohn of Desmound (saving your Honour, that disloyal wretch), he is so far despaired for his heinous offences, which he will not openly confess, that being now so fast knit by oath and promise with O'Brene, O'Nele, and O'Donell, can do nothing, nor will not without their advice and counsel. Howbeit this journey hath plucked away his wings, if they keep true touch." The Lord Deputy has not only restored to James FitzMaurice "his old inheritance in Kyrykurry, with divers castles, during the King's pleasure, in Imokylly, such as he thought meet for his safeguard, but also took bands and hostages of all the lords and captains of that quarter to be of the King's side, and to withdraw their aid and service from the said James Fitz John. I have no great hope of their good demeanour no longer than the King's forces shall overmatch them and be resident near their countries, which, being totally wasted, cannot victual one hundred soldiers. And if such as now remain at Youghell shall repair to Dublin, the said James FitzMaurice having no great substance of his own, nor yet approved discreet men to lead him by good counsel, I fear he will forget his honorable entertainment, and step in danger of his mortal enemies. For it cometh oft to pass that men well esteemed in England change here their honest conditions, so that they are sooner overcome with our vices, than we made honest through their good ensample. I wish that your Lordship might once in person see this poor land." The opinion of wise men here is "that without a general reformation the King's Majesty shall vainly consume his treasure in this land, for these roads and journeys that we make to punish our enemies are in effect plain exploits against our friends, which are so charged with continual coyne and livery, that pity is to hear their exclamations, and yet the King's Majesty is at continual exbursements.
Saint John's besides Waterford, 23 Dec.
Addressed: Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.

SIR ANTHONY SENTLEGER to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 107  8 March 1540

Former reference: MS 602, p. 107

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 142.

On 1st March I received your letters dated Greenwich, 16th January, and the King's to me and my companions. James of Desmond, who was supposed to be dead, is whole and in good health, and has already delivered his son into the hands of Mr. William Wyse of Waterford. We look every hour for his arrival here in company of the Lord James Butler, who, notwithstanding his good service, has much ado to please all parties. O'Konnour, by means of the Lord Deputy and Lord James Butler and his father, has wholly submitted. I and my fellows thought good, upon delivery of the said James of Desmond's son, "further to persuade with him for young Garrard, who is not (as it was supposed) passed the seas, but remaineth in Connaught." The secretary of the said James has promised that if Garrard will not submit upon the King's pardon, his master will proceed against him as a traitor. "As touching the bringing in of O'Konnour, I know my Lord Deputy is minded to send over Matthew Kyng, your servant and his, to ascribe all the laud thereof to himself; but give no full credence to what he saith," until you hear more. You will perceive that others have taken pains therein by a letter enclosed, which we received from the Lord James Butler the 6th of March. Nevertheless, the Lord Deputy has "right well used himself in the same." I write in haste, for that the said Matthew will pass at the next tide with letters to divers persons.
Dublin, 8 March. Signed.
Addressed: Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.

WILLIAM WISE to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 105  26 March 1540

Former reference: MS 602, p. 105

2 Pages.


Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 143.

The King has brought many things to light, by sending hither these four Commissioners. James Fitz John of Desmond has made oath to be an obedient subject, and now sends over his son Thomas, "whose mother is the Lord Roche's daughter, yet being alive and unmarried, whom he hath put away, and now occupieth O'Karoll's daughter, by whom he hath issue." The said James not long ago took his brother Maurice prisoner, and now has all the lords and captains of "that quarters" at his command. "The common bruit is of him among his own people to be true of word and deed.
The county of Waterford, whereof it has pleased the Lord Deputy and Council to make me Sheriff, will be the sooner reduced by the staying of the said James; "wherein no man impugneth the setting forth of justice so much as Gerald McShane doth, who is in all his affairs a right Geraldyn, whom I trust the Lord Butler will either reclaim by good policy, or else persecute by rigour of punishment.
Dublin, 26 March.
Addressed: Lord Privy Seal. Endorsed.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 54

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 145.

Received your letters dated Westminster, 13 March, in favour of your servant Patrick Barnewell, to whom and his heirs male you direct us to confirm our right to the constableship of Balymore with the mill of the same, which, as it seems by your letters, will presently be void and in your gift by the attainder of Christopher Eustache. I, the Archbishop, whom this request principally touches, was not "privy to the finding of any office whereby your Grace should be entitled in this behalf, if any such be taken." Eustache had no state in the constableship; nor have his ancestors held it since 18 Edw. IV., in whose reign and in that of Henry VII. Parliament repealed the grant to the Eustaches and all other such grants made by Archbishops of Dublin. The Lord of Trymlettiston, your Chancellor, who had the custody of the body and lands of the said Christopher during his nonage, claimed the constableship, and the matter was brought before the Dean of Lichfield, Sir Rauff Egerton and Sir Anthony Fitz Herbert, then your Commissioners here, who decreed that the Archbishop and his successors ought to enjoy it, notwithstanding the said grant. The mill, moreover, is not comprehended in the grant. Before the grant was repealed, it was considered that the revenues of the archbishopric lying in the heart of the English pale were not sufficient for the Archbishop to defend the residue of his lands lying in the marches and borders of Irishmen, "as the same manor doth, joining to the Tooles, Byrnes, and Cavenages." At present "the lands thereunto appertaining is almost made waste, and the rent of assize thereof yearly not leviable above 20l. sterling, where in times past it was 340 marks yearly." The rent cannot be increased, or the poor tenants there defended, but by the personal residence of an active person. We think Master Barnewell, who is your serjeant at law here, would not attend thereto, but substitute some other gentleman there of the country under him, who would oppress the poor tenants there, under pretence of their defence, as the Geraldines and Eustaches used to do in times past; and thus both your lands and revenues and the poor living of the ministers of the Church have decreased there. Sometimes I, the Archbishop, "must resort thither and lie there, as my predecessors have done, for the stay of the country; and lacking the use as then of the castle and room of my house, which is very small, with the profits of the mill there, I should not have provision nor lodging in all those parts." We beseech you to have us excused for not conforming ourselves herein.
We have lately elected Sir Edward Basnet Dean of Saint Patrick's, which we did only in respect of your Grace's desire.
Dublin, 30 April.
Signed: Georgius Dubliñ; Walterus Whyt, Prior electus; Edward Basnet, Dean of Saint Patrick's.
Addressed: To the King's Highness.

Sir WILLIAM BRERETON to CROMWELL.  MS 602, p. 102  17 May 1540

Former reference: MS 602, p. 102

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 146.

Related information: State Papers III. 204.

This country is in very ill case, as the bearers can inform the King. Please to make their excuse for their abode so long from his presence, and to give them his thanks for their service in defending the country from the invasion of O'Conour whilst I was in the north parts to meet O'Neile. Although O'Conour has done great hurt in my absence, yet, if they had not tarried, he and his confederates, the Toles and others, would have made such an invasion as "was not done by no man's remembrance." I went with the Chief Justice to Dundalk on the 14th of May, to parle with O'Neile at the Carrike Bradoghe, but he sent word that he durst not come for fear of being betrayed, "mistrusting to come to any Englishman after the deceit of the Lord Deputy." He desired me and the Chief Justice to come to the narrow water beside McGynnose's castle. We did so, and concluded a peace with him. "He promised to perform all such peace according the effect of the indentures made between Sir William Skeffington and him," and said he would send his servant to the King to desire pardon. He remitted the ordering of all his offences to the King. He also promised to keep peace till his servant's return. Other assurance of him we could not get.
While I was at the said parliament, O'Conour, with a great number of horsemen and galloglas with kerne, did burn in Bremyngham's country. The Lord Chancellor and Master Treasurer were then in Kildare, raising the country to "keep upon" O'Tole, the Cavanoghs, and O'Conour; but seeing Bremyngham's country on fire, they went into O'Conour's country, burned divers towns, and took some cattle. This caused O'Conour to return. I made haste to the borders, and have concluded an hosting to go upon him.
I desire that the bearers may return soon; they could never be worse spared out of this land than now. We have great need of horsemen and necessaries, as bows, arrows, strings, spears, and powder. Sir Thomas Cusake has done diligent service.
Trym, 17 May. Signed.
Addressed: Lord Privy Seal.

[SUPPRESSION of MONA STERIES.]  MS 602, p. 142  1542

Former reference: MS 602, p. 142

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 175.

The names of the Houses Freres sold.
The Grey Friars of Dublin sold to Thomas Styvines for 36l. 10s. The halfindell of the Friars [of] Clonemell to the Sovereign and Commons there, 24l. The other halfindell to the Lord of Ormond, 24l. Londreston, parcel of the Black Friars of Dublin, the Black Friars of Tryme and Friars of Scryne, to Sir Thomas Cusake for 148l. 13s. 4d.; part paid at time of sale, part at Mich. last, and the rest to be paid in 1543, 1544 and 1545, at Easter and Mich. each year. The Friars of Typperarie to Derby Ryane, 20l. The Augustine Friars of Dublin to Walter Tirrell of Dublin, 114l. 13s. 4d. The White Friars of Dublin to Nicholas Stanyhurste, 44l. 10s. The Grey Friars of Tryme to Sir Anthony Sentleger, 56l. Bohurnebruyne, parcel of the Grey Friars of Dublin, to Sir Thomas Luttrell, 6l. 13s. 4d. The Friars of Clane, the Black Friars of the Nase, and Rathnecluyge, parcel of the Augustine Friars of Dublin, to the said Sir Thomas Luttrell, 177l. 3s. 4d. The Friars of Knocktofer to Robert Eustace, Prebend of Rathmyghell, and to others, to the use of Patrick Barnewall of Gracediewe, 88l. 13s. 4d. The Friars of Athboy to Thomas Casey, 38l.
II. "The payments made by the King's Serjeant for his purchase as appertaineth by an indenture thereof bearing date 20th day of July, anno 33° Hen. VIII."--Paid at Michaelmas next ensuing 190l. 12s. 6d. At Mich. last, 100l. The same sum to be paid at Mich. in each of the years 1543, 1544, 1545, and 1546.
III. "Payments made by the King's Attorney for his purchase."--Paid, 25l. 10s. At Mich. 33 Hen. VIII., 71l. 6s. 5d. Same sum paid at Mich., 34 Hen. VIII., and to be paid in 1543, 1544, 1545, and 1546.
All these sums afore written must be counted Irish.

REVENUES of IRELAND.  MS 602, p. 144  1542

Former reference: MS 602, p. 144

10 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 176.

A rate of the yearly charges of the King's army in Ireland.
The Lord Deputy's retinue: a grand captain at 4s. the day, a petty captain 2s., 100 horsemen 9d.; total by the day, 4l. 0s. 12d.; by the month, 113l. 8s.; for 13 months 1 day, i.e. a year, 1,478l. 5s. Mr. Robert Sentleger's retinue same as above. The Master of the Ordance's retinue: a grand captain 4s., a petty captain 2s., 100 hakebuttiers, 50 of them at 9d., and 50 at 8d. Mr. Brereton's retinue: a grand captain 4s., a captain 3s., a petty captain 2s., 150 archers 6d. The Knight Marshal's retinue: a grand captain 4s., 32 horsemen 9d. The Clerk of the Check's retinue: 10 horsemen 9d., his own stipend 12d. The Treasurer's retinue: 40 horsemen 9d., his own stipend 6s. 8d. The Lord Deputy's stipend, a year, 666l. 13s. 4d. The Master of the Ordnance, 2s. 8d. a day. Wages of the army by the year, 7,942l. 6s. 8d. "Besides the extraordinary charges of the King's Majesty's Ordnance, more than cometh out of England, by estimation yearly, 40l.
II. "An estimate of the King's revenues in his Majesty's Realm of Ireland.
From the King's lands yearly, 6,069l. 2s. 7d. The customs of Dublin, Drogheda, Dundalk, Trym, and the Nasse, 319l. 13s. 4d. The feefarms of Dublin and Drogheda, every year, 200l. The petty farms, proffers, and homages yearly, 11l. 5s. 8d. The 20th part of the spirituality yearly, 287l. 2s. 1½d. The King's subsidy spiritual and temporal per annum, 563l. 8s. 3d.--Total 7,450l. 11s. 11½d. Irish.
Annual deductions out of the said revenues. The yearly annuities and "proxes perpetual", 182l. 13s. 9½d. The yearly fees and rewards ordinary of judges and clerks of the King's courts, customers, controllers, constables, soldiers of the King's castle of Dublin, and officers of the county and liberty of Wexford, 1,131l. 12s. 6d.--Total 1,314l. 6s. 3½d. Irish.
Remainder, 6,136l. 5s. 8d. Irish.
Pensions yearly allowed, which, after the decease of the pensioners, shall revert to the King's Majesty."--The pension of the late Lord of Saint John of Jerusalem, 500l. The yearly pensions of the governors and other religious persons of the religious houses lately suppressed, and fees and annuities granted by them to divers persons for term of life, with such other like grants, 759l. 3s. 4d.--Total, 1,259l. 3s. 4d.
Yearly remainder, 4,877l. 2s. 4d. Irish.
Yearly profits uncertain."--The profit of liveries growing to the King. Wards of body and lands. The first fruits of all spiritual promotion. The issues and profits of the Hanaper. The tributes of Irishmen.
Yearly charges uncertain."--"For reparations and buildings to be done upon the King's garrisons." "Divers charges yearly growing, to be concluded by the King's Council by concordatum." For parchment, ink, paper, cloth bags, and locks. "To inquests inquiring for the King, and messengers that serveth the King's process.
III. "Parcels of the King's revenues whereof as yet his Grace taketh little profit, for that therein as yet there is no perfect order taken, and be not charged.
Parcel of the King's Majesty's old inheritance:--the manor of Dungarvan, the manor of Grene Castle and Norne, given to the galloghlaghes; the rent of Ferny; "the manor of Dundrom with Arte Mac Phelum.
Parcel of the late Earl of Kildare's lands:--the castle of Ley; Ardscolle and Inchecoventre; lands in Dungoille; lands called Waringes; lands in the barony of Dundalk, in Castelton by Dundalk; Doncowan Deyn in Killeven; Balregan; Rathskyagh, in co. Louth; the manors of Adare, Crom, Rathannan, Torbeny and Carrickyttill, in lease with the Earl of Desmond for 20l., and not charged.
The abbeys of Inchemore, in Westmethe; Srone, in the Annall; Glascarrick, in the Cavenaghs' country; and Leyse, in O'More's country.
Kiltevan, late at 8l., which the old Countess of Ormond had, and paid but 4l., which was lately appertaining to the late abbey of Ossnay.
The rectories of Killen, Knockbride, Castelreghen, Templeporte, and Cardragh, late of the abbey of Kenlis, in Meath.
All the possessions of religious houses suppressed in cos. Limerick, Cork, Ulster, and Kerry.
The possessions of houses of friars not charged, but such as be sold after the twentieth part.
The subsidies of cos. Wexford and Waterford.
Ballibarrok, lately appertaining to the College of Mayneothe.
Purcelle's lands in Donboyne.
Barenton's place by Trim, lately Burnelle's lands.
Enescortie, waste.
Tege O'Brene's lands in co. Limerick, named Anaroche.
Orig. Dated by Carew, "34 Hen. VIII.


Former reference: MS 602, p. 164

9 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 193.

Related information: A copy in MS 611, p. 341.

Instructions given by the King, with the advice of his Council [in England], to Sir Anthony Sentleger, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber, and Deputy of Ireland; Sir Thomas Cusak, Chancellor there; the Archbishop of Dublin; the Bishop of Meath; Sir Gerald Ailmer, Chief Justice of the King's Bench; Sir Thomas Luttrell, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas; Sir Patrick Barnewell, Master of the Rolls; James Bathe, Chief Baron; Sir William Brabazon, Vice-Treasurer; Thomas Hoth, Second Justice of the King's Bench; Sir John Travers, Master of the Ordnance; Sir Ralph Bagnall; Edward Basnet, clerk, late Dean of St. Patrick's; and Thomas Lockwod, clerk, Dean of Christchurch, Dublin; whom his Majesty has appointed to be of his Privy Council in Ireland.
(1.) The Deputy, with the advice of the Council, shall set forth God's service, according to our ordinances, in English, in all places where the inhabitants, or a convenient number of them, understand that tongue. Where the inhabitants do not understand it, the English is to be translated truly into the Irish tongue, till such time as the people may be brought to understand the English.
(2.) To give order that "no sale nor alteration be made of any church goods [or] bells, or chantry or free chapel lands," without our assent. If any alterations have been made, the same to be reformed. Inventories to be made in every parish of such goods, ornaments, jewels, and bells, of chantry or free chapel lands, and of all other lands given to any church, lest some lewd persons might embezzle the same.
(3.) To see our laws uprightly administered, and our lands, rents, woods, escheats, forfeits, and all other profits well surveyed, and the rents and profits truly paid into the receipt of our Exchequer. The Deputy, Chancellor, and Barons of the Exchequer, the Master of the Rolls, the two Chief Justices, and the Auditor, to give acquittances to the Vice-Treasurers and accountants.
(4.) The Deputy to see that the Barons and officers of our Exchequer do their duty, in calling together all customers, searchers, comptrollers, and other officers accountable in that court, and that the surveyor of our lands do his office. The said customers, &c. to give sureties for the true administration of their offices. The allowance for repairs of our castles and manors to be no more than our Deputy, Chancellor, Chief Justice, and Chief Baron shall appoint.
(5.) To charge the surveyor and other head officers of the mines to see that our officers, artificers, and labourers in the same do their service truly, "in gathering together ore, cleansing, perfecting, and also in transporting the same ore so cleansed and perfected to the mint;" and to make declaration once in six weeks. If great profit be found, more workmen to be engaged. "If any lead or other metal rise amongst the same ore, the same to be duly ordered and put in safe keeping to our use.
(6.) To call the Master of our Ordnance to declare the state of his office and the waste made in the same yearly, and to give order for provision to be made yearly by him of "bows, arrows, pikes, javelins, spades, shovels, helfes for bills and mattocks, spades, elm for mounting of ordnance, powder, shot, hakes [axes], harquebursiers," and other necessaries for war. As we are informed that "there is wood enough there for bows and pikes, they shall search what furniture they are able to make there, and to certify it, certifying also yearly what the remaining of their store is, and, in case of need, what that need shall be to be supplied from hence.
(7.) To give order that all the men of war shall be able men and fit for the wars, and also well furnished with armour and all sorts of weapons, and the horsemen well horsed and expert in riding, governed by good and discreet captains. "The men of war not to be of the nation of Ireland above the number of ten in every band of a hundred, but others that be of the country may remain strong of themselves, eschewing black rents and coyne and liveries as much as may be, charging us with no more than shall be necessary; forasmuch as our said Deputy may take of our friends and servants and also galloglasses and kerne as need shall require, employing them, amongst the rest, continually in our service, where it may tend to best purpose for increase of our strength and country, always trayting noblemen as they may be had for our service, when need shall be to call for the same, and so there may be conquest made of the men as well as of the land, with some profit and great strength without charge." To discharge all disobedient captains and soldiers, and replace them with others.
(8.) "To apply all that he may to have the havens and ports into our hands, that the customs and profits coming of them may come to our hands, and that no man land there but such as shall appear to be our friends and subjects." We grant two of our pinnaces, furnished with ordnance and all kinds of munition, and well equipped, for the purpose. Special attention to be given to the ports of Valentimore, Knokfargus, and Strangforde, "foreseeing as well how they and every of them may be best reduced to good obedience, and how they may be after best guarded, victualed, and to what purposes the same and every of them may best serve.
(9.) To give straight order for the punishment of offenders; to favour the obedient; to redress wrongs; to study the commonwealth of the people, "wherein one part consisteth in keeping within the realm all wool and other commodities of the realm, as all things may be good and cheap;" and to make provision beforehand to withstand scarcity, and for the continuance and increase of all good races and breeds of horses;--any licence heretofore granted for the export of wools notwithstanding.
(10.) To "make search for the mines of alum, and cause the same to be tried to perfection, and being found good, then to stay the same as it may be wrought for us, and employed to the best purpose and most profit.
(11.) To call before the Council the surveyor of our lands and others appointed by our special commission, and to let our farms for 21 years, whenever they become void by expiration of former grants, escheat, or otherwise, reserving to us and our heirs the ancient rents, great woods, underwoods, fines, wards, marriages, and other casualties; the timber to be used for our buildings, and the underwoods to be sold amongst the tenants and their neighbours. Decayed rents to be recovered.
(12.) To call in to our order and tuition all our wards and their lands; to give order for their well bringing up, accounting to us for their liveries when they come to full age, and for our widows' fines for licence to marry, or marrying without our licence; and to have power to make sale of our wards being under the degree of a baron.
(13.) "To cause the surveyor of our lands to search where most plenty of timber is nigh the good havens, for making of ships, and thereof to certify us and our Council, and what good shipwright[s] and mariners be in the land, and to what number.
(14.) To practise with the port towns, and such other cities and towns as stand near any havens or creeks, that they "may begin to fortify their said towns now in time of peace;" and to aid those conformable "with their [the Deputy's and Council's] best advice for setting out of bulwarks," &c.
(15.) To practise with such noblemen and others as they think good for the exchange of some parcels of their lands for other lands of like value in England, and to advertise [the King] of what is done in this matter, that further order may be given.
(16.) "Whereas the captains and soldiers there being in our wages be sundry times and for sundry causes vexed and troubled as well in the common law as in the Chancery and other courts there, so as many times they are not able to attend their service," our pleasure is, that they shall not be answerable to any such courts, but only before our Deputy or our Marshal, "so that justice be done to him or them within three months next after the commencement of the plenty, the same being followed with effect, or else the parties to be remitted to the common laws of the realm [according to our commission in this behalf.] [The words in brackets are added in another hand; probably for inclusion in the subsequent commission to Sir James Crofts, in which these words appear.]
(17.) As the countries of Offallye and Lex, lately called O'Conour's country and O'More's country, are now in good towardness to be wholly in our hands and possession, and yet not in perfection," the Deputy and Council to take order for the full and ample possession of the same countries, and also for the surveying thereof, and to let them to farm or otherwise for terms of 21 years, allowing the farmers one or two years rent free.
(18.) In all time of war between us and either the Emperor or the French King, the Deputy may give licences to any of their subjects to import merchandise under our protection, and to export all merchandise not "restrained to be carried out of that realm.
(19.) "Where our manors and castles, as well those of long time in our hands, as others now lately builded and not yet finished, be meet to be maintained and fully builded," our pleasure is, that our Deputy, with the advice of the Chancellor and the Chief Justice, the Vice-Treasurer, and Master of the Rolls, shall take order from time to time for their furnishing and maintenance, and make a book of the charges, which shall be sufficient warrant to the Vice-Treasurer for defraying the same.
(20.) Henry Coley, William Duke, and others who have been charged to make provision for the forts lately commenced to be builded in Lex and Offalley, to be summoned before the Deputy, Chancellor, Barons of the Exchequer, Master of the Rolls, the two Justices, and the Auditor, to give an account of the money committed to them. The Deputy, &c. to take like order with all purveyors hereafter.
(21.) The Deputy and Council shall endeavour especially to reduce to order that part of the land called Leinster, wherein dwell the Cavernaughes, Tooles, and Byrnes.
Endorsed: "Mem. of the instructions given to Sir Anthony Sentleger and the rest of the Council in Ireland, July 1550.

PHELIM MCNEL BOY.  MS 602, p.137  24 June 1557

Former reference: MS 602, p.137

1 Page.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 209.

Examination of Phelim MacNel Boy, chief of his sept, and one of the captains of their Majesties' galloglasses, of the age of 50 years or thereabout, taken at Kilmaynam, 24 June 1557.
He remembers that this Earl of Kildare's father put bonaught upon MakMahon, O'Rely, and others, and heard say that this Earl's grandfather did the like upon the Annaly and the county of Kildare; but whether they were Deputies then or not he is in doubt, for in his youth he served O'Neyll in the North, and was not privy to those doings. "He doth not know that the Earl of Kildare did at any time put any first bonaught upon any Irishman when he was not Deputy." Being asked whether those bonaughts were first set to the King's use or to the Earl's use, he says "he never knew any bonaught set or levied but to the King's use and by the Deputy for the time being, and that they went alway in the King's service.
Signed: T. Sussex, Henry Radeclyff. [Sir Henry Ratcliffe. He became Earl of Sussex in 1583 on the death of his brother Thomas.]
The persons whose names are underwritten were present at this examination: Jaques Wingfeld; Sir Petyr Lewys, chaplen; Harry Stafforde; George Dellves; Frauncis Cosbie.


Former reference: MS 602, p.48

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 210.

We have perused your letters of 30th March last and certain petitions enclosed therein, exhibited to you by the Countess of Kildare, in behalf of the Earl, her husband. You instruct us to weigh every part of the petitions and your answer thereto, and to signify what we think fit for the common weal of this realm with the more speed, for that the Countess is attending an answer there to her great charges, and also because you have heretofore written like letters, but received no answer. We write nothing touching the not answering of the first letters, but leave the same to the declaration of Mr. Treasurer, and proceed to the last letters.
(1.) We think that "all such lands as be found by office to come to your Majesties by th'attainder of the Earl's father, and be yet detained from the said Earl, and the rents answered in the Exchequer," should be delivered to the said Earl; and that the rents of the lands on lease, now paid into the Exchequer, should be paid to the Earl. As to all other lands claimed by the Earl which are not in your possession, and to which you are not entitled, we think the Earl should try his right by course of the laws, or else that commission should be sent to us to hear his claims and proofs. (2.) The galloglasse bonaughts were set upon the Irish by your Deputies, and therefore belong to the crown, as will appear by the examinations (enclosed) of the captains of every sept of the galloglasse. (3.) "We like well the countries named in the petitions to be made shire ground, but the liberties to be kept in your own hands for divers respects." (4.) We refer the whole to your order. We have sent you "advertisements of all our proceeding and planting in the said countries." (5.) "The bands of horsemen be already placed, and without a new charge or discharge of old servitors the same cannot be altered at this present." (6.) We refer the whole thereof to your Majesties. "You may of your own dispose at your good pleasure where ye think meet, and what ye bestow on the said Earl shall be well bestowed.
We send you herewith the book of particularities exhibited to us by the said Earl, "noted on the side with Re. upon every matter found in record, L. C. upon every matter that must be tried by law or commission, L. upon every matter where he requireth to have liberties, and D. upon every matter where he claimeth to have duties upon Irishmen." As many things claimed by the Earl are let, together with your ancient possessions, without any partition of rents specified in the leases, it is expedient that you should authorize us to make partition of such parts as are to be delivered to the Earl.
Kylmaynam, 3 July 1557.
Signed: T. Sussex, [H.] Dublin., Cane.; Henry Radeclyff; George Stanley; Francis Agarde; Jo. Plunket; Robt. Dyllon.
Addressed: To the King and Queen's most excellent Majesties. Endorsed.

IRELAND.  MS 602, p. 153  1558

Former reference: MS 602, p. 153

4 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 216.

A chronological table of Irish events from 1531 to 1546. In a hand of temp. Eliz.

IRELAND  MS 602, p. 24  1547 to 1558

Former reference: MS 602, p. 24

10 Pages.

Continuation of MS 602, p. 153; from (6 Mary). Same hand.

Carew Manuscript  MS 603  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 603

Nicholas Whit of Clonmell, Henry Fyaunt, Thomas Admot, and John Kyddy senior, appointed justices of the Lord King, to take the assize of novel desseisin which Philip Stone arraigned before them by the writ of the King against John Droupe, and William Wynchedon, chaplain, concerning tenements in Corke, &c. Witness, the aforesaid Lieutenant, at Dublin, 18th February, ----.  MS 603, p. 87  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 603, p. 87

Indenture between the Lord Thomas of Lancaster, son of the King, Seneschal of England and Lieutenant of Ireland on the one part, and Aghi McMaghon of the other part. The latter, for himself and his nation, promised that he will always in future be a faithful liege to Henry King of England and his heirs; that he will conduct himself faithfully towards the King and his people; that he will not rise up with any Irishmen, enemies or rebels of the King, or give them counsel, aid, or favour, but he with his subjects will rise up against them as often as he shall be requested, and will go against them with all his power at the King's charges, if he passes beyond his own country. For the observance hereof the said Aghy took oath. Whereupon the said Lord Lieutenant granted and leased to farm to the said Aghy the land and lordship of Fernwy in Co. Louth, with all the appurtenances, except the King's Castle, for term of his life, at the rent of ten pounds sterling a year, payable at Easter and Michaelmas. If the said rent shall be in arrear, the King may distress; and if a sufficient distraint cannot be found, the said Aghy shall owe 20l. instead of 10l. Dated at Dublin, 13 December, 3 Hen. IV.
Indenture between the Lord Thomas of Lancaster, Steward of England, Lord of Holdernesse, and Lieutenant in Ireland, and Eugene O'Railly, captain of his nation of Irishmen [of] Briffin. The latter acknowledges for himself and all the said Irishmen that he and they are lieges of the King of England; and he also took oath that during the minority of the heir of Roger de Mortimer, late Earl of March and Ulster, in the King's wardship, he will observe and fulfil all the conditions and covenants in the indentures between the said Roger and John O'Railly, captain of the said Irishmen. Dated at Kenlys, 12 December, 8 Ric. II. Dated at Kenlys, 4 February. 3 Hen. IV.

Indenture between the Lord Thomas of Lancaster and Donald O'Brynne.  MS 603, f. 87b  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 603, f. 87b

4 Pages.
Language:  Latin

The latter promised to be a faithful liege to the King, and to conduct himself faithfully towards the King's people; that he would not rise up with the enemies or rebels of the King, but serve against them with his subjects when requested. He also promised that he would not take any "vadia," commonly called "bodes," from the King's faithful people, for injuries or trespasses done by them to him or his, until he shall have intimated the same to the King or his Lieutenant, or to the justices of the peace, within one month after the fact. If he cannot obtain a remedy within one month, it shall be lawful for him to take "vadium" or pledge to the value of the trespass, and not beyond. He will make amends for all injuries and damages which have been done by him or his to any of the marchers or faithful people of the King in the time of the present King, in time of peace, according to the award of men deputed and chosen for this purpose. On the other hand, the marchers and the King's people shall make like amends. The said Donald will do the same with regard to injuries done in the time of the said Lord Thomas in time of peace, and the marchers likewise. If any of his men shall rise up against any of the King's faithful people, the said Donald will deliver the body or head of such malefactor, and will give a pledge to the value of 100 marks until the trespass shall be satisfied. If any thief or robber shall come with goods or chattels of the King's people to the parts of the said Donald, he will not harbour such malefactor; and on the other hand the marchers shall do the like. He will permit the King to enjoy all the woods, lands, meadows, and pastures belonging to the New Castle of McKynyngham.
Dated at Dublin, 8 November, 3 Hen. IV.
In a hand of temp., Hen. VIII.

Indenture between John Stanley, Lord Justice of Ireland and O'Neale and his sons, 13 Ric. II.  MS 603, f. 132  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 603, f. 132

Neale O'Neale, son to O'Neale, was delivered upon pledges' and ransoms, and other conditions following: O'Neale and his sons to be the King's liege men, and to be true for ever to the King and to the Earl of March and their heirs. To yield back and not to intermeddle with the bonnaughe of Ulster, but that the King for his time, and the Earl of Marche, when he shall be of full years, and his heirs, at their will, without contradiction of O'Neale, his sons, or heirs, [shall] dispose the said bonnaughe for ever. O'Neale and his sons do grant that the King and the Earl and their heirs for ever shall have the lordships, rent, exactions, and answerings of all the Irishmen of Ulster and Uriell, as amply as the ancestors of the King and Earl of Ulster of antiquity have used to have; reserving to O'Neale and his [...] succssors such things as of old custom they have used to have of them. The pledges be nomed, &c., and O'Neale and his sons sworn upon the Evangelists to perform the conditions.
Indenture between Thomas of Lancaster and Awghley Mach Mahon, 3 Hen. IV.
(This is merely an abstract of § II.)

Indenture between the Lord William of Windsor, the King's Lieutenant, and Jonn McKenemargho, captain of his nation.  MS 603, f. 136  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 603, f. 136

3 Pages.

In a hand of temp. Hen. VIII.
Language:  Latin

The latter, humbly seeking the King's peace, promises to observe all things underwritten. He will keep the peace of God and the Church, and especially towards the Bishops of "Laconensis" and Limerick and their clerks, vassals, and subjects, especially Master Thomas O'Brade, allowing them all rights, rents, lands, and possessions, both in spiritual and temporal things. He will restore all the goods, books, ornaments, chalices, and other articles taken from the churches and cities of the diocese of Limerick, and especially from the Monastery of Friars Preachers of the city of Limerick. He will keep the peace towards the King's faithful people, and aid and defend them against all who injure them. If any trespasses be done to the county of Limerick, contrary to this peace, he is bound to make amends within one month; if to the city of Limerick, within fifteen days, or else distraints may be taken. Neither he nor his shall interfere with the demesne lands of the country or castle of Limerick, nor with the weir of the city, but he and his shall permit the citizens and fishermen and other faithful subjects having the custody of the lands of the said weirs from the King to dispose of the fish taken at their pleasure. Also he will permit the citizens of Limerick to cut down timber in his woods in Thomond, for the repair of the same city, and he and his shall permit their men and tenants to cut timber in the said woods, and carry it to the city for sale. He and his shall keep the King's said peace towards the Archbishop of Tuam, Richard Juvenis de Burgh, and their men, and shall stand to the witness of lawful men to be chosen between himself and the said Richard as to the restitution of the lands of the latter.
He promises to keep the peace toward Thadey Sibilochlynn, McKenemargho, and all others who quitted his company in this last war, and adhered to the said Thadey and the English. He grants to the same Thadey all the lands which he promised him before his defection. He takes upon himself and his people Brian McEghykeehfynny, his brother, and the sons of Art. McMahon, and all the men of Clanmegherith and Clandermada, Mor McMachunnys, and also all others of Clanmachunys, whom he holds in stipend, either by lands or meat and drink, or who shall have done damage from his lands to the faithful people, or shall have access after damage done with the same damage to his lands. He promises that neither he nor his, with horses, armour, or cattle, shall come beyond the water of Shynnan to the lands of the English, without the King's special licence, and that he will not aid or defend any man of war of the people and allegiance of the King without the same licence; nor will he permit any of his people to quit his parts in offence of the King's peace or to the detriment of the same war. He shall be bound to make satisfaction to all Englishmen and their subjects for any trespasses to be done by him or his especially by those of Clanmachon, according to the rite of the parts of Thomond, which rite is called "contra Koyncomhogiis;" and he promises to keep the same peace towards McChudh O'Bryen and his subjects, and all others, who rose up against him lately in aid of the royal war.
In token of observance of the premises he, delivered his two sons, Molaghlyn and Sumegha, to the King, and because he also acknowledges that he has offended against the King and his faithful people, he promised to give and faithfully to pay to the King one thousand fat and good cows, by name of an amercement, before Wednesday next before the Feast of St. Thomas the Apostle. He further granted that he shall be bound to observe the articles in a certain peace made with the Lord Thomas de la Kale. He then took oath to observe the premises; and in case anything be attempted against the said peace by him or his, he submits himself to the jurisdiction of all the prelates of Ireland, especially that of the Archbishops of Cashel and Tuam and the Bishops of "Laonen" and Limerick, who may excommunicate and interdict him without any trial. Dated at Adare, 15 December, 44 Edw. III.
Note, that in these days a good cow was appraised but at 40d., as appears in the Roll where this indenture is enrolled.
Note, that footmen in wars had for their stipend but 2d. a day, and were lodged for 1d. a day.

Submissions of the Irish, 18 Ric. II.  MS 603, ff. 138-148  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 603, ff. 138-148

17 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Related information: (See a copy of this, in MS 608, calendared ante.)

In a hand of temp. Hen. VIII.

The Statutes of Kilkenny, temp Edw. III. [There is another copy in MS 608, f. 1.]  MS 603, f. 165  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 603, f. 165

16 Pages.
Language:  French

(Printed by Hardiman.)

Act of Parliament, 7 Edw. IV.; the Earl of Worcester, Deputy to the Duke of Clarence, Lieutenant.  MS 603, f. 176  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 603, f. 176

1 Page.
Language:  French

Also, at the request of the commons, that for divers causes, horrible treasons, and felonies prepensed and done by Thomas Earl of Desmond and Thomas Earl of Kildare and Edward Plunket, Esq., as well in alliance, fosterage, and alterage with the Irish enemies of the King, as in giving to them horses and harness and armour, and supporting them against the faithful subjects of the King, which is both notoriously and openly known, and done against the laws of the King and the laudable statutes of this land of Ireland. Whereupon, the premises considered; it is ordained and enacted by authority of the said Parliament, that they and each of them be adjudged and deemed traitors, and attainted of treason, and forfeit all their goods, lands, tenements, rents, services, and chattels which each of them have, or any other person or persons to their use or to the use of any of them. And by the same authority, that if any other person or persons should have goods or chattels of any of them, or know where their goods are, and shall not come within 14 days after this said Parliament is dissolved, and give full notice to Honorable John Earl of Worcester, Deputy Lieutenant of the said land of Ireland, where the said goods are, that then they and each of them be adjudged and deemed felons attainted, saving to every other his legal right and title.
In a hand of Elizabeth's time.

Act of Parliament, 10 Henry 7; Edward Poynings, knight Deputy, at Drogheda.  MS 603, f. 177  [n.d.]

Former reference: MS 603, f. 177

2 Pages.

Prayen the Commons that for as much as Gerot FitzThomas, Earl of Kildare, for the treasons, rebellions, etc. by him committed, as in privily sending messengers and letters missives to the King's Irish enemies and English rebels, to provoke them to levy and make war against the King and Sir Edward Poyninges, knight, the King's Deputy of this land of Ireland, and in sending his men and servants to assist O'Hanlan, the King's Irish enemy, and also in conspiring with the King's Irish enemies to have murdered and slain the said Deputy in the said O'Hanlon's country, and also in causing his brother James and other rebels to take by treason the King's Castle of Carlaughe, rearing and setting up upon the same his conysaunce and standard; which castle was kept and fortified with men and victuals, in the name, and by the commandment of the said Earl until such time as it was gotten by the great wisdom and manhood of the said Deputy, after his long and painful lying at the siege of the same; and over that continually used and kept openly quoyne and livery in divers and many places, contrary to the statutes; and over that assented and agreed with the King's great enemy, the King of Scots, to send to this land a great army of Scots, to aid and fortify the said Earl and the Earl of Desmond to destroy the said Deputy and the King's true subjects; therefore be it enacted, that the said Earl of Kildare be attainted of high treason, etc.
Endorsed in a hand of Elizabeth's time.

LORD ODO O'DONELL.  MS 603, p. 35  6 May 1531

Former reference: MS 603, p. 35

3 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 34.

Related information: State Papers II. 151.

Indenture made at Drogheda, 6th May 1531, 23 Hen. VIII. Whereas Lord Odo O'Donell, knight, chief of his nation, sent Dom Conatius O'Fraghill, Abbot of Derry, and Riskard O'Cragan, as his ambassadors, to Sir William Skeffington, Lord Deputy, authorizing them to acknowledge his allegiance to the King and his Deputy, and also to treat for peace; the said Abbot, before the Lord Deputy and Council, publicly announced that his Lord was a faithful and liege subject of the King, and had observed his fealty from the time when he was in England with his Majesty. His Lord had wished to be personally present to declare the premises, but was prevented by sickness. He protested that as often as he had made war with Lord O'Neile or any other rebel of the King, he did it for the sake of the King and his subjects, and that he had never concluded any peace with them, without the condition that they should not injure the King's subjects.
This proposition ended, the Lord Deputy accepted the obedience and allegiance of Lord O'Donell.
After divers conferences and negotiations with the said nuncios for three or four days, they agreed to the following articles, and promised on the part of O'Donell faithfully to perform them:--(1.) O'Donell will be the King's subject and liege man, obey his deputies, and render them aid. (2.) Lord O'Reyly, Lord McGuyre, and Lord McCuyllen, and all other Irish captains, adherents of Lord O'Donell, shall be upon the peace and war of the King against all men. (3.) If O'Donell or any of his adherents shall offend against the King's subjects, or any others upon the King's peace and war, they shall make amends; and if any of his adherents shall refuse to perform the premises, he shall give up the refuser to the Lord Deputy. (4.) If any person shall do any damage to O'Donell or his adherents, the Lord Deputy will procure satisfaction. (5.) Whereas it was objected to the nuncios, on the part of Lord O'Neyle, that their Lord ought much more to be bound to the King than O'Neyle, for that O'Donell inhabited and held royal lands and domains, paying no rent for the same; they answered that O'Donell acknowledged it, and that therefore both he and all his property would be always at the command of the King. (6.) They promised on the part of O'Donell that in case the King wishes to reform Ireland, he shall pay to his Majesty from his lands as much as any other Irishman.
(7.) Also because Felom Baccagh was one of the friends and adherents of O'Donell, the nuncios supplicated the Lord Deputy to accept him upon the peace and war of the King; but the Lord Deputy refused to do so, because Felom was the greatest malefactor against the King's subjects. However, in consideration of the submission of O'Donell, he agreed to grant a truce to Felom until the octaves of Pentecost next; and if in the meantime he should present himself to the Lord Deputy, or place sufficient hostages in the hands of the Lord Deputy, for redressing and reforming the injuries done by him, the Lord Deputy will not refuse to accept him in manner as above. If he should not perform the premises, O'Donell will render assistance to the Lord Deputy against him.
The Lord Deputy affixed his seal to that part of this deed remaining with O'Donell, and to the other part remaining with the Lord Deputy, the said Abbot and Riscard affixed their seals and subscribed their hands.
Contemp. copy.

THE COUNCIL to JOHN ALEN.  MS 603, p. 66  1533

Former reference: MS 603, p. 66

4 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 39.

Related information: State Papers II. 162.

Instructions from the King's Council in Ireland to John Alen, Master of the Rolls there, to be declared to the King for the weal and reformation of the said land.
(1.) You shall instruct the King of the great decay of this land; that neither the English order, tongue, nor habit has been used, nor the King's laws obeyed above 20 miles in compass.
(2.) This decay "groweth by the immoderate taking of coyne and livery without order, after men's own sensual appetites, cuddees, gartie, taking of caanes for felonies, murders, and all other offences, alterages, biengis, saultes, and slauntiaghes, and other like abusions and oppressions.
(3.) Also by default of English inhabitants, "which in times past were archers, and had feats of war, and good servants in their houses for defence of the country in time of necessity;" but now "the inheritors of the land of the Englishry have admitted to be their tenants those of the Irishry, which can live hardily without bread or other good victuals; and some for lucre to have of them more rent, and some for other impositions than English husbands be able to give, together with the oppression of coyne and livery, have expelled them; and so is all the country in effect made Irish.
(4.) By the relation of ancient men, all the English lords and gentlemen within the pale heretofore kept retinues of English yeomen in their houses, after the English fashion, according to the extent of their lands, but now they keep horsemen and knaves, who live upon the King's subjects, and not in their houses; and they keep no hospitality, but live upon the poor people.
(5.) Liberties of the temporal lords of this land have been and are very prejudicial to the King and the weal of the land, for that by their abuse the King has lost the due obedience and strength of the inhabitants, and his regalities and revenues there.
(6.) The black rents and tributes which Irishmen by violence have obtained of the King's subjects are a great mischief; "and yet, when the Deputies go upon Irishmen by the aid of the King's subjects for redress of their nightly and daily robberies, they keep all they get to their own use and restore nothing to the poor people.
(7.) Another hurt is, the committing of the governance of this land to native lords, and the frequent change of Deputies.
(8.) By the negligent keeping of the King's records, and by grants of "clerks' offices of the Four Courts" to persons unlearned or not expert in the same, the King's Courts and revenues are greatly decayed, "and his records imbeciled (i.e., embezzled), and his inheritance and right thereby unknown.
(9.) The King has lost and given away his manors, customs, and other revenues, "so as he hath not now whereof to maintain a Deputy for defence of his subjects.
Signed: G. Armachañ; John Dubliñ; Edward Mideñ; J. Rawson, Prior of Kilm.; Walterus Dareñ; Jeneco Viscount of Gorm.; James Abbot of S. T[homas'] Courte; W. Abbot of S. M[ary's] Abbey, by Dublin; R. Prior of Lowth; Sir J. Barnwall, Lord of Trymlettiston; P. Fynglas, Baron; Christopher Delahide, Justice; P. White, Baron.
(1.) That there be captains in every march, as of old time; and that the kinsmen and inhabitants under their rule be at their leading, under the Deputy, and no other.
(2.) That no English lord or captain make any bond or covenant with any Irishman "to have right out of him or bearing of men of war or 'termons' to his own use, for that were a great infeeblishing of the King's strength and diminution of his profits, unless the same should be converted to the King's use;" any lord who has any such at this time to express the certainty thereof and renounce the same. And that the King shall take order with his Deputy for the exonerating of his subjects of such black rents as Irishmen take of them now.
(3.) No person to take "caanes" anywhere amongst the King's subjects for felony or murder, and the King to take an order about "the liberties aforesaid," which shall greatly increase his strength and profits.
(4.) "By means of the dissension of those of this land, the default of the execution of the laws, other mischiefs before expressed, and especially coyne and livery, which is now so immoderately universally used in manner by all men, that all shall be brought to be Irish without redress be had, which is not like to be remedied by any our English lords of this land for divers and many causes, too long here to be expressed." There is grown also such a rooted dissension between the Earls of Kildare and Ossory, that it is not likely to bring them to good conformity, especially if either of them be Deputy or aspire to that room; and if any other of this land should be admitted thereto, we fear they will not assist or obey him. "The next mean is to send hither an English Deputy, who we trust, within three years, shall bring the English shires of Leinster and Munster to good purpose, so as the King's subsidy may rynne there.
(5.) There must be a resumption of the King's revenues from a certain time hitherto, for "by the importunate labours of those of this land," the King and his progenitors have granted the revenues to divers of them, so that the remainder is small. By means of this resumption the subsidy and other things, "which within three years the said Deputy will get of Irishmen and otherwise," there will be revenues sufficient to maintain him without further charge to the King. But who shall be most apt for that room it becomes us not to name.
(6.) If the King should have war with any outward prince, we think his Grace should take good order for this land.
(7.) All the King's castles are fallen into utter ruin and decay.
(8.) Means must be found for repressing the Scots, who increase daily and inhabit in Ulster, &c.
(9.) An order to be had for the keeping of the King's records; that the King's revenues may appear in the Chancery and Exchequer, as of old time, and [be] let to farm under the King's seal, and not privately by the Deputy; and that he grant no clerks' offices but by the advice of the Judges of the Court where such offices are.
(10.) That the King's book of instructions, sent hither by my Lord Chancellor that now is, may be observed from henceforth by the Deputy as nigh as possible is, for hitherto it was not so.
(11.) That all the lords and gentlemen within the four shires of Dublin, Kildare, Meath, and Uriell, be compelled to obey the King's laws, "and all others as nigh as may be.
Signed as above.
Contemp. copy.

CONACIUS O'NEYLL.  MS 603, p. 128  26 July 1535

Former reference: MS 603, p. 128

3 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 56.

Related information: State Papers II. 257.

Indenture at Drogheda, 26th July 1535, 27 Henry VIII., between Sir William Skeffington, Deputy, and the Lord Conacius O'Neyll, chief of his nation.
(1.) O'Neyll will be faithful and obedient to the King, whose Deputies will maintain and support O'Neyll.
(2.) The Deputies shall have in the King's peace and war all Irishmen whom the Lord Deputy now being and the Deputy last in office has and had.
(3.) O'Neyll shall have restitution of all goods taken from him or any of his friends or servants, from the time when peace was made by Gillaspik McDonyll on his part, at Maynothe, by any men being of the peace of the King or the Lord Deputy.
(4.) For any matters of discord or displeasure, or any injuries done by any adherents or neighbours of the said Conacius, who now are or shall be of the King's peace, the Lord Deputy will not seek remedy or restitution from O'Neyll; but it shall be lawful for the Lord Deputy to take hostages for restitution.
(5.) If he be required by the Deputy to serve in any voyage or journey, he will do so.
(6.) In case of violation of any part of this peace, the said Deputy now being, the Lord Chancellor, the Lords O'Donyll and O'Rayly, and Gillaspike McDonyll shall reform the same.
(7.) All damages and injuries to be referred to the judgment and final determination of the same arbitrators.
(8.) If any person under the dominion of O'Neyll shall come amongst the King's subjects and there offend against the English laws, it shall be lawful to punish the offender according to those laws; or [if, while] committing an offence, any of his people happen to be wounded or killed, no amends, exaction, or redemption, "quæ vulgariter dicitur 'asault,'" shall be exacted, but he shall be reputed guilty of his own death or damage. In case any of the King's subjects commit an offence deserving of death within O'Neyll's dominion, O'Neyll will cause him to be taken and sent to the arbitrators above named, and they shall send him to the nearest prison of the King, where he shall be dealt with according to the quality of his crime by the King's laws.
(9.) O'Neyll shall have his accustomed stipend.
(10.) Englishmen and all of the parts of the English shall have free ingress and regress in the country of O'Neyll, and all coming from his country with merchandise and other necessaries shall have free ingress and regress amongst the English.
(11.) No person of his country shall have refections or expenses called "coyne, lyverye, coydeis, emciones, vulgariter nuncupatæ kennaghtes, vel talia poculenta," amongst the English; and none of the English or of the parts of the English shall have the like in his country.
(12.) No animals, cows, or other cattle of the country of O'Neyll shall have pasture or housing amongst the English, like as no animals shall have pasture in O'Neyll's country.
(13.) In all controversies between O'Neyll and Lord McGwyyr, they shall stand to the arbitration of the said Lord McGwyre and McGyllaspike McDownyll; and the Lord McGwyre shall be umpire (finitor pacis), if they shall not agree.
(14.) In all controversies between O'Neyll and Nelan Connelagh O'Neyll, they shall stand to the arbitration of the Lord Deputy, Rose, daughter of the Lord O'Donyll, wife of the said Nelan, and of Henry, son of Shan or John O'Neyll.
(15.) In all causes between O'Neyll and Nelan Magnus O'Neyll, they shall stand to the arbitration of the Lord Deputy, Lord O'Downyll, and Lord McGuyer.
(16.) O'Neill, Lord McQwyre, Nelan Connulagh O'Neill, Nelan Magnus, [and] Gylhaspike McDownill, took a corporal oath to observe all the above articles. If any one of them should infringe them, all the others will be against him, with the Lord Deputy for his correction.
Witnesses: Lord O'Donyll; MacGwyer; Nelan Connulagh; Nelan Magnus McMaghan; Gylhaspike McDonyll; Arthur McGwenos; and many others.
Signed: Wyllm. Skeffington; J. Barnewall, Chancellor; J. Rawson, Prior of Kyllmaynam; William Brabason; Patrick Fynglas, Justice.
Original, Endorsed.

BERNARD O'CHONOUR.  MS 603, p. 115  20 Jan 1536

Former reference: MS 603, p. 115

4 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 71.

Arbitrament and concord between Lord Leonard Grey, Viscount of Grayne, Justiciary, and the Council of Ireland, of the one part, and Bernard Occhonour, chief of his nation, of the other part, promulgated at Dublin, 20th January 1535, 27 Henry VIII., by the undersigned arbitrators, and (in those things wherein they disagreed) by the said Lord Justiciary and the Earl of Ossory, the superior and final definers of this arbitrament, nominated, elected, and deputed with the assent of the said O'Chonour.
(1.) O'Chonour shall be quit and exonerated from making any amends for the damages which he committed in the retinue of Thomas FitzGerald, son of Gerald late Earl of Kildare, from the 1st August next before the arrival of Sir William Skeffington, late Lord Deputy, and his army in Ireland, till the day of his arrival; with these exceptions: that he shall restore all Englishmen whom he detains as prisoners, receiving five marks for each of them, as compensation for his expenses; that he shall dismiss the son of Francis Harbart, on sight of the King's letters to his Council; and that he restore all animals of the English which can be found within his dominions, and permit any Englishmen to enter into his country to seek their animals; and if they should be compelled to give "fastnes" in order to prove where their animals are, he shall restore it.
(2.) After the arrival of the Deputy and the army, O'Chonour adhered to Thomas FitzGerald against the King, and received him and his goods into his subterfuge, by occasion whereof the King was put to great expenses, and the said Thomas committed many damages upon the King's subjects, and assisted to destroy castles and other buildings within the King's dominions. We estimate the whole damages at 5,000 marks, but we know that the said Bernard and all under his dominion are unable to make entire restitution, and therefore we reduce the amends to 800 cows or martes of three years of age, good and fat, or, instead of each cow or marte, 6s. 8d., half of which payment shall be made at the feast of St. Philip and St. James, and the other moiety at the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula next.
(3.) He shall also restore the goods of David Sutton, which have been carried away since the peace which the Earl of Ossory made with him near Rathangan after Easter last.
(4.) Also he shall restore the coach, coach horses, and goods of the Lord Justiciary, carried away since the peace concluded at Castle Jordane.
(5.) As to the demands which the Bishop of Meath has against him, he shall stand to the arbitration of the Abbot of Trym, Gerald McGeralde, and another of his own people. If the three should disagree, he will stand to the final judgment of the Lord Justiciary.
(6.) He shall make oath on the Eucharist and that venerable relic called the staff (bacculo) of Jesus, faithfully to express all the silver vessels, jewels, arms, horses and mares, writings, and other goods, bombards and other warlike instruments, which he has of the goods of Gerald, late Earl of Kildare, and those which he received from the said Thomas or his sisters or any other person, or which were carried in any other manner into his dominion or elsewhere, and when requested he will permit and compel all under his dominion to take a similar oath. Whatever should be confessed by such oath, or otherwise proved, he will restore without any delay to the assigns of the King.
(7.) Whereas he and his predecessors in times past, for the defence of the English near them, and particularly for their subsidy, aid, and service to the King and his Deputies, were accustomed to receive from the King and his Deputy every year, a fee, gift, or reward of sixty marks; nevertheless he and his predecessors and their kinsmen so oppressed and invaded the King's subjects as often as they obtained power to do so, that at length they subjected their goods and lands to tribute. It is arbitrated that henceforth all tributes and rents called black rents, which have not been continually paid to the same Bernard and his predecessors for forty years past, shall cease. With regard to those tributes or black rents which before [the said] 40 years were paid by the King's subjects to the predecessors of the said Bernard and to him; as the King, (having been lately provoked against him because, after all the Irish had refused to support the said Thomas, he at last received and assisted him,) by his letters directed to the Deputy and Council, expressly commanded them not to permit the said fee of sixty marks or any tributes or rents to be paid to the said Bernard, under pain of forfeiture of life, lands, and goods to the party contravening:--we will that such tributes and rents as were paid 40 years ago shall remain unpaid until he obtain the King's permission to receive them. Also, notwithstanding the said mandate of the King, hoping that the said Bernard will be faithful to the King, we arbitrate that he shall have his stipend from the day on which he delivered his hostages to the Deputy at Castle Jordane, and that it shall be received annually under these conditions.
The King's subjects, for the purpose of trading, or for their other necessary causes, shall be permitted quietly to pass through his dominion and there to remain. All persons coming from other parts to the King's Court, or to the Deputy or Council, or contrariwise from English parts to those parts, shall pass through his country without injury. Also, if the Deputy with his army or otherwise shall decree to pass through the dominion of O'Chonour to any other parts, he shall be allowed to do so without hindrance from Bernard or his kinsmen, and he shall there make proper roads for their passage, as was the custom there in the time of Gerald, late Earl of Kildare, and his father. He shall not permit any enemy of the King to come through his dominions to invade the subjects of the King, nor will be exact expenses or victuals, purchases (emptiones), or exactions from any of them. He shall not adhere to any Irishman or other enemy of the King. He will not receive into his country or subterfuge any of the King's subjects against the King or his officers, but permit them to be taken. As often as he shall be warned by the Lord Deputy, he will rise up at his own expense with a banner of horsemen and a banner of footmen well armed. All captains of the Irish on the confines of the said Bernard, who, at the time when the aforesaid Gerald, Earl of Kildare, or his father was Deputy, were under the peace of the King, shall remain under the same peace in future, without contradiction or impediment of Bernard or his successors. All lands adjacent to the manor of Rathangan shall remain to the King in as great liberty as Gerald, late Earl of Kildare, held them after the death of his father. The like arrangement shall be observed for the lands which the said Earl otherwise had in right of the castle and manor of Lye.
Contemp. copy.

THADEUS O'BYRNE.  MS 603, p. 81  22 Jan 1536

Former reference: MS 603, p. 81

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 72.

Indenture made 22nd January 1535, 28 [Sic. Mistake for 27.] Hen. VIII., between Lord Leonard Grey, Justiciary of Ireland, and Thadeus O'Byrne, principal captain of his nation. By the arbitration of the Earl of Ossory, William Brabazon, the King's Treasurer of War in Ireland, Gerald Aylmer, Chief Justice of the Chief Bench, and Edmond Juvenis O'Birne, it was concluded between the said Justiciary and the said O'Birne as follows:
(1.) O'Birne will be faithful and obedient to the King, will keep firm peace with all the King's subjects, permit them quietly to go and return through his country, and not allow any enemy of the King to come through his dominion to invade them. He will not adhere to any Irishman or any other against the King or his subjects, or maintain any enemy or rebel of the King, especially those of the nation of O'Tholis, fleeing into his country.
(2.) Whenever the Justiciary or Deputy shall make a hosting against any rebels in any part outside Leinster, O'Byrne will send a banner with twenty horsemen, "cum numero pedestrium seu turbiculorum tot equestribus," according to the custom of his country, at his own expenses. If within Leinster, O'Birne will rise up with all his force.
(3.) He will deliver and pay to the Deputy 120 cows or martes this side the feast of St. Philip and St. James next.
(4.) In case of necessity O'Birne and his country will succour and support the Deputy with 120 armed footmen, Irish, Scotch, or galloglaghes, for four, six, or eight weeks, or a quarter of a year, if need be.
(5.) He will exonerate Hugh Nugent, John Beling, James Rychford and all others from all arrears and debts not yet paid for their ransom, and deliver the pledges of Nugent and Beling remaining with the Prior of the Holy Trinity, Dublin, and the Abbot of St. Mary's near Dublin, for the remainder of their ransom.
(6.) For the observance of the premises the Earl of Ossory and Edmond Juvenis O'Birne will deliver the castle of Symons Wodde to the Lord Justiciary or Deputy for the time being.
(7.) Declaration to be made when necessity arises for supporting the said 120 footmen, by the Lord Justice of Ireland for the time being and the Lord Archbishop of Dublin, or in his place the Chancellor.
Contemp. copy.

FELOM O'NEYLE.  MS 603, p. 77a  4 May 1536

Former reference: MS 603, p. 77a

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 76.

Treaty of peace or concord between Lord Leonard Grey, Viscount Grane, the King's Deputy, and Felom Ruffus O'Neyle, otherwise Felom O'Neyle, brother of Nelan Magnus O'Neyle; 1 May, 28 Hen. VIII. O'Neyle has taken oath that he will be a faithful liege subject of the King, and serve the King and his Deputy with all his power, whenever need shall be, against any rebels or enemies dwelling within a day's journey from him, as often as he shall be called upon. He shall rise up in every great voyage, commonly called "hostinges." He will not harbour or support any rebel, traitor, or felon of the King. With respect to all damages, prejudices, and injuries perpetrated or to be perpetrated against the King's subjects, by him or any of his adherents or followers, he will stand to the arbitrament of Lord Walter Bellewe, Lord Roche, and Sir John Plunket; Nelan, son of John, otherwise Nele MacShane; and Donatus MacKaruell. He shall place in the hands of the Lord Deputy, as hostage, Arthur O'Neyle, his natural son. If the said arbitrators shall not agree, he will stand to the judgment of the Lord Deputy. If he fail to fulfil the judgment of the Lord Deputy and the said arbitrators, he shall pay to the Lord Deputy for every such default, 50 good martes.--Dublin, 4 [May], [Month omitted in MS.] 28 Henry VIII.
Contemp. copy.

CHARLES MCMURGHO.  MS 603, p. 78a  12 May 1536

Former reference: MS 603, p. 78a

3 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 77.

Treaty of peace and final concord between Lord Leonard Grey, Deputy, and the Lord Charles McYncrosse Cavenagh, otherwise called McMurgho, principal captain of his nation.
(1.) McMurgho promises to be a faithful liege subject to the King.
(2.) He will pay to the King all tributes, refections, and sustentations of Scots and other men of war, annually accustomed to be paid.
(3.) He will not adhere to any rebels of the King, nor permit them to be assisted by his people; especially Peter Wafer, whom he will apprehend and give up to the Lord Deputy.
(4.) He shall be always content solely with the peace and war of the King, and will rise up with the Deputy and issue forth with his entire band in [every] journey for three days at his own expenses, and in every voyage called hostings with 12 horsemen and banners, and 30 kerne (turbarii).
(5.) He will reform all damages by him or his adherents heretofore committed against the King and his subjects, according to the arbitration of two persons to be chosen on the part of the Lord Deputy and Council, and two others on his part. And in those things in which they differ, he will stand to the arbitration of the Lord Deputy, Peter, Earl of Ossory, and James, Lord Butler, Treasurer of Ireland.
(6.) He will allow the King's subjects to pass through his dominions without molestation; and the Lord Deputy will make proclamation that all persons coming from his dominions to the English parts shall not be molested for any fault committed heretofore; and neither the said Lord McMurgho now being, nor any others for the time being, shall have in his peace or war those whom the Lord Deputy now being has taken into his peace, namely, Lord O'Murgho, Edmund Duffe McDonaghe, Arthur, his son, and all of the country of the said Edmund, of Kinslagh (?), to whom or to any of whom he will do no damage.
(7.) In these and all controversies between McMurgho and Arthur, the son of Edmund Duffe McDonagh, they shall stand to the decision of the Lord Deputy and Council.
(8.) The Lord Deputy shall give to McMurgho such annual stipend as other Deputies have been accustomed to give him and his ancestors, if he shall show that he has any just title to such stipend within half a year hence before the Lord Deputy and Council.
(9.) He has delivered Edmund, son of John Juvenis O'Bryn, and the son of John Baulagh, commonly called "Shane Ballagh's son," as hostages, into the custody of the Lord Deputy.
(10.) As often as McMurgho shall infringe any of these articles, the Lord Deputy is to receive 200 cows from him.
(11.) Provided that, although the arbitration concerning controversies between McMurgho and Edmund Duffe should rest with the Lord Deputy, nevertheless, if by senior and indifferent persons of that country they can otherwise agree, that agreement shall be ratified by the Lord Deputy. Dublin, 12 May, 28 Henry VIII.
Contemp. copy.

REMUND SAVAGE.  MS 603, p. 80  31 May 1536

Former reference: MS 603, p. 80

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 79.

Indenture made between Lord Leonard Grey and Remund Savage, principal captain of his nation.
(1.) He will be a faithful liege subject of the King.
(2.) He will serve the King and his Deputies with all his power, and rise up with all his men as often as he shall be called upon, in every journey and great voyage, against all rebels and enemies dwelling within a day's journey from him.
(3.) The said Remund (Jenico Savage, formerly chief captain of the same nation, now being removed out of the way) shall have superiority, name, and preeminence of his nation and country of Savage, otherwise called Lecale, as principal captain of the same.
(4.) He shall give to the Lord Deputy, for acquiring his favour and friendship, one hundred cows, fat and strong, and one good horse, or fifteen marks of Irish money.
Dated 31 May, 28 Hen. VIII.
Contemp. copy.

LORD CONATIUS O'NELE.  MS 603, p. 77  15 June 1536

Former reference: MS 603, p. 77

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 80.

Concord made within the franchises at the town of Dundalk, 15th June, 28 Henry VIII., between Lord Leonard Grey, Viscount Gran, Lord Deputy, and the Lord Conatius O'Nele, principal captain of his nation.
(1.) He swears he will serve the King and his Deputy whenever he shall be called upon, and rise up with all his force and power against the King's rebels and enemies.
(2.) Whenever any subjects of the King in the parts of Ulster shall offend, transgress, or rebel against the King, (especially those who introduce and support the Scots of the Isles, commonly called Redshanks,) he will destroy them to the utmost of his power.
(3.) All the articles and clauses of the indenture formerly made between Lord William Skeffington, Deputy, and the said Conatius shall be observed by the latter; like as the Lord Deputy shall observe to the Lord O'Neyle such things as are therein specified respecting the levying of his tributes and ancient customs, in the same manner as the Lord Deputy shall levy the rents, revenues, and other tributes belonging to the King from the adherents, kinsmen and others being of the peace of the Lord O'Neyle, without breaking the peace.
(4.) He shall rise up in every journey and great voyage commonly called "ostinges.
Contemp. copy.

CHARLES MCMURGHO.  MS 603, p. 79a  14 July 1536

Former reference: MS 603, p. 79a

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 82.

Indenture made 14 July 1536, 28 Hen. VIII., between Lord Leonard Grey, Viscount Grane, Deputy, and Charles McMurgho, principal captain of his nation.
(1.) McMurgho shall be keeper and constable of the castle and dominion of Fernes, lately recovered by the Lord Deputy out of the possession of certain rebels, during the King's pleasure, paying for the first year eighty marks, and afterwards as by the Lord Deputy and Council and the Lord McMurgho shall be agreed.
(2.) Gerald Kavenagh, commonly called Gerald Sutton, shall be sub-constable and governor of the said castle.
(3.) McMurgho and Gerald shall safely guard and defend the said castle and dominions, and surrender them to the Deputy when required.
(4.) Maurus, son of McMurgho, now in the castle of Dublin, and Arthur, son of the said Gerald, now in the custody of the Earl of Ossory and of James, his son, shall remain with the Lord Deputy as hostages; and the same Charles and Gerald promise that if they fail in the premises they shall forfeit their possessions for ever. Moreover, the Earl of Ossory and his son James Butler, Lord O'More, and Moriertaghe Mc Arte Boy and his son Charles Kavanaghe are their sureties for the performance of the premises.
Contemp. copy.

FERGANANYM ROWE O'BYRNE.  MS 603, p. 80a  18 Sep 1536

Former reference: MS 603, p. 80a

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 90.

Indenture made 18th September 1536 between Lord Leonard Grey, Viscount Grane, Deputy, and Fergananym Rowe O'Byrne.
(1.) O'Byrne will be a faithful subject of the King.
(2.) As often as the Lord Deputy, or any captain by him appointed, in the parts adjoining the said Fergananym, shall take a journey to suppress or invade the King's enemies, he will serve with all his followers at his own expense; and he will not maintain any rebels.
(3.) He will pay to the King 4d. a year each for his horses, mares, draft horses (caballis), cows, oxen, and bulls in the towns of Ballyhoursy, Cowlythe, Dwly, Drommor, and Kilparke.
(4.) The Lord Deputy will protect and defend Fergananym and all his tenants and servants against all men, as well English as Irish.
Contemp. copy.

MARRYING and FOSTERING with IRISHMEN.  MS 603, p. 52  1536

Former reference: MS 603, p. 52

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 93.

Statutes at Large, I. 174 (3).
The Act for marrying with Irishmen, 28 Hen. VIII.
By marriage, alterage, and fostering of the King's subjects of Ireland with his Irish rebels, great lack of obedience has arisen, and divers enormities have ensued, especially during the last two hundred years; for, in spite of divers good Statutes and Acts of Parliament, the King's subjects "did often and many times as well marry as foster with the said Irish rebels, and sometimes by fraud and covine," and for their own safeguard and discharge procured to make such Irish rebels denizens by letters patents, whereas those rebels so made denizens did not use themselves as the King's subjects. For reformation hereof, be it enacted by authority of this present Parliament, that no persons, the King's subjects, within this land, shall "marry or foster themselves, their childer, or kinsfolk, within the fourth degree, or any of them, to or with any Irish person or persons of Irish blood, which be not the King's true subjects, ne use themselves accordingly, though any such person or persons be made denizens, unless that every such person so to be made denizen do his homage and fealty before the King's Chancellor or Keeper of the Great Seal for the time being to the King's Highness, swearing the oath comprised in the Act of succession for the fulfilling and accomplishment of the effect, tenor, and purport of [the same]; and also shall be bound by recognizance before the King's Chancellor or Keeper of his Grace's Great Seal of this his land for the time being, in such sums of money as to the said Chancellor or Keeper of the Great Seal shall be thought meet and convenient, that he from the time that he is made denizen, shall be faithful, true, and obedient to the King's Highness, his heirs, and successors." Any of the King's subjects who shall so marry or foster, at the time of the said marriage or fostering "shall have a true and unfeigned intent and meaning that the party so made denizen" will be faithful to the King. If any person so made denizen do transgress his fealty, proclamation thereof shall be made by the Deputy in the shire or open market next adjoining to such offender, and such of the King's subjects as shall have fostered or married with him shall utterly avoid any wilful familiarity or company with him, unless it be to reconcile him to the King, or to obtain restitution of goods taken from any of the King's subjects. If any of his Highness's subjects do offend in the premises, every such offence shall be deemed high treason, and the offender shall suffer death, and forfeiture of lands and goods. Any of the King's subjects thus marrying or fostering, who shall support any such denizens in rebellion, shall be attainted of high treason.

MAKGYLL PATRYK.  MS 603, p. 86a  8 Nov 1537

Former reference: MS 603, p. 86a

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 109.

Indenture, 8 Nov., 29 Hen. VIII., between Sir Anth. Seyntleger, Sir Geo. Paulet, Sir Th. Moyle, and Sir Wm. Barners, the King's Commissioners, of the one part, and Bernard Fitz Patrick, otherwise called Makgyll Patryk, possessor of the land of Upper Ossory, of the other part.
The last named has submitted himself, his goods, lands, servants and all others under his government to the rule of the King, and the said Commissioners grant that he shall be created a Baron of the Parliament in Ireland, and have the name or dignity of Baron of Colthill and Castleton, with all his castles, lands, and tenements in Ossory of the King's gift; to hold by the service of two knights' fees, paying annually to the King 3l. 14s. of the money of Ireland.
Contemp. copy. [Printed from the original in the Record Office in "State Papers," II. 514.]

CHARLES O'MULLOY and MCGEOGHEGAN.  MS 603, p. 84a  28 Nov 1537

Former reference: MS 603, p. 84a

3 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 110.

I. Indenture, 28th November 29 Henry VIII., between Lord Leonard Grey, Viscount Grane, Deputy, and Charles O'Mulloy chief captain of his nation and country of Fercalgh.
(1.) O'Mulloy will be a true and faithful subject to the King, and serve his Deputy for the time being, especially against the traitor Bernard O'Chonour and his followers.
(2.) He will serve against all Irishmen for one day and night at his own expenses, with six horsemen and forty foot, whenever commanded, if he have notice three days before. In all other journeys or invasions made by the Lord Deputy he will serve him with four horsemen and twelve footmen.
(3.) He will support Charles O'Chonour, the Lord McGoighegan, and other subjects of the King.
(4.) He will pay to the King all rents and revenues due and accustomed in his country.
For the performance of the premises, he placed in the hands of the Lord Deputy his son Conacius O'Mulloy as hostage. The Deputy agrees that the Baron of Delven, Dillon, Dalton, Tyrrel, and other captains or subjects of the King shall aid the said captain whenever there shall be need.
Dated at Kyllegh in Offaly, the day and year above written.
II. Indenture, 28th November, 29 Henry VIII., between Lord Leonard Grey and Rosrid, otherwise Rosse, McGeoghegan, chief captain of his nation and country of Kynneleagh.
Similar to the preceding.
He will sustain Charles O'Chonour and the Lord O'Muloy in all reasonable causes. He placed in the hands of the Lord Deputy his second son, Hugh McGeoghegan, as hostage. No crime committed by Cornelius McGeoghegan, his sons, or followers shall be to the detriment of the said Lord McGoghegan or his hostage.
Dated at Kylleghe the day and year above written.
Contemp. copies.

BERNARD O'CHONOR.  MS 603, p. 116a  6 March 1538

Former reference: MS 603, p. 116a

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 116.

Form of the submission of the Lord Bernard O'Chonor, late Lord and Captain of Ofaley, made to the King before the Lord Deputy, Lord Leonard Grey, the Commissioners of the King, and the Council, at Dublin, 6th March, 29 Hen. VIII.
(1.) He will be faithful and loyal to the King.
(2.) He will not admit the jurisdiction or authority of the Roman Pontiff.
(3.) He will claim to exact no black rents or other exactions from any subject of the King.
(4.) As to the sixty marks which he and his ancestors claimed to have from the King as an annual stipend for their service to the Deputy in defence of the King's subjects, he promises in no way to exact, seek, or claim the said stipend, but for his service he will only expect the King's favour, and be content with the liberality of the Lord Deputy.
(5.) He humbly petitions the King to grant to him by his letters patent that he and his issue shall be of a free state and liege men after the manner of the English; and that he may be Baron of Ofayley, and have to him and his heirs, of the King's gift, that portion of lands in Ofayley which he possesses there by partition after the manner of the country, to be held of the King according to English laws; and that his brothers and other possessors of land there may hold the lands which they possess, all paying to the King annually for each ploughland 3s. 4d.; and that ploughlands in Ofayley, as often as it shall seem good to the Lord Deputy or necessity require, shall be burdened with and occupied by men of war for the defence of the subjects of the King, in the same manner as other ploughlands among the King's subjects. He therefore humbly petitions that the King and his Deputies will undertake his protection and defence.
(6.) The Lord Deputy and subjects of the King shall at their pleasure cut down and destroy the woods and obstacles in the borders of Ofayley towards the King's subjects at their pleasure, and make plain and open roads and passes, as often as it shall please them.
(7.) O'Chonor has delivered to the Lord Deputy his son Donatus as a hostage.
II. Memorandum, that on the feast of Saint Patrick [17 March.] at Dublin in the said year, before the Lords Leonard Grey, Deputy, Anthony Sentleger and his associates, Commissioners of the King, and the Council, Charles O'Chonor, brother or kinsman of the said Bernard O'Chonor, consented to all the foregoing articles and promised to observe them, and delivered his son Thadeus as a hostage to the Lord Deputy.
Contemp. copy.

FERGANANYM O'KAROLL.  MS 603, p. 82  12 June 1538

Former reference: MS 603, p. 82

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 122.

Indenture, 12 June, 30 Hen. VIII., between the King and Fergananym O'Karoll, principal captain of the country of Ely O'Karrell.
(1.) He and his successors shall pay to the King 12d. for every carucate of land within the said country.
(2.) They shall pay to the Deputy 120 martes when they are nominated captains or made O'Karoll.
(3.) They shall find for every general hosting 12 good horsemen and 24 kerne (turbarios), furnished with victuals for 40 days at their own costs. Moreover, they with all their power shall come to the Deputy to every hosting or small journey on reasonable notice, with victuals for three days. The Deputy shall have victuals in the said country by the collection of O'Karoll for 80 "sparres," otherwise called "galoglaghes," for the space of one quarter of a year annually.
(4.) Lord Leonard Grey, now Deputy, may cut any narrow road called a pass in the said country of Ely O'Karoll. Moreover, O'Karoll grants to the King to make such a way within the said country as the Lord Deputy shall consider good, for the more easy passage of the King's men of war and warlike instruments through the whole country of Ely O'Karoll, at his own costs and expenses.
Contemp. copy.

HUGH DE BURGHE.  MS 603, p. 83  28 June 1538

Former reference: MS 603, p. 83

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 124.

Indenture, 28 June, 30 Hen. VIII., between the King and Hugh de Burghe, now captain of the country of Burghe.
(1.) He and his successors, captains of the said country, shall pay to the King annually 40l. sterling.
(2.) He and [each of] his successors, [when they become] captains of the said country, will pay 100 marks sterling to the Deputy for their nation.
(3.) They shall find for the Deputy at every general hosting, 20 horsemen and 80 Scots well armed, and with victuals for 40 days. Whensoever the Deputy shall come near the borders of the said country, they shall repair to him with all their horsemen, Scots, and kerne, with victuals for three days.
(4.) The Deputy shall have victuals in the said country of Burghe by the collection of the said Hugh for 80 "sparres," otherwise called "galloglaghes," otherwise called Scots, for the space of six weeks annually.
(5.) Lord Leonard Grey, now Deputy, may cut any narrow road called a pass in the said country. The said Hugh allows the King to make any road within the said country which Lord Grey shall consider good for the more easy passage of the King's men of war and warlike instruments.
Limerick, the day and year above written. He also placed his son as a hostage in the hands of the Lord Deputy.
Contemp. copy.

EDMUND MCHE MCEDMUND O'REYLY.  MS 603, p. 86  10 Aug 1538

Former reference: MS 603, p. 86

1 Page.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 128.

Indenture, 10th August 30 Henry VIII., between the King and Edmund McHe McEdmund O'Reyly, chief captain of Clonkeyle.
He will pay yearly to the King 20d. Irish out of each of the 16 ploughlands which he has in Clonkeyle.
Contemp. copy.

EARL OF ORMOND and LORD JAMES BUTLER.  MS 603, p. 84  1538

Former reference: MS 603, p. 84

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 131.

The order taken betwixt my Lord Deputy and the Earl of Ormond and the Lord Butler.
Memorandum, that the King has been advertised that divers variances have grown between Lord Leonard Grey, the King's Deputy, of the one part, and Sir Piers Butler knight, Earl of Ormond and Ossory, and Lord James Butler, his son and heir, High Treasurer of Ireland, of the other part, by occasion whereof the reformation and weal of this land have been hindered, and the King's subjects disquieted; and has addressed his letters to each of them by his Chief Justice and Master of the Rolls of this land, whose orders he commanded them to obey. They therefore exhibited their complaints in writing to the Chief Justice and Master of the Rolls and others of the Council, who have taken betwixt them these orders ensuing, to the performance whereof they are solemnly sworn.
(1.) The said Earl and Lord Butler have promised to serve the King under the Lord Deputy, as other noblemen of the King's subjects of this land do, and also to obey the Lord Deputy in all lawful things.
(2.) The Lord Deputy promises "to entreat and entertain the said Earl and Lord Butler after such loving sort and fashion" as appertains to their degrees, and the trust and credit the King has put in them, and will not send or give to them any unlawful commands.
(3.) The Lord Deputy, "at all times when he will have the said Earl and Lord Butler to attend upon him to hosting or journey," shall give them lawful and honest warning, which shall be sent to them by the King's writ, or by letters signed by the Lord Deputy and three at least of the Privy Council, except any sudden invasion or insurrection should chance, when they shall, as speedily as possible, assist the Lord Deputy.
Contemp. copy.

GYLLERNOWE O'MAGHIR.  MS 603, p. 109a  7 Aug 1539

Former reference: MS 603, p. 109a

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 136.

Indenture, 7th August 31 Henry VIII., between the King and Gyllernowe O'Maghir, captain of his nation. The King accepts O'Magher as his faithful subject, and O'Maghyr binds himself, his heirs and successors, captains of the said country, to pay to the King 12d. lawful money of Ireland annually for every carucate of land within his country and dominion of Ynykyryne. Whenever a general hosting is made, he will lead to the Deputy 4 horsemen and 12 kerne (turbarii), well armed according to the usage of the country, with victuals for 40 days, at his own costs and charges. When the Deputy comes near the borders of the said country, O'Magher will assist him with his whole power for three days. He and his successors will make a sufficient and open road through their country for the more easy passage of the King's wagons (currium) and other warlike instruments, and of the King's men, as often as they shall be required to do so by the Deputy.
Contemp. copy.

HUGH BURGH and OTHERS.  MS 603, p. 22a  1539

Former reference: MS 603, p. 22a

1 Page.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 139.

Indenture, 31 Hen. VIII., [See 28 June 1538.] betwixt the King and Hugh Burgh, captain of the Burkes' country. The latter and his successors shall pay to the King yearly 40l. sterling; and hereafter, when a captain of the country shall be named, he shall pay 100 marks sterling. He shall find at every general hosting for six weeks 80 galloglas and 20 horsemen; and when the Lord Deputy shall approach his country, he shall meet him with all his horsemen, galloglas, and kerne, victualled for three days, to serve the King. He shall yearly levy finding for 80 galloglas for six weeks.
II. Indenture [No date given.] betwixt the King and Tibbot Burgh, who shall pay yearly to the King and his heirs 8l. sterling, and find 60 galloglas for six weeks every year. At every great hosting he shall find 12 horsemen and 24 kerne for 40 days; and he shall meet the Lord Deputy as aforesaid.
III. Indenture [No date given.] betwixt the King and Chonnour O'Brien O'Tonyengren, captain of his nation. The latter shall pay yearly to the King 12d. Irish out of every "carwe" of land within the country of Tonyengren. To serve with all his power for three days at his own charges at any time when the Lord Deputy shall approach his country.
IV. Indenture [No date given.] between the King and Maurice O'Bryen, captain of the country of Arra. The said Maurice shall pay to the King 6d. Irish out of every "carwe" of land within his country, "at May." To "find yearly, during a month once a year, 60 galloglas, and at every great hosting 6 horsemen and 24 kerne, victualled for 40 days, once a year, to serve the King." To meet the Lord Deputy repairing towards his country with all his power victualled for three days.
Abstracts, in a contemporary hand.

LORD LEONARD GREY.  MS 603, p. 120  2 Jan 1540

Former reference: MS 603, p. 120

5 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 140.

Related information: State Papers III. 169.

Secundo die Januarii, 31 Hen. VIII. A note of the peaces made in the time of the Lord Leonard, the King's Deputy.
(1.) An indenture between Grey and Thade O'Byrne, chief captain of his nation, who was to pay to the King or his Deputy 120 martes; to go with the King's Deputy to every main hosting with his power; and to find 120 galloglasses for six weeks every quarter, or for a quarter, if need require.
(2.) Indenture between the Lord Deputy and Cahir McIncrosse Cavenagh, otherwise called McMurgho, who was to pay yearly the tributes and sums of money with "refections and sustentions" of all the galloglasses, as his ancestors had done; and to go with the Deputy to every hosting with 12 horsemen and 30 kerne.
(3.) Indenture between the Lord Deputy and Remonde Savage, chief captain of his nation, who was to give to the Lord Deputy one hundred fat kine, and a good horse or 15 marks; and to go with as many men as possible to every main hosting.
(4.) Indenture between the Lord Deputy and Fergananym Rowe O'Birne, who was to pay 4d. Irish yearly for every horse, mare, "garrane," cow, ox, and bull in the towns of Ballyhorsy, Cowlyth, Dwly, Drommore, and Kilparke; and to go to every great hosting.
(5.) Indenture between the Lord Deputy and Cahir McMurgho, chief captain of his nation, to whom the Lord Deputy gave the constableship of the castle or lordship of Fernes, paying the first year 80 marks Irish.
(6.) Indenture between the Lord Deputy and Cahir O'Mulloy, chief captain of his nation and country of Fercallagh, who covenanted to pay all rents and revenues due and accustomed in the said country, and to wait on the Deputy at any time with 6 horsemen and 40 kerne during one day and one night.
(7.) Indenture between the King and Edmond McHe McEdmond O'Rayly, chief captain of Clonkeyll, who was to pay 20d. yearly out of "every ploughland of sixteen ploughland[s]" in the said country.
(8.) Indenture between the King and Conoghour O'Brene O'Towynegrene, captain of his nation, who was to pay yearly 12d. out of every "carue" of land, and find 40 galloglas for a month.
(9.) Indenture between the King and Conohour O'Dowir [of] Kilnemanagh, captain of his nation, who made like covenants, and was to find 40 galloglas yearly during a month.
(10.) Indenture between the King and Gillernowe O'Maghir, captain of his nation, with like covenant.
(11.) Indenture between the King and Hugh Bourghe, captain of the Bourgeis country, to pay yearly 40l. sterling, and hereafter, when a captain shall be named, to pay 100 marks; also to find yearly during six weeks 80 galloglas.
(12.) Indenture between the King and Dermot O'Mulryan, captain of the country of Oney, to pay yearly 40s. sterling, and to find yearly during a month 60 galloglas.
(13.) Indenture between the King and Thomas McYoris, otherwise Bermyncham, to pay yearly 12d. Irish out of every "carue" of land, and to find 80 galloglas every year for a fortnight.
(14.) Indenture between the King and Hugh O'Flarte, captain of his country, to pay yearly 5l. sterling.
(15.) Indenture between the King and Maurice O'Breyne, captain of the country of Ara, to pay yearly 6d. Irish out of every "carue" of land, and to find yearly during a month 60 galloglas.
(16.) Indenture between the King and Malaghlen O'Madyn, captain of his country, to pay yearly 12d. Irish out of every ploughland, and to find yearly during a fortnight 80 galloglas.
(17.) Indenture between the King and Hugh O'Maden, captain of his country, to pay yearly 8d. sterling out of every "carue" of land, and to find during a fortnight 80 galloglas.
(18.) Indenture between the King and Tybbot Burgh, to pay yearly 8l. sterling, and to find 120 galloglas for six weeks.
(19.) Indenture between the King and Arte O'Mullaghlen, captain of his country, to pay 4l. Irish yearly.
(20.) Indenture between the Lord Deputy and Pheylym Roo O'Neyle, to go to every main hosting, with as great power as possible.
(21.) A peace between the Lord Deputy and Conne O'Neyle, captain of his nation: to rise with the Deputy to every hosting.
(22.) A peace between the Lord Deputy and Rosse McGoegan, chief captain of his nation and country of Kynnaliagh: to serve for a day and a night with 4 horsemen and 24 footmen at any time, and to serve in every great hosting or journey with 4 horsemen and 12 footmen.
(23.) A peace between the King and Fergnanym O'Karrell, chief captain of the country of Hely O'Karrell: to pay yearly out of every "carue" of land and "for the nomination of O'Karrell" 120 fat "mertes;" to send to every great hosting 12 horsemen and 24 kerne; and to find for a quarter of every year 80 galloglas.
(24.) A peace between the Lord Deputy and the King's Council and Bernard O'Conohour, chief captain of his nation; to send to every great hosting a banner of horsemen and a banner of footmen.
(25.) A peace between the King and Tyrrelagh Rowe O'Chonour, Lord of Clonynyll: to pay yearly to the King or his Sub-treasurer 8l., and to find 80 galloglas for a month.
(26.) A peace between the King and Dermot O'Kenedy: to find yearly during a month 80 galloglas.
(27.) A peace between the Lord Deputy and Hugh Ra McMahon, captain of his nation and country of Ferney.
In a contemporary hand. Endorsed.

OWEN MCMAURICE O'CHONOUR.  MS 603, p. 105  30 Aug 1540

Former reference: MS 603, p. 105

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 147.

Related information: State Papers III 236.

Indenture, 30 August, 32 Hen. VIII., between Sir Anthony Saint Leger, Deputy; John Alen, Chancellor; Sir William Brereton, Marshal; William Brabazon, Under-Treasurer; John Travers, Master or Keeper of the Artillery; and other councillors of the King, of the one part: and Owen McMaurice O'Chonour, captain of Yrey, of the other part.
(1.) The said Owen will be faithful and obedient to the King and his Deputy; and he will acknowledge the King, and not O'Chonour or any other person, to be his Supreme Lord.
(2.) He will restore to all the inhabitants of the King's lands of Morret, all that which, in the name of the expenses of Scots, O'Chonour imposed on them, and henceforth will exact no rent or tribute from that dominion.
(3.) For all damages by him done to the King or his subjects, he will make compensation according to the arbitration of indifferent persons; and if they should not agree, he will stand to the final arbitration of the Lord Deputy.
(4.) He will serve in his own person with eight footmen and his [Or their? "Suis servien'" in MS.] servants well armed in every hosting, with victuals, under the penalty of 6s. 8d. for each foot soldier deficient; and in every other journey and sudden progress he will serve the King with all his horsemen and footmen, victualled for two or three nights.
(5.) The Lord Deputy and Council will not burthen his dominion with any other men of war than those above expressed, otherwise than they will burthen the King's subjects in the marches of Kildare.
(6.) He has delivered to the Lord Deputy his son Charles; and having given other sufficient hostages to be approved of by the King's Deputy and Council, as often as he (the King) shall choose he will give other hostage or hostages in place of them.
(7.) He will not only make plain, open, and spacious roads through his dominion, so that the subjects of the King may securely pass through, but will also permit the Lord Deputy to fell and destroy woods and forests for his passage, without interruption of the peace.
Contemp. copy.

THADEUS O'DYN.  MS 603, p. 108  30 Aug 1540

Former reference: MS 603, p. 108

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 148.

Indenture, 30 August 1540, 32 Hen. VIII., between Sir Anthony Saint Leger, Deputy; John Alen, Chancellor; Sir William Brereton, Marshal-at-Arms; William Brabazon, Under-Treasurer of Ireland; and John Travers, Master or Keeper of the Artillery, of the one part: and Thadeus O'Dyn, captain of Oregan; Thadeus Fuscus O'Dyn, son of the said Thadeus; and others of his following, of the other part.
(1.) The latter will be faithful to the King and his Deputy, and acknowledge the King, and not O'Chonor or any other person, to be their Sovereign Lord.
(2.) For all damages and injuries by them done to the King and his subjects, they will make compensation according to the arbitration of the Lord Deputy and the Earl of Ormond.
(3.) They will serve the King at the command of the Lord Deputy in their own persons, with 24 footmen, well armed and victualled, in every hosting, under a penalty of 6s. 8d. for each footman deficient; and in every other voyage or sudden progress, with their full number of horsemen and footmen, for two or three nights.
(4.) The Lord Deputy and Council promise that they will not burthen the dominions of the said Thadeus and Thadeus Fuscus with any other men of war than those above expressed, otherwise than they will burthen the subjects of the King in the marches of Kildare.
(5.) They and their successors, and all possessors of the dominion of Castelbreke, otherwise called Toghesuier, will pay every year to the King a rent of six good and plump kine; and they will pay the arrears of the same rent for three years ending next Michaelmas.
(6.) They have delivered to the Lord Deputy Edmund, son of the said Captain O'Dyn, and Thadeus, son of Thadeus Fuscus; and having given other sufficient hostages to the said Deputy and Council of the King to be approved of, they will, as often as he shall choose, give other hostages in place of them, or other sufficient sureties.
(7.) They will not only make plain, open, and spacious roads through their dominions, so that the King's subjects may freely and safely pass through them, but also permit the Lord Deputy to fell and destroy woods and forests for his passage, without interruption of the peace.
Contemp. copy.

EARL OF DESMOND.  MS 603, p. 55  16 Jan 1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 55

5 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 153.

Edmund, Archbishop of Cashell, and John, Bishop of Limerick, to all faithful Christians, &c. On the 16th January 1540 James, son of Sir John of Desmond, deceased, now Earl of Desmond, submitted himself to the King and swore fealty before Sir Anthony Sentleger, Deputy, John Alen, Chancellor, and others of the Council, according to the tenor of the words following:--
Be it known to all men that I, James FitzJohn of Desmond, son and heir to Sir John of Desmond, deceased, now admitted to be Earl of Desmond by King Henry VIII., submit myself to the King.
(1.) I recognize his Majesty to be my Sovereign, and will never confederate with his enemies or rebels.
(2.) I utterly forsake the Bishop of Rome and his usurped primacy
(3.) As the King has pardoned all my offences, I renounce the privilege which my ancestors Earls of Desmond "have ever claimed since the beheading of my grandfather in Drogheda, coming to a parliament there holden," and which exempted them from appearing in Parliaments and grand Councils, and from entering walled towns under the King's obedience.
(4.) I will assist and maintain the King's judges and other officers and ministers to execute his laws and to levy his revenues.
(5.) If it shall be the King's pleasure that I may have the lease of Crom and Adare, and other lands of the late Earl of Kildare in the county of Limerick, I will pay to the King's officers the rents or profits of the same, or else I will suffer the King's officers to let as well the same as all other the King's lands and profits in Munster in farm to others.
(6.) I will suffer to be levied such taxes and benevolences as shall be granted by Parliament or otherwise, and levied within the rules of the Earl of Ormond and Ossory, the Baron of Delwyn, or any other nobleman within this land.
(7.) I promise to defend and maintain the King's cities of Limerick and Cork, and the towns of Youghill, Kinsale, Killmahalocke, and other incorporate towns in those parts, "and shall support, defend, and maintain all merchantmen and others the King's subjects safely to pass and repass everywhere under my rule, having the inhabitants of the said cities and towns to aid and assist me for that purpose, when I shall not be of power to do the same without their helps and aids.
(8.) I promise "that all the English lords and gentlemen of the counties of Cork, Limerick, Kerry, and Desmond shall be upon the King's peace, and at the order of his Grace and his Deputy; and if any of them refuse the same, I will persecute them, saving that such of my name of the Geralldines and others as holden their lands of me and my antecessors shall be at my own leading and order; and yet, nevertheless, if any of them disobey the order of the King and his Deputy, I shall not only refuse him, but also persecute such disobeyer with violence.
(9.) I solemnly vow to observe the premises, and promise to deliver my son Gerald to you, Sir Anthony Sentleger, to be sent to the King, "to be brought up and instructed after an English sort;" and in testimony of the premises I have subscribed this submission with my own hand and put thereto my seal, at Cahir, 16th Jan. 1540, 32 Hen. VIII.; requiring you the Archbishop of Cashell, my metropolitan, and you the Bishops of Limerick and Imoly, and the notaries here present, to make a public instrument of the same.
After the Earl, according to the tenor of such words, had solemnly taken oath on the holy gospels, he earnestly entreated us, the said Archbishop, Bishop, and notaries, to compose one or more instruments for the perpetual remembrance of the event. Therefore we Edmund, Archbishop of Cashell, and John, Bishop of Limerick, notify the premises to you, and affix our seals the day and year above written, at Cahir Duneske upon the Suire. Present: The Lord Deputy and Chancellor; James Earl of Ormond and Ossory, Great Treasurer of Ireland; William Cavendishe, one of the King's Commissioners sent from England; Gerald Ailmer, Chief Justice; Ulicke alias Ulixes de Burgh, captain of Connaught; Bernard O'Chonnour, principal of his nation; Gerald FitzJohn of Drommannaghe, and Thomas Butler of Cahir, knights; Eneas O'Hernan, "Præceptori de Ania," Dean of Cloyne; Patrick Gowle, of Kilmahalocke, secretary of the said Earl; and Thomas O'Nacke, of Youghill; with divers other witnesses.
Attested by John Goldsmithe, of the diocese of London, LL.B., and by Dermitius Rian, L.L.B., notaries public.
Contemp. copy. First and last paragraphs in Latin.

EARL OF DESMOND  MS 603, p. 124  1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 124

4 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 153.

Another contemp. copy of MS 603, p. 55.

THE MAGUNESSES.  MS 603, p. 43a  24 May 1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 43a

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 154.

Indenture, 24 May, 33 Henry VIII., concerning the dissension between Donald Juvenis Magunesse, who pretends to be Lord or Superior of the country of Yviaghe or Magunesse, as well by the consent of the best of that country as by the confirmation of Lord Leonard Grey, late Deputy; and Arthur, son of Phelim Magunesse, who pretends that he ought to be Superior of the said country. They have voluntarily submitted to our arbitrament, and having heard the witnesses and proofs on both sides, we determine and adjudge in manner following:--
(1.) Donald Juvenis shall remain in his dignity and superiority of captain of the whole country; and the said Arthur, in recompence of the right which he pretends, shall be exempt from the jurisdiction of Donald through all his lands, that is to say on the otherside (ex altera parte) of the river Banne, unless when any exaction shall be imposed there by the Deputy.
(2.) If Donald should die before Arthur, the latter shall then succeed to the whole dominion of the said country.
(3.) The Prior of Down and Glasney, brother of the said Donald, shall designate the bounds of the lands which shall remain under Arthur's power, exempt from Donald's jurisdiction; and if they disagree, then it shall stand to the final judgment of Sir Patrick Garnon and Arthur, son of Prior Magunesse.
(4.) They shall both be under the dominion of the King and his Deputy, and adhere to no Irish, nor render assistance to or retain Scots; neither will they admit the authority of the Roman Pontiff, but repel all persons obtaining benefices by his authority.
(5.) They have placed themselves in the hands of the Lord Deputy as hostages, to remain until they deliver such hostages to the Lord Deputy as he shall choose. In witness whereof we, Sir Anthony Sentleger, Deputy; John Alen, Chancellor; Thomas Walshe, Baron of the Exchequer in England, John Mynne and William Cavendishe, the King's Commissioners in Ireland; Gerald Aylmer, Chief Justice of the King's Bench; and Robert Cowley Master of the Rolls, have affixed our seals.
Contemp. copy.

THE MAGUNESSES  MS 603, p. 98  1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 98

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 154.

Another contemp. copy of MS 603, p. 43a.

THE O'KARRELLS.  MS 603, p. 97  2 July 1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 97

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 155.

Indenture, 2nd July, 33 Hen. VIII., respecting a great dissension and contention which has lately arisen, touching the rule and superiority of Ely O'Karrell, now vacant by the death of Fergananym O'Karrell, lately captain of Ely, between John, son of William O'Karrell; Charles, otherwise Calogh O'Karrell; and Thadeus O'Carrell, son of Fergananym O'Karrell, deceased; who appeared before us, the Lord Deputy and Council, in the great Parliament held at Dublin, and voluntarily submitted themselves to our arbitration.
(1.) We adjudge that the said John, by virtue of his seniority, according to the laws of the Irish, has the first right to the said rule; but because we find him incompetent to protect and rule the country, we ordain that he shall have every year 40 cows of the rent formerly accustomed to be paid to Captain O'Karrell in Ely, and that he shall hold his lands called Corclevan free and exempt from exaction of all others of his nation, and shall so remain content as to his right for ever; and after his death the said 40 cows shall be equally divided between the said Charles and Thadeus.
(2.) That Thadeus McFir O'Carrell, at the request of the Earl of Desmond, shall have, by reason of his seniority, (although he is unfit for the said rule, "tempusque suum ad id prætermisit,") 20 cows of the rent aforesaid; and after his death the said 20 cows shall go equally to the said Charles and Thadeus.
(3.) That the said Charles shall have every year 60 cows of the rent of the said O'Karrell, and the dominion and rule of half of the country of Ely, free and exempt from all superiority and exaction of all others of the aforesaid nation.
(4.) The said Thadeus shall have every year other 60 cows, the remainder of the said rent, together with the dominion and rule of the other moiety of the said country of Ely, free and exempt from all others of his nation; saving however to the King the rents and rights due to him in the country of Ely aforesaid.
(5.) Margaret Inybrene, lately wife of the said Fergananym O'Karrell, shall have, for herself, her sons and daughters, all the goods which belonged to her late husband, and the profits of all his lands till the feast of St. Philip and St. James next, according to the custom of the country.
(6.) If any disagreement arise as to the partition of the moieties of the said lands between the said Charles and Thadeus, it shall be remitted to the judgment of certain friends to be chosen by each party; and if they should disagree, then it shall stand to the final judgment of Cosney McEgan, and of two tribunes, namely Rory O'Dulphan (?). [Et duorum tribunorum nominat' Rorici O'Dulphan."]
(7.) Shane O'Mulmoy, who treacherously procured the death of the said Fergananym, shall not be favoured or harboured by any person aforesaid in his domains or lands.
(8.) If the said John, son of William O'Karrell, Charles O'Karrell, and Thadeus O'Karrell shall refuse to stand to this order, or return without the licence of the Deputy before they have given a hostage or hostages, they shall not only lose their right to all that they possess, but shall also forfeit 200 cows to the Lord Deputy, 100 to the Earl of Desmond, and 100 to the Earl of Ormond.
(9.) The Deputy and the said Earls shall be intercessors or sureties, commonly called "slanti," for the observance of the premises.
(10.) If one of the said parties should procure the death of another of them, he shall forfeit to the sons of the deceased all his right and possessions.
(11.) The Lord McWilliam and the Lord Occhonour, being present, have become intercessors, that is to say, "slanti," for the fulfilment of this arbitration.
(12.) The King shall enjoy a moiety of the lands of him who shall procure the death of any of them.
Dated at Dublin, the day, month, and year above written.
Contemp. copy.

REFORMATION OF IRELAND.  MS 603, p. 28  12 July 1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 28

6 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 157.

Certain Ordinances and Provisions, in addition to divers others, made in the Great Parliament holden at Dublin, 12th July, 33 Hen. VIII., for the reformation of the inhabitants of this kingdom in the parts of Munster, who are not as yet so acquainted with laws as to be able to live and be governed according to them.
(1.) The King shall in future be reputed and acknowledged to be King of Ireland, as in truth he always was.
(2.) All archbishops, bishops, and other pastors of this kingdom shall exercise their ordinary jurisdiction in their several provinces and dioceses.
(3.) A layman or other person under age shall not henceforth be admitted to any ecclesiastical benefice.
(4.) The principal and ancient manors of the bishops, which they have been accustomed to reside in, or to occupy in their own culture by themselves or by their bailiffs, and the houses of rectors and vicars which do not exceed in annual value 10 marks sterling, shall be free and exempt from all oppressions, impositions, and burdens called coyne and livery.
(5.) Every clerk having a dignity in a cathedral church or curate benefice within a year shall cause himself to be promoted to priestly orders, and shall thenceforth personally and continually reside in his church, unless he shall be lawfully impeded or licensed. [Otherwise] he shall be deprived of his benefice or dignity.
(6.) The peace of the King shall be publicly proclaimed in all Munster; and if any person shall commit any spoil, robbery, homicide, or invasion, he shall render double of the offence to him against whom such misdeed shall be committed, and forfeit to the King 40l., to be distributed thus: 20l. to the King, 20 marks to the principal lord and governor there, and 10 marks to the inferior lord or captain of the country where the misdeed is perpetrated.
(7.) Every person committing any robbery beyond the value of 14d., for the first offence shall lose one of his ears, for the second the other ear, and the third time shall suffer death.
(8.) No horseman (equester) shall keep more than one servant or groom for each horse, under penalty of 20s., of which 13s. 4d. shall go to the principal captain, and 6s. 8d. to the inferior captain.
(9.) No gentleman or any other shall retain horsemen or footmen called kerne (turbarii), unless their lord is willing to be bound for their honesty and fidelity. Their lord to set down all his servants in writing, and deliver a copy of their names before next Easter to the principal captain of the country, who is to deliver to the Lord Deputy as well that as another list of his [own?] men.
(10.) Every footman called a kerne (turbarius) found in any country without a lord being bound for him as aforesaid, shall be reputed as a vagabond and suspected person, and taken into safe custody until he shall find a sufficient lord.
(11.) Every gentleman having lands and free tenants shall answer to the King for himself and his followers, as well to observe the King's peace, as to be prepared to answer to the King and his Deputy as often as they shall be called upon.
(12.) Every horseman and kerne ought to live at the expense of his lord, or in his own house at his own expense, nothing exacting or receiving in victuals from the tenants of others or from his own for himself or his house, under penalty of 6s. 8d., to be paid to the lord of the country where he offended, and payment of double the value of the thing taken to the tenant or inhabitant from whom he shall exact anything.
(13.) No lord, captain, or gentleman shall exact any impositions called coyne and livery from the tenants of others, unless at such time as the Lord Deputy and Council shall determine upon great journeys called "hostinges," or appoint victuals to be collected for the King's wars or other affairs, under penalty of paying double what he receives.
(14.) Proviso nevertheless that the principal governor [or] captain of each country shall have the general expenses of the country for the security of his person and the peace of the same country.
(15.) Robbery under the value of 14d. shall be punished in the court[s] of those lords who have the power of holding court[s]; and if any person steal a sheep, goat, or any like thing under the same value, he shall forfeit five marks; that is to say, to the principal captain three marks; to the second captain 20s., unless he be a participator in the crime; and 6s. 8d. to the informer. Any person who harbours such a delinquent shall incur a similar penalty.
(16.) No person shall buy anything to the value of 5s. of any person who appears to be a thief; or else the buyer shall forfeit 5 marks, and restore the property to the owner.
(17.) Spoilers on the high ways and all ravishers of women shall suffer death without redemption.
(18.) Parents shall be responsible for invasions and robberies committed by their children, and elder brothers for younger ones under their government, and for such offences shall forfeit the sums above specified.
(19.) No lord, nobleman, horseman, or tribune shall presume to levy or extort portions of tithes (garbas de decimis); and no lord shall usurp any vacant benefices without collation, admission of the ordinary, and canonical institution, under pain of excommunication.
(20.) All faithful people shall pay to their parish churches all tithes, as well greater as smaller, mixed and minute, and also of pasture, felled wood, fuel, and of the sheaves (garbarum) which in autumn they give in reward to their reapers. Foreign fishermen shall pay the moiety of the tithes of fish by them taken in the places and parishes where they resort in the fishing season under ecclesiastical penalties.
(21.) No lord or nobleman shall have in his shirt beyond 20 cubits of linen cloth; no vassal or horseman more than 18 cubits; no kerne (turbarius) or Scot more than 16 cubits; grooms, messengers, or other servants of lords 12 cubits; husbandmen and labourers 10 cubits. None of the aforesaid shall use saffron (croceis) shirts, on pain of forfeiting such shirts and 20s.
(22.) No messengers, players (histriones) or other seekers of rewards in the solemnities of Christmas or Easter or at any other time shall be allowed, nor any reward be given them, under penalty of the loss of one ear.
(23.) Whenever any theft, rapine, or robbery shall be committed in any of the countries aforesaid, and the party injured shall pursue the stolen property into the dominion of any person, then the lord of that dominion shall satisfy the injured person for the goods stolen, unless it be proved that the property has gone out of that dominion; and every such lord shall forfeit to the King five marks, to the principal lord under the King, 40s., and to the inferior lord or governor of the country, 26s. 8d.
(24.) The King's Treasurer, viz., the Earl of Ormond, in cos. Waterford, Kilkenny, and Tipperary, and the Earl of Desmond in the other counties of Munster, are appointed the chief executors of the present ordinances, with the assistance of the Archbishop of Cashel; and under them all the bishops and captains or governors of countries. They are to levy the penalties above specified, and to retain a third part for themselves, the remainder belonging to the King.
Signed at the beginning: Antony Sentleger; at the end: James Ormd. and Oss.; Georgius Dublin.; Edwarde Miden.; John Travers; Thomas Cusake, Mr. Rotulorum.

[no title]  MS 603, p. 23a  12 July 1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 23a

5 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 157.

Contemp. copy of similar articles of the same date for the reformation of Thomond and Connaught. They agree with the above as far as Article 23. Article 24 appoints Cormac Fitz Donald in his country of O'Sullevan and other governors to be chief executors of these ordinances. A third part of the penalties to belong to them.

HENRY VIII. KING of IRELAND.  MS 603, p. 99  1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 99

1 Page.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 158.

A Proclamation when the King was declared King of Ireland. [Act 33 H. VIII. c. 1.]
Honorable Assembly! Ye shall understand that the triumph shewed here this day is done principally to give thanks to God of his great benefits shewed to our most noble and victorious King Henry the Eighth, and to declare our own gladness and joy that his Majesty is now, as he hath always of right been, acknowledged by the Nobility and Commons of this his realm of Ireland to be King of the same, and he and his heirs to be named, reputed, and taken for evermore Kings of Ireland." It is agreed by the Deputy, the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and the Commons assembled in this Parliament that all prisoners of what estate, degree, and condition they be, "detained for murder, felony, or other offence which the said Lord Deputy may pardon, (treason, wilful murder, rape, and debt only excepted,)" shall be liberated, and have their pardons frank and free. "And God save the King's Majesty, King Henry the Eighth, King of England, Ireland, and France, Defender of the Faith, and in earth Supreme Head of the Church of England and Ireland!
Contemp. copy.

SUBMISSION of O'DONELL.  MS 603, p. 36  6 Aug 1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 36

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 159.

Indenture made 6 August, 33 Henry VIII., between Sir Anthony Sentleger, Deputy, and the Council, and the Lord O'Donell. O'Donell promised to perform the following articles:
(1.) He will recognize and accept the King as his liege Lord and King.
(2.) He will not confederate with the rebels of the King, but persecute them to the utmost of his power.
(3.) He will renounce the usurped primacy and authority of the Roman Pontiff.
(4.) Whenever he shall be called upon by letters of the Lord Deputy and Council, to come to any great hosting, he will come in his own person, with 70 horsemen, 120 kerne (turbarii) and as many Scots, or send one of his most powerful men with the same number, for one month at his own expense.
(5.) He will appear in the next great Parliament in Ireland, or send to the same some discreet and trusty person authorized by his writing, sealed with his seal.
(6.) He will faithfully perform the articles contained in the King's letters sent to him at the time of his receiving pardon.
(7.) He will receive and hold his lands from the King, and take such title as the King shall give him.
(8.) He offers to send one of his sons into England, to the presence of his Majesty, to be there reared and educated according to English manners.
(9.) The Lord Deputy and Council promise to assist and defend O'Donell and his heirs against all who injure him or invade his country.
At the Cavan, the day and year aforesaid.
Contemp. copy.

SUBMISSION of O'DONELL  MS 603, p. 103  1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 103

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 159.

Another contemp. copy of MS 603, p. 36.

BERNARD MCMAHON.  MS 603, p. 45a  14 Aug 1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 45a

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 160.

Indenture, 14 August 33 Henry VIII.--Bernard McMahon, otherwise called Brian O'Maghery, appearing before the Lord Deputy and Council at Kilmaynam, submitted himself to the King.
(1.) He will be faithful to the King, and will acknowledge his Majesty to be King of Ireland.
(2.) He will renounce the Roman Pontiff's usurped primacy.
(3.) He will not adhere to the King's rebels.
(4.) In every general journey called hostings he will rise up with the Lord Deputy with 16 horsemen and 32 footmen victualled for three weeks, to serve in Ulster. If the hosting be in other parts, he will bring 8 horsemen and 16 footmen. If unable to come personally, he shall send a sufficient captain. On every sudden hosting or invasion for one, two, or three days and nights, he will rise up with the Deputy with all his power.
(5.) If he or any of his followers receive or conceal any goods or chattels of the Lord Conatius O'Neyle, captain of his nation, or of any of his followers, at [any] time when he shall rise up against the King, it shall be lawful for the Deputy to seize and retain not only such chattels, but also all the chattels belonging to Bernard.
(6.) He shall receive all his lands from the King, and pay the rents and services due.
(7.) For observance of premises he has delivered his son Arthur Mahon, as hostage.
Contemp. copy.

BERNARD MCMAHON  MS 603, p. 106  1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 106

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 160.

Another contemp. copy of MS 603, p. 45a

BERNARD O'CHONOR.  MS 603, p. 110  16 Aug 1541

Former reference: MS 603, p. 110

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 161.

Related information: State Papers III., 316.

Indenture, 16 August 33 Henry VIII.--Great dissension having arisen between Bernard Occhonor, chief of his nation, and Charles O'Chonor, gentleman, his brother, they appeared before the Lord Deputy and Council, and have covenanted that, in all controversies between them or their kinsmen, servants, or followers, they will stand to the arbitration of Sir William Bermingiam, Baron of Carbry; David Sutton, of Connall, in the county of Kildare, gentleman; James FitzGeralde, of Osbardeston, in the said county, gentleman, and Richard McKenegan, arbitrator[s] of the said Lord O'Chonour; and if they should disagree in anything, the matter shall stand to the final judgment and determination of the Lord Deputy, and the said four. If either of them should compass and procure the death of the other, the criminal shall lose for ever all his goods, chattels, and dominions, one moiety of all of which shall go to the King, and the other moiety to the heirs of the person slain.
Contemp. copy.

O'BRIEN.  MS 603, p. 23  18 March 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 23

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 162.

Indenture, 18th March, -- [Year omitted by mistake. The King is entitled "Supreme Head" and King of Ireland.] Hen. VIII., between Sir Anthony Sentleger, the King's Deputy, and the Council, and Terence Mac O'Bryen, captain of Sonaughe. The said Terence, and all his heirs and successors who shall be captains of the said country, shall pay to the King and his successors 5l. sterling annually, half at Easter and half at Michaelmas. As often as any great journey called "hostings" shall be made, they shall give victuals to the Scots, as is the custom in the parts of Kildare and Kilkenny. Whenever the Lord Deputy shall come near the borders of his country, he will repair to the Lord Deputy with all his horsemen, kerne, and other forces of his country, with victuals for three days at their (sic) own costs.
Contemp. copy.

RORY O'MORE.  MS 603, p. 106a  13 May 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 106a

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 163.

Indenture, 13 May 34 Hen. VIII.--Rory O'More of Lex, brother, as he asserts, to Kedan O'More, lately deceased, now admitted to the captainship of the same country by the consent and election of all the noblemen and inhabitants of the country, appeared before us (the Deputy?) and the Council, and submitted himself to the King.
(1). He promises that he will be a faithful and liege subject, and he and the other gentlemen of his country will receive their lands from his Highness.
(2.) He will reject the Roman Pontiff's usurped primacy.
(3.) He will deliver Kedan McPiers McMalaghlen to the Lord Deputy, for the observance of his agreements and promises, and for the restitution of all damages done to the subjects of the King, during the time of Kedan O'More's government.
(4.) He will have 72 kerne (turbarii)--horseboys (garcii) being computed in that number--for the rule of the said country; and no other kerne are to be kept there.
(5.) He will rise up with the Lord Deputy in every great journey called hostings. For any sudden journey of two days and nights he will find 24 horsemen and all his aforesaid kerne; and in every great hosting 8 horsemen and 20 kerne.
(6.) Donnamase with the demesne lands, Tynnooge, and other lands of the late Earl of Kildare in Lex shall be restored to the King. The demesnes of Donnamase shall be surveyed and their extent declared by indifferent men, and the lands and rents of the said Earl of Kildare by Thomas Wolf, senior; and both those lands and the possessions of Grayne, of the monasteries of Saint Mary of Dublin, Connall, and other religious houses, with the lands of Kylberry, are at the disposition of the tenants and farmers of the King.
(7.) When the Lord Deputy requires any Scots, to be imposed upon the counties of Kildare, Kilkenny, or Tipperary, then Lex shall support 60 Scots, and shall be exempt from all subsidies for that year.
(8.) The King shall have 20 marks every year as a subsidy.
(9.) The Lord Deputy and Council shall have 100 cows for his nomination and admission to the captaincy of the aforesaid country.
(10.) He shall have the goods of his brother Kedan by paying Kedan's debts, and the profit and produce of all his possessions (saving [his brother's?] wife's portion) until he be recompensed for the debts which he shall pay beyond the said goods.
(11.) He has placed his said hostage in the hands of Thomas Eustace, Viscount Baltinglas, to remain there as long as it shall please the Lord Deputy.
The Council approve the premises, if the King shall ratify the same; otherwise not.
II. Memorandum, that on the 10th November, 34 Henry VIII., at Dublin, in the great Council, a question was moved between Rory O'More, captain of Lex, and Robert Sentleger, esquire, sub-constable of the King's castle and manor of Catherlagh, touching the dominion of Slewmargie. It was decided, with the assent of the same Rory, that the captain of Lex should have his accustomed dominion there, and the constable of Catherlagh such rents and expenses in Slewmargie as the Earl of Kildare used to have there, and those which were afterwards enjoyed by the Earl of Ormond, while he held the castle and manor aforesaid from the King. In consideration thereof the constable will defend the inhabitants of Slewmargie with all his power.
Contemp. copy.

SUBMISSION OF MAGUILLE.  MS 603, p. 41  18 May 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 41

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 164.

(1.) I acknowledge and accept the King to be my Sovereign Lord and King.
(2.) I will annihilate and relinquish the usurped authority of the Bishop of Rome.
(3.) "For all such exactions and customs as have been by me and my sequel taken upon the river of the Banne upon any of the King's subjects, I promise to signify to his Majesty the cause and considerations thereof, and therein to stand to his Majesty's order.
(4.) I humbly require his Majesty's pardon, and to be taken as an Englishman.
(5.) I promise that no provisor of the Bishop of Rome shall be maintained in my jurisdiction.
(6.) That the King shall have the first fruits of all spiritual promotions within my country and rule.
(7.) That for all the King's lands under my rule I will pay yearly rent.
(8.) I promise to bear to the King yearly three "chief horses," to be delivered to his Deputy at Michaelmas.
(9.) "To give rising out to the King's Deputy, whensoever he shall come for any war in the north parts for two days, with all my power of horsemen, kerne, and galloglasse, and to every general hosting there 24 horsemen and 40 footmen, at my costs and charges.
(10.) To put in, as my pledge for performance of my duty of allegiance, my brother's son called Jeneken, to be delivered to Mr. Travers' servant now at the Banne. In witness whereof the Lord Deputy and Council, and the said Maguyllen, have set their hands to the same. 18th May 34 Henry VIII.
Contemp. copy.

SUBMISSION OF MCDONELL.  MS 603, p. 41a  18 May 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 41a

1 Page.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 165.

Related information: Printed in "State Papers," III. 383, from the original in the Record Office.

(1.) I acknowledge the King to be my Sovereign Lord.
(2.) I renounce the Bishop of Rome's authority.
(3.) I humbly beseech the King to assign to me and my followers his lands called the Grene Castle and the Mourne, now lying waste, for which I bind myself and my followers to serve his Majesty, whenever he shall have need in Ulster, with 120 spears well harnessed, and in any other place in this realm with 80 spears well harnessed for 14 days or three weeks.
(4.) "I humbly desire his Majesty, in case any such need shall be, that no ["mo" in "State Papers;" i.e. more.] galloglasse shall be hired, that such galloglas as I shall bring above the said number may be hired afore other strangers.
(5.) I have put in my pledge called Raynold McDonell into the hands of the Lord Deputy for performance of the premises, and have taken oath henceforth to be a faithful subject, in presence of the Lord Deputy and Council, whose hands are subscribed; and in further witness I have to the one part of this submission set to my hand and seal, 18th May 34 Henry VIII.
Contemp. copy.

O'NEYLE and PHELIM ROO.  MS 603, p. 42a  18 May 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 42a

2 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 166.

Orders taken by the Lord Deputy and Council between O'Neyle and Phelim Roo.
(1.) As to the first article it is ordained that McDonell shall put in his pledge, and "shall remain in place indifferent appointed by the said Lord Deputy and Council, and neither be with Felim Roo, Hugh O'Neyle, or any other man against O'Neyle, until further order be taken.
(2.) As concerning the article for the prey made upon O'Neyle by his son Bryan, it is ordered that as the said prey was brought into Felym Roo's country and there consumed, Felym shall make "restitution of so much of the said prey as can be tried by four indifferent persons" chosen by O'Neyle and Felym, that is to say the Lord of Lowthe, Sir John Plunckett, Sir George Dowdall, late Prior of Ardy, and Sir James Gernon.
(3.) The article for the prey made upon Patrick Oge, as O'Neyle alleges, by Felym Roo, who denies the same, is remitted to the four persons aforesaid.
(4.) O'Neyle is contented to forgive Felym all the hurts and damages perpetrated by Felym against him before the day of O'Neyle's last submission; and in case Felym restore such hurts and damages, and make such end with him as shall be awarded by the said four persons, for such things as O'Neyle, in a schedule hereto annexed, lays to Felym's charge, committed since the said last submission, O'Neyle has promised to give to Felym "all such lands as his father had at the time when he was made O'Neyle, paying only but such lordship as hath been used to be paid to the chief ruler and captain of the country, as long as the said O'Neyle serveth the King's Majesty as appertaineth.
Dundalk, 18 May 34 Henry VIII.
Felym has forgiven O'Neyle all hurts and damages before O'Neyle's last submission.
Contemp. copy.

CONNACIUS O'NEILE, and others.  MS 603, p. 33  19 May 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 33

4 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 167.

Related information: State Papers III., 382.

Articles by which I, Connacius O'Neile, am bound.
(1.) I acknowledge his Majesty to be my Sovereign Lord and King, and swear to be a loyal subject to him and his heirs.
(2.) I entirely renounce obedience to the Roman Pontiff and his usurped authority, and recognize the King to be supreme head of the Church of England and Ireland under Christ, and I will compel all living under my rule to do the same. If any provisors shall obtain any faculties or bulls from the said usurped authority, I will compel them to surrender the same, and to submit themselves to the ordinance of the King; and if any having like bulls or provision should wish to surrender them, and receive them from the royal gift, I will humbly implore his Majesty to restore them to their former dignities.
(3.) I acknowledge that I have offended his Majesty, and pray for his pardon.
(4.) I humbly beseech him to accept me as his faithful subject, and that proclamation be made accordingly.
(5.) I offer to live under his laws as the Earl of Ormond and Desmond do, and I pray him to grant the name of Earl of Ulster to me and my heirs, paying ------ [Blank in orig.] to his Majesty for every ploughland annually, in the name of a subsidy; that all persons who live under my dominion may hold their lands in the same manner; and that the lands of all who refuse to do so may be granted to me and my heirs.
(6.) I submit to the King's order and judgment, and I humbly pray him to grant me my lands as is aforesaid, together with the conduct of the men whom his Majesty shall appoint to be under my leadership. I will frequent the great councils called Parliaments; nevertheless I pray that I may not be required, on account of the dangers and expense of the journey, to attend any Parliaments in western parts beyond the river Barrowe.
(8.) I promise that Felom Rufus O'Neile, Nelan Connelaghe, and Hugh O'Neile shall have all the lands which of right belong to them.
(9.) I entirely renounce the rents which I have been accustomed to levy of the King's subjects of Uriell and elsewhere, humbly imploring his Majesty to grant me a stipend or salary during my life.
(10.) I promise to serve the King or his Deputy in all great journeys commonly called hostings with horsemen, Scots and kerne (turbarii) at my own expense.
(11.) I promise that until the royal pleasure shall be ascertained, all those who were under the peace of his Majesty, according to the form of the indentures formerly made, shall remain in the same; and I entreat that all those who were under my peace may also remain in the same.
(12.) I promise that all and singular the woods and forests between my country and the borders of the English shall be cut down and cleared away.
(13.) I promise to rebuild all parish churches now ruined in my dominion.
Contemp. copy.
II. "The answer of O'Neyle to such things as were proponed by the Lord Deputy and Council unto him upon the tenor of the King's Majesty's letters for that purpose to them directed.
Whereas motion was made to O'Neyle that he should submit himself to the King's order and mercy, and take such name and lands and with such conditions as his Majesty should appoint; he answered that he would do so. Witness his hand and seal, 19th May 34 Henry VIII.
Contemp. copy.
III. A peace between the Lord Deputy and Conne O'Neyle, captain of his nation. He shall rise with the Deputy to every hosting with as large a number of men as possible at his own charges.
IV. Indenture between the King and Phelym Roo O'Neill, that he shall go with the Deputy to every main hosting with as great power as possible at his own costs.
V. A peace between the King and Hugh Roo McMahon, captain of his nation and country of Ferney. He shall find one "battell of galloglasse" for a whole quarter, "besides his rising out to hostings with 12 horsemen and 24 kerne.
Nos. III., IV., and V. are merely extracts, bearing no dates.

HUGH O'KELLY, ABBOT OF KNOCKEMOY.  MS 603, p. 109  24 May 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 109

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 168.

Indenture, 24 May 34 Henry VIII., between Sir Anthony Sentleger, Lord Deputy, and the Council, and Hugh O'Kelly, Abbot of Knockemoy, otherwise called "Collis Victorioe," Tuam diocese. The said Hugh, Abbot or perpetual commendatory of the said late monastery, appearing before the Lord Deputy and Council, submitted himself to the King and surrendered the said monastery with all its possessions. He recognizes his Majesty to be his supreme Lord and King, and promises to serve him against all men. He promises to renounce the Roman Pontiff, to assist the Lord Deputy, whenever he shall make an expedition into Connaught, with 80 horsemen, one band of Scots, and 60 kerne (turbarii); and elsewhere outside Connaught he will rise up, as often as he shall be called on, with 12 horsemen and 24 kerne. He will provide sufficient victuals for three months every year for 60 Scots, to be levied upon him and others of his sept and following in those parts, viz., Melaghlen O'Kelly, Callogh O'Kelly and William O'Kelly. In consideration of the premises he shall have the custody of the said monastery with all its appurtenances and with the rectory of Galway appropriated to the same, until the King's pleasure in that behalf shall be notified to the Lord Deputy and Council, paying to the King annually, in the said town of Galway, 5l. in money there current. He delivered his son Conor as a hostage to the Lord Deputy.
Contemp. copy.

THE O'NEILES.  MS 603, p. 71  21 June 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 71

9 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 169.

Arbitrament between O'Neyle, and Felom Roo O'Neyle and MacDonell.
Indenture made at Trym, 21 June 34 Hen. VIII.--Connatius O'Neile, chief of his nation, appeared before Sir Anthony Sentleger, Deputy, and others in the great Parliament there holden, and accused Felom O'Neile, called Felom Roo (Rufus), and his kinsmen, and Captain MacDonell of divers spoils, murders, and other misdeeds by them committed against him since he submitted to the King before the Deputy and Council at Portmore; and on the other hand the same Felom accused Lord O'Neile of similar wrongs; both parties submitting to the order of John Alen, Chancellor, Edmund, Bishop of Kilmore, Oliver Plunket, Baron of Louth (Ligudia), William Bermyngham, Baron of Carbery, Thomas Cusacke of Cosingeston, Master of the Rolls, John Travers, Master of the Ordnance, and George Dowdall, clk., late Prior of Ardee (de Atrio Dei); or, if these should disagree, to the order of the Lord Deputy.
(1.) As to the 120 cows stolen by Bernard, son of Lord O'Neile, from the latter's wife, and conducted under the power of the said Felom, it is ordered that Felom shall not be bound to make entire restitution of them, because it was O'Neile's own son who committed the offence, and his accomplices are now under O'Neile's power; but only of the twelve which came into his possession. Nor shall he be bound to restore certain other cows of the same spoil expressed in a schedule remaining in the hands of George Dowdall, provided that he produce, before the Baron of Louth and Dowdall, his men named in the same schedule, and suspected of the receipt of the cows, for their acquittal.
(2.) As to the 34 cows at one time, and the 80 cows at another time, stolen from Patrick O'Mulcrigh, servant of Lord O'Neile, by Felom and his servants; Felom shall not make entire restitution, but only of the five given him by Raymond Roskyn Kylle and Edmund O'Neile McTirrelagh. If hereafter it should be proved that many of the said cows came into Felom's hands, he shall make restitution according to the arbitrament of the Baron of Louth and Dowdall.
(3.) Whereas Lord O'Neile alleged that Felom stole ------- [Blank in MS.] from his servant Cormac McArdel, it is arbitrated that Felom shall be acquitted therefrom, both for want of proof, and because the said Cormac is servant of Bernard MacMahon, who, if aggrieved, can make complaint to the Lord Deputy.
(4.) As to the expedition lately made by Felom to Armagh with McDonell and other men of war, intending to destroy Lord O'Neile if he found him there, as O'Neile suspected; it is adjudged that Felom and McDonell were innocent of any malicious purpose towards him, but that they offended at that time in taking away with them certain tenants of his lands, with their goods. The said tenants shall immediately return to their homes; and that they may do so without fear, O'Neile has bound himself in 1,000 cows to the Deputy and Council to abstain from injuring them in body or goods.
(5.) As it is alleged that in the same expedition Felom and McDonell made an attack upon certain Scots in the wages of O'Neile at Armagh, the Dean of Armagh, with the clerks and honest men who witnessed it, shall examine the matter.
(6.) With regard to the complaints of Felom against Lord O'Neile, in the first place, touching the murder of Felom Niger O'Neile, it is arbitrated that Lord O'Neile shall be acquitted for his death, because he justly caused him to be hanged for divers thefts.
(7.) Lord O'Neile offended in entering into the church of Tenan, and in taking thence the goods of Owen Yneyle. He shall make full restitution.
(8.) Ferdorogh, son of Lord O'Neile, shall make amends to Felom and his people for all wrongs done to them, according as Bernard Cavan, Felom's brother, shall ordain.
(9.) As the other wrongs alleged in Felom's petition against O'Neile, concern Henry, son of John O'Neile, and his servants and followers, who lately escaped out of O'Neile's power, it is arbitrated that O'Neile shall not be bound to answer for them; but he shall not make peace with the said Henry until he will stand to the fulfilment of justice with the said Felom.
(10.) Very great controversies having long pended between O'Neile and Felom touching divers lands and tenements, which Felom claims by right of inheritance from his father; it is adjudged that O'Neile shall permit Felom peacefully to enjoy all the lands and tenements which his father possessed in Tyrone at the time when he became chief of Tyrone, with the name and dignity of O'Neyle, and such as he afterwards acquired; the metes and bounds to be declared by Sir Walter Bedlowe, the Dean of Armagh, Captain McDonel, Arthur, his brother, Maurice McBreyne Yneyle, Donald FitzMalachi, Enerus FitzFelom FitzBernard, and Chilena, daughter of Thadeus McQuyn, on Tuesday after the feast of St. Peter next, at Dundalk or Carlingford, before the Baron of Louth and George Dowdall; saving to Lord O'Neile his accustomed dominion in such lands, by reason of his superiority in Tyrone, as long as he shall faithfully conduct himself towards the King; and provided that all the passes and public ways of such lands shall be open, and free from woods and other obstacles.
(11.) Lord O'Neile, all his sons and kinsmen, and others under his rule, shall be exonerated towards Felom, his brothers and kinsmen for all spoils, &c. committed before the said submission; and likewise the latter parties against the former.
(12.) As to the complaint of Lord O'Neile against McDonel, both for the slaying of Felom, his eldest son, and for retaining a certain island in Tyrone; McDonel is not bound to any penalty or ransom, after the manner of the Irish, for the said slaying, because the same Felom bore great enmity to McDonel, and frequently threatened him with direful and rough words, and especially because it is manifest that McDonel did not slay him of malice aforethought, but in his own defence. But as McDonel and his followers, fearing the resentment of O'Neile for his son's death, quitted the lands and tenements which they possessed of O'Neile's gift, it is arbitrated that O'Neile shall retain them peacefully, until he be reconciled with McDonel; saving to them the grains and crops now growing there. If a reconciliation take place, they shall surrender the King's castle and lands which they now inhabit by the King's favour.
(13.) As to the island possessed by McDonel in Tyrone, because he has no right to it, it is adjudged to O'Neile; saving to Felom Roo any right he may have to it.

THE O'BIRNES.  MS 603, p. 100  4 July 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 100

4 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 170.

Indenture made at Dublin, 4 July 34 Henry VIII.--Thady O'Birne, captain of his nation; Darius O'Birne; Thady Juvenis O'Birne; Dowlyn O'Birne; John, son of Remund O'Birne; Brian O'Birne; Terence O'Birne; Donogh McBraune O'Birne; Donogh O'Birne; Gerald O'Birne; Shane O'Birne; Morgho O'Birne; Calagh McEdmonde Togh O'Birne; Cahir McTeg O'Birne; Braune McMalaghlyn O'Birne, and other nobles of their nation, inhabiting a certain country between the Wynde Gates and the town of Arclowe in the county of Dublin, humbly submitted themselves to the King, his Deputy, and Council.
(1.) They have long followed the manners, usages, and habits of foresters and wild Irish, but now they renounce them all for ever, earnestly petitioning that by the King's letters patent they may be accepted and reputed as Englishmen and the King's lieges.
(2.) They petition the King to grant them by letters patent their lands and tenements, to be held by knight service.
(3.) That their country may be erected by authority of Parliament into a county, with the name of the county of Wicklow, so that the King may henceforth constitute a sheriff there, and other officers.
(4.) They grant to the King that their country shall be divided into eighty ploughlands, and that the King shall have every year 3s. 4d. for every carucate in the name of a subsidy; also that the King shall have the town and castle of Wicklowe free and totally exonerated from their impositions.
(5.) They surrender up to the King, his heirs and successors for ever, their manor and castle of Newcastle McKenygan, with the demesne lands of the same manor, the metes and bounds of which two persons on the part of the King and two on their part shall define.
(6.) The King and his farmers shall enjoy all lordships, manors, rectories, and other possessions in the said country lately appertaining to divers monasteries and now belonging to the King by authority of Parliament; and all beneficed persons shall have their benefices without molestation.
(7.) When it shall seem necessary to the Deputy and Council to take into pay armed footmen called galloglasses, then, as often as the counties of Kildare and Catherlagh shall be burthened with the support of Scots, the said country shall be bound to support 120 Scots with their servants for a quarter of a year; so that the said country in that year shall be exonerated from the aforesaid subsidy. In case they should violate the conditions contained in this submission it shall be lawful for the Lord Deputy to burthen the said country every year for a quarter of a year with the said 120 Scots.
(8.) Also they will send to the King and his Deputy in every hosting 12 horsemen and 24 footmen well armed and victualled, under the penalty of forfeiting for every horseman deficient 20s., and for every footman 6s. 8d.; and on every sudden occasion they will rise up with the Deputy for one, two, or three days and nights with the whole band of men of war of the said country.
(9.) Also, whereas there reside and are supported in the said country at the common expense twenty-four footmen with their accustomed servants, called "kerne tigh," who are wont to serve the captain of the country there, it is granted that Captain O'Birne now being, for one year after the date of these presents, shall have them as he before had them at the common expense of the country, provided that the said footmen shall be from time to time attendant on the sheriff, assisting him in making distraints and apprehending malefactors. On the lapse of the year, if Captain O'Birne or the said footmen have not well conducted themselves, then the Lord Deputy and Council in the next year shall appoint other footmen in their place at the common expense of the said country, and commit the government of them to whomsoever they please.
(10.) No gentleman of the said country shall have other (sic) footmen at the expenses of others, unless he retain them in his own house at his own expense; except the sheriff, who may have ten or twelve footmen at his own expense and that of his friends, for the execution of his office. After a general convocation of all the footmen of the said country, which shall take place as soon as possible, any footman who remains there idle without a lord or sufficient surety answerable for him, shall be apprehended and committed to prison.
(11.) Also they agree that if any of them contravene this submission, and especially if he return to the manner of the Irish, or conspire with the Irish and others to impede the reformation of the Irish, he and all favouring him shall forfeit their lives, lands, and goods.
This submission the Lord Deputy and Council have ratified, provided that the King should accept it within one year.
Contemp. copy.

BERNARD O'RWERCH.  MS 603, p. 104  1 Sep 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 104

3 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 171.

Indenture, 1 September, 34 Henry VIII.--Bernard O'Rwerch personally appeared before the Lord Deputy and Council at the castle of Meynoth, and voluntarily submitted himself to the King.
(1.) He will acknowledge his Majesty to be his Lord and King.
(2.) He will renounce the usurped primacy of the Roman Pontiff.
(3.) Whenever any journeys shall be made into Connaught, the parts of O'Donell, or the parts of O'Rayley, he will come there in person with all his forces; or, if he should be prevented by illness from so doing, he will send 24 horsemen and 24 kerne (turbarii) or footmen at his own expense.
(4.) The Lord Deputy shall present fitting priests to the ecclesiastical benefices in his country which are now occupied by laymen, reserving to the King his primacies or first fruits and his ordinary jurisdictions of churches; the same benefices to be granted under the Great Seal.
(5.) If any invasion should be made in this kingdom by any foreign foes, rebels, or enemies, he will rise in defence of the kingdom with all his power.
(6.) He will pay annually for each carucate of land in his country 12d., which will amount annually to the sum of 20l.
(7.) He will give a hostage to stand to the arbitration of the Bishop of Meath, [Edward Staples.] the Bishop of Kilmore (Brennensis), [Edmund Nugent.] Sir Thomas Cusake, and another to be chosen by O'Rayley, touching all contentions between him and O'Rayley about the lands called "Talloha," McGauran's lands, and the lands of both the McKerwans. If the said arbitrators cannot agree, the final determination shall be made by the Lord Deputy and Council. His request that O'Rayley should likewise give an hostage is granted.
(8.) He will exact and levy from his country 100 marks, to be paid to the King and his officers in this kingdom as a fine for the pardon and liberty now granted to him of becoming a liege and true Englishman.
(9.) He will send his son Hugh as a hostage to the Lord Deputy; and if the Lord Deputy wishes to change the said hostage for another, O'Rwerch will send another in his place, viz., his son Thadeus.
(10.) These gentlemen here recited shall be in the peace and conduct of him and his heirs under the King;--the two McGranels, O'Mulmoy, McGlaugh, Kenalowhan, Colloflimme, McCahelrewe, O'Birne, McTernan, and McAnnauve.
(11.) The Lord Deputy and Council have promised to implore the King to grant and confirm to O'Rwerch and his son, whom he will name his heir, the lands which he now possesses, together with his title of Viscount of Dromaher, and to appoint him a fitting seat and place in his Parliament.
(12.) If O'Rwerch should be spoiled by any Irishmen, and, upon complaint exhibited to the Lord Deputy, no restitution should be made to him, then in that year he shall not pay the said subsidy of 20l., if the sum of the spoil should not (sic) exceed the half of the said subsidy.
Contemp. copy.

The GREAT BARRY and OTHERS.  MS 603, p. 60  26 Sep 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 60

7 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 172.

Indenture, 26th Sept., 34 Hen. VIII., between Sir Anthony Sentleger, Deputy; James, Earl of Desmond; William Brabazon, Treasurer at War, and Under-Treasurer of Ireland; John Travers, Master of the Ordnance, and Sir Osborn Echingham, Marshal of the Militia, of the one part, and the Lord Barre, alias the Great Barre; Machartymore, Lord de Rupe, alias the Lord Roche; Maghartie Reaghe; Tady McCormog, Lord of Musgrie; Barry Oge, alias the Young Barre; O'Sulyvan Beare, captain of his nation; Donald O'Challogan, chief of his nation; Barry Roo, alias the Lord Reade Barry; McDonogho of Allowe, captain of his nation, and Sir Gerald FitzJohn, of the other part.
(1.) The latter parties will acknowledge his Majesty to be their natural liege Lord and King, and to be the supreme head of the English and Irish Church; will obey his Deputies, and annihilate the usurped primacy of the Bishop of Rome and his favourers.
(2.) They will stand to and perform the arbitraments, decrees, and judgments which are to be made by the Bishops of Waterford, Cork, and Ross, the Mayors of Cork and Youghal, the Sovereign of the town of Kinsale, Philip Roche of the same, esquire, William Walshe of Youghal, esquire, and the Dean of Clone, in all contentions between them.
(3.) If any cause of contention shall henceforth arise, they will not procure any invasion, plunder, robbery, or any illegal act by which the King's peace may be broken, but exhibit their complaints to the said arbitrators and stand to their order. In case the said arbitrators are not able to determine within 20 days after such exhibition, owing to the obstinacy and contumacy of the party defendant, they shall condemn the defendant in a reasonable penalty, to be levied of his goods and chattels, and to be paid to the complainant and injured party. Injured parties shall not seek any remedy by force, but complain to the Earl of Desmond and the three Bishops above named, who shall have power to summon the parties before them. If the said Earl and his colleagues shall not be able to make an order within 20 days, they shall condemn the parties offending not only in the fault laid to them, but also in forfeiture of double the damage to the complainant; and the obstinate party shall forfeit to the King an amercement and fine for contempt; which default and contempt, however, the said Earl and his colleagues shall previously make known to the Lord Deputy and Council, who shall direct their warrant to the said Earl and his colleagues to levy the said amercement and fine, to be divided into three equal parts, of which one shall be for the King and the remaining two parts for the said Earl and his colleagues.
(4.) If any contention should arise between them which cannot be determined unless by persons learned in the law, then the parties who have such cause shall not make any attempt by which the King's peace might be broken, but present their complaints to the Commissioners or persons learned in the law, whom his Majesty shall send to Cork, Youghill, and Kinsale, [or] wherever it shall seem most convenient to the Lord Deputy and Council, at two terms of the year, that is to say, Easter and Michaelmas. Any person residing in the counties of Cork or Kyrrye, or in the dominions of any of the parties above mentioned, who shall act in contravention of this indenture and the schedule annexed to it, shall confiscate not only such a sum of money as is recited in writings obligatory of this date, but also such amercements as to the Lord Deputy and Council shall seem good.
(5.) They will aid and protect all receivers, collectors, and other officers of the King.
(6.) They will perform and observe such other articles and orders as are omitted from this indenture, and contained in a schedule hereto annexed, ordained by the mature counsel of almost all the noblemen of this kingdom for the regulation of the state.
(7.) They will not procure or permit any crime, attempt, or offence against any of the King's subjects.
(8.) None of them will exact any black rent from the King's subjects inhabiting the city of Cork, the towns of Youghill and Kynsale, or elsewhere in this kingdom, under penalty of forfeiting the sums before mentioned.
They have delivered their hostages to the Lord Deputy, and put their signatures and seals to this indenture.
Contemp. copy.
At the end is the following abstract:--
Anno 31° r. R. Hen. VIII.--Item, a peace between the Lord Deputy and McMorice, that he shall find to every great hosting, and come in proper person with eight kearne victualled at his own charge during the said hosting, and at every sudden journey with all his power victualled for two or three days.
Also this note:--"The copies contained in this transcript of nine written leaves do agree with the copies found registered in the old Council book.--John Chaloner.

THE GREAT BARRY and OTHERS  MS 603, p. 110a  1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 110a

5 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Related information: State Papers III. 422.

Another contemporary copy of MS 603, p. 60.

EARL OF TYRONE.  MS 603, p. 14  1 Oct 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 14

3 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 173.

Letters patent creating Con O'Nele Earl of Tyrone for life, on his acknowledgment of the King's sovereignty, and of the error of himself and his ancestors. The title, after his death, to descend to Matthew alias Feardourghe O'Neile, his son, and his heirs male. Also grant of all his lands, to be holden by knight service. The said Matthew to be Baron of Doncanon; which title is always to be borne by heirs apparent to the earldom of Tyrone. Witnesses: Thomas [Cranmer], Archbishop of Canterbury; Thomas, Lord Audley of Walden, Chancellor; John, Earl of Oxford; Edward, Earl of Hertford; Stephen [Gardiner], Bishop of Winchester; John Viscount Lisle; John Lord Russell, High Admiral; Sir John Gage, Controller of the Household, K.G.; Sir Anthony Wingfield, the King's Vice-Chamberlain, K.G.; and Sir Thomas Wriothessley and Sir Ralph Sadler, Chief Secretaries. Greenwich, 1 Oct. 34 Hen. VIII.
Contemp. copy. At the end: "These copies do agree with the enrolment in the Queen's Majesty's Chancery of Ireland.--Ja. Stanyhurst.
Endorsed: "Tyrone. For Mr. Secretary.

EARL OF TYRONE  MS 603, p. 75a  1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 75a

3 Pages.

Another contemp. copy of MS 603, p. 14.

EARL OF TYRONE  MS 603, p. 76a  1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 76a

1 Page.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 173.

Articles of the submission of the Lord O'Neyle when he was created Earl of Tyrone.
(1.) He utterly forsakes the name of O'Neyle.
(2.) He and his heirs shall use the English habits, "and to their knowledge the English language.
(3.) He shall keep and put such of the lands granted to him as are meet for tillage "in manurance and tillage of husbandry," and cause houses to be builded for such persons as shall be necessary for the manurance thereof.
(4.) He shall not take, put, or cess any imposition or charge upon the King's subjects inhabitors of the said lands other than their yearly rent or custom, but such as the Deputy shall be content with; nor have any galloglas or kerne but such as shall stand with the contentation of the Deputy and Council.
(5.) He shall be obedient to the King's laws, and answer to his writs, precepts, and commandments in the castle of Dublin, or in any other place where his courts shall be kept.
(6.) He shall go with the King's Deputy to all hostings, "rodes" and journeys, with such a company as the Marches of the county of Dublin do.
(7.) He shall not maintain or succour any of the King's enemies, rebels, or traitors.
(8.) He shall hold his lands by whole knights' fees.
Contemp. copy.

SUBMISSION OF MCCUYLLEN and O'CAHAN.  MS 603, p. 43  6 May 1542

Former reference: MS 603, p. 43

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 177.

Related information: State Papers III. 407.

Indenture tripartite, 6 May, 35 Henry VIII., between Sir Anthony Sentleger, Lord Deputy, and the Council of the one part, and Rory McCuyllen, chief of his nation and captain of Rowte, and Manus O'Cahan, captain of Oroghtecane, of the other part.
(1.) The said Rory and Manus promise that they will not exact any exactions, ransoms, or tributes from farmers and other subjects of the King repairing to the Banne for the purpose of fishing.
(2.) That whenever John Travers, the King's farmer there, or his servants, shall resort thither to fish, they shall have the use of the castle of Collranell [Called also "Colrane" in this document.] for the security of the fishermen, with liberty for the same fishermen to season and salt the fish, and to draw their nets on land.
(3.) That they will annually assist, favour, and maintain the said fishermen during the time of their fishing.
(4.) In consideration of the above concessions, they shall receive from the King 10l. sterling yearly.
(5.) They gave as hostages Hugh O'Quyne and Jenico McGerrald McCullye on the part of the said Rory, and Donald Ballow and Ony McRorye on the part of O'Cahan.
Contemp. copy.

[HENRY VIII.] to SIR A. SENTLEGER, LORD DEPUTY, and the COUNCIL.  MS 603, p. 13  [9 July] 1543

Former reference: MS 603, p. 13

3 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 179.

Related information: The original minute of this letter exists in the Record Office, and is printed in "State Papers," III. 472.

Have received your letters and writings by O'Brene and others lately repairing hither to make their submissions to us. After they had made their submissions and subscribed certain articles, (a copy whereof is enclosed,) we advanced them to certain honours.
(1.) We have created O'Brene Earl of Thomond for life, and his son after him Baron of Enchequyne, and have given all the lands and abbeys which he possesses in Thomond on the further side of the river Shenon to him and his heirs male, with the gift of all benefices spiritual being of our patronage within the said lands, bishoprics only excepted.
(2.) We have also created McWilliam Earl of Clanrickarde, in tail male, and given him all the lands now in his possession. He pretended that he had heretofore the profits of the cocquetts in Galway, but we have reserved the same to ourself. Nevertheless we have given him an annuity of 30l. sterling, to be paid by our Vice-Treasurer to him and his heirs male till we, upon his good behaviour, give him "some piece of land for the discharge of the same." We have also given him the disposition of all such parsonages and vicarages as are of our gift within his lands, and the third part of their first fruits; also the abbey de Via Nova, in the diocese of Clonfert, now in the possession of his son, being of the yearly value of 40 marks sterling.
(3.) We have made Sir Donnoghe O'Brene Baron of Ibrachane, and given to him and his heirs male all the lands he now possesses beyond the Shenon. We have appointed him, in the letters patent of his uncle, to be Earl of Thomond after him, for life. We have granted him, in lieu of the annuity of 20l. which he has of our gift for life, "that he shall have the same to him and to his heirs males in money," which the Vice-Treasurer is to pay to him and his heirs male. We have also given him the abbey of Insula Canonicorum, and the moiety of the abbey of Clare, which are already in his possession.
(4). We have granted to the Lord of Upper Ossory courtleet and market every Thursday at his town of Haghevo, and the house of the late friars of Haghevo, and the late monastery of Hackmacarte, for which the Chancellor, with the consent of our Deputy, shall make out our letters patent.
To each of the four persons before-named and their heirs male we have granted a house and a piece of land, near Dublin, for keeping of their horses and trains at their repair to our Parliaments and Councils; but as we could not perfectly specify them here, we have referred the matter to you, our Deputy, with the advice of our Chancellor, Vice-Treasurer, Chief Justice, and Master of the Rolls, so that none of the parties have above the value of 10l. sterling yearly. Letters patent to be made out accordingly. Also like patents to be made for the Earls of Desmond and Tyrone, for like houses and pieces of land about Dublin. In the letters patent for the Baron of Ibraghan, it is to be stated that this land near Dublin "shall be also recompence for Onaughe.
Contemp. copy, apparently unfinished. No date.

EARL OF TYRONE and LORD MAGONIUS O'DONELL.  MS 603, p. 38  14 July 1543

Former reference: MS 603, p. 38

5 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 180.

Related information: Printed in "State Papers," III. 478, from the original in the Record Office.

Order taken by the Lord Deputy and Council between Con O'Neyle, Earl of Tirone, and Magonius O'Donell, chief of Tirconnell, as also between the aforesaid Magonius and his brothers and other inferior captains of those parts, at Dublin, 14th July, 35 Hen. VIII.
Indenture quadripartite, 14 July, 35 Hen. VIII.--Final composition and concord between the Lord Con O'Neile, Earl of Tyrone, and the Lord Magonius O'Donell, chief of Tirconnell, concerning a dominion called Inishon, [Note by Carew: "About this country of Inishon and the castle of Liffer there was many years together strife and wars between O'Neale and O'Donnell, and yet to this day the challenge is not forgotten, but is revived upon every small occasion."] unjustly detained by O'Donell from the said Earl, as he asserted, and the superiority of dominion, rents, and services of the Lords of Clanyboy, McCuylin, McGwyre, O'Rwirch, and other inferior captains in Ulster, whom each of them claims to be immediate subjects and tributories to himself; and also concerning the complaints of Con Egin[a]ghan, Donough, and other younger brothers of the Lord O'Donell, brought forward against him for their incarceration and exile, and for the usurpation of the castle of Leffer by Hugh, the son of O'Donell. They had submitted themselves to the decree of Lord Anthony Sentleger, one of the Privy Chamber of the King, and his Deputy in Ireland, John Alen, Chancellor of the same, and the other Councillors of the King, who ordered and adjudged as follows:--
(1.) Whereas the Earl of Tyrone claims Inyshon, because O'Donell before the Lord Deputy and Council exhibited divers writings, confirmations, or releases of that lordship made by the Earl's ancestors to his ancestors, it is ordered that O'Donell shall enjoy that dominion.
(2.) As to the manor of Chinalmughan, the Earl and O'Donell shall each hold his part of the same according to the partition made thereof between them.
(3.) Whereas the Earl alleges that O'Donell has refused to pay him an annual rent of 60 kine issuing out of the dominion of Inyshone, since the Earl submitted himself to the King, it is ordered that, as O'Donell confesses that the said rent was granted by him to the Earl on condition that the Earl should restrain all malefactors under his power from molesting the inhabitants of Inyshone, the Earl shall henceforth enjoy the said rent with all arrears, and that O'Donell shall restrain all malefactors from perpetrating damages against the Earl and his dominion.
(4.) Whereas the Earl claims personal obedience and service from O'Donell as his vassal, and rents, tributes, and services from other lords and inferior captains of Ulster, and O'Donell claims the same from the lords and inferior captains dwelling on his borders; and as upon this depend all the enmities, thefts, robberies, burnings, homicides, and public crimes, the stronger exacting from the weaker whatever he pleases; and because the Earl and O'Donell have produced no other title or legal proof than certain old parchments or bills (libelli), confirmed by no seal, signature, or other testimony, but such as are composed by vain poets and ploratores of Irish histories, who are often-times hired for small reward, and blinded by affection for their lords: it is ordered that O'Donell shall not be bound to show any manual or personal obedience to the Earl of Tyrone, but each of them shall be free and exempt from all subjection, and immediately subject to the King; that the Earl shall have the government of the country of Tyrone according to the King's letters patent; that O'Donell shall have the government of Tirconell, so long as he shall remain captain there, under his Majesty; and that neither the Earl nor O'Donell shall exact outside of their territories any tribute, bonaught, or service from any inferior captains, who shall always be immediately under the peace of the King.
(5.) As to the dissensions between O'Donell and his aforesaid brothers, it is ordered, with their common assent, that O'Donell shall not only restore to Con [and] Eginaghan the office of tanist of Tirconnell, with all those lands and farms in Tirconnell which, by the gift of their father, they possessed before their exile; but also restore to Donough and his younger brothers all the lands which they possessed in Tirconnell of his own gift before their exile, saving to O'Donell the dominion, bonaught, rent, and service due to him out of the premises; that O'Donell shall restore to the said Egynaghan all his goods lost by occasion of his unjust incarceration, when he shall come into those parts; that O'Donell shall keep peace towards his brothers under pain of forfeiture of all his lands; and that his brothers under the same penalty shall do the same towards him and his.
(6.) It is ordered that Hugh, the son of O'Donell, shall restore the castle of Leffer to his father, on these conditions. O'Donell shall deliver to the Lord Deputy as hostage his son Magonius, until in his place he shall deliver a better hostage of Calough, his eldest son, ["Quousque loco suo meliorem obsidem Calvacii, senioris filii sui, dederit."] as well for keeping peace with his brothers, as for security that he will commit the castle to one of the followers of the same Hugh, in order that after the death of his father he may be able to retain the castle, which was built for him at the expense of his mother. O'Donell moreover has taken his oath that he will not alienate the castle from the said Hugh; and further he gives the Lord Deputy, the Earls of Desmond, Ormond, and Tirone, the Lord O'Brien, McWilliam, and all other nobles of Ireland for intercessors and sureties of his covenant and promise not to alienate the said castle from his son, but only to have the use of the same while he lives, when he shall come to those parts. If the said Hugh shall refuse to deliver the castle to his father, he shall be excluded from all right to and possession of the same for ever.
(7.) It is ordered that the Earl and O'Donell, and the other inferior captains in Ulster, shall freely permit the Primate of all Ireland, Bishops, and other ecclesiastical persons to exercise their jurisdictions, and to have their ecclesiastical patrimonies free from all exactions and bonaughts; and that they shall never admit the usurped primacy of the Roman Pontiff. For the observance of this article the Earl and O'Donell pledged their solemn oath.
Contemp. copy.

EARL OF TYRONE and NELAN CONNELAGH.  MS 603, p. 45  15 July 1543

Former reference: MS 603, p. 45

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 181.

Order made before the Lord Deputy and Council respecting the controversies between Lord Con O'Neyle, Earl of Tiron, and Nelan Connelagh, captain of his nation, at Kilmaynam, 15 July, 35 Henry VIII.
(1.) As to the lands of Con, son of Nelan, now supposed to be detained from his heir by Nelan Connelagh, it is ordained that the same Nelan shall stand to the arbitration of Lord O'Donell, who shall make his order before the Assumption next.
(2.) That as to all other spoils and dissensions depending between them since peace was made between them in a certain sanctuary, before the journey of the said Earl into England, each of them shall stand to the arbitration of Deacon O'Donell, Arthur O'Donell, Thomas Magynsenan, and Brian O'Neyle, son of Eugene O'Neyle, who shall examine whether the spoil carried away from Connelagh by the Baron of Dongenan and John Wakley, one of the King's captains, while the Earl was in England, was lawfully taken away or not. If it was not justly taken, then the Lord Deputy promised to restore the same.
(3.) That Connelagh shall hold his lands without interruption from the said Earl, and pay only such rnet to the same Earl as the Earl's tribunes or officers shall prove to have been paid any time within 20 years past, without any other service, except to the King. Nevertheless, if any journey or voyage should be made for the King, he will rise up under the Earl's conduct.
(4.) Connelagh promised that as soon as the arbitration shall be concluded, and restitution thereupon duly made, he will pay to the Lord Deputy the 100 cows assessed upon him by the Lord Deputy and Council, in partial reimbursement of the Earl's expenses in his passage to English parts; so that the Lord Deputy is surety (fidejussor) to the Earl for payment of the same.
Contemp. copy.

LORD MAGONIUS O'DONELL.  MS 603, p. 37  15 July 1543

Former reference: MS 603, p. 37

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 182.

Related information: State Papers III, 481.

Forma concessionis et donationis quarundam particularium Domini Magonii O'Donell, principalis de Tirconell, exhibita ex parte ejus Regiæ Majestati," before Sir Anthony Sentleger, Lord Deputy and the Council, at Kylmaynam, 15 July, 35 Hen. VIII.
I, Magonius O'Donell, captain of my nation, do give and grant to my King, (in order that he shall always be my protector,) the moiety of the tribute due to me in Ichdarconnachd. I also grant to him the moiety of the cocket of all ships coming to Sligaghe to trade, from which I have had cocket; so that the King's bailiff or servant, called a marshal, accompanied by my bailiff, shall in like manner exact that tribute; "et quot boni fidejussores illic et quot mali, item quot loca deserta et quot habitata fuerint, nostrorum balivorum ac nostro æqualiter lucro sint et dampno." Lord O'Donell will perform whatever common distribution shall be made by the King for the public good against the lords of Ireland; and if the said common distribution should not be made for the public good, Lord O'Donell, in token of his love and good will, promises [to send] 100 oxen or martes, to the kitchen of the King or his Deputy in Ireland, every year about the feast of All Saints, according to the custom of his country. If a multitude of herrings and other fish called "garbhushe" should resort to the country of Lord O'Donell or to his sea, such as now comes into Arayn or Ynisnyeadyrn, one half thereof shall belong to the King and the other to O'Donell.
Contemp. copy.

MANUS O'DONELL.  MS 603, p. 44a  16 July 1543

Former reference: MS 603, p. 44a

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 183.

At the manor of Kilmaynam, 16 July, 35 Henry VIII.
Memorandum, that as touching the quarrels between Lord Magonius O'Donell, chief of Tirconell, and McQuylin, captain of his nation, it is ordained, with the consent of both parties, before the Lord Deputy and Council, that O'Donell, in recompence of the injuries done to him, shall receive 100 kine from McQuilen, and acquit McQuillen for the same injuries, and for the service unjustly exacted from him. He will remain under the service and peace of the King only.
II. At Kilmaynam, 16 July, 35 Henry VIII.
Memorandum, that as to all quarrels between Lord Manus O'Donell, chief of Tirconell, and Magwyre, captain of his nation, respecting the lands of Lorrucke and the spoils on both sides objected, it is agreed before the Lord Deputy and Council that the Bishops of Clogher and Raphoe, after examining the gentlemen of Loruke and other witnesses, shall determine and arrange all their contentions. O'Donell and Magwyre pledge their oaths that they in no way, secretly or openly, will molest any of the said witnesses.
Contemp. copies.

REMOND MCRORY.  MS 603, p. 46a  30 Dec 1543

Former reference: MS 603, p. 46a

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 184.

Indenture, 30th December, 35 Henry VIII., between Sir Anthony Sentleger, Deputy, and the Council, and Remond McRory of Ferney, chosen, on the death of Hugh Roo McMahon, to be captain of the country of Ferney, by the Lord Deputy and Council at Kilmaynam.
(1.) Remond will acknowledge the King to be his Lord and King.
(2.) He will not adhere to the King's enemies.
(3.) He will renounce the usurped primacy of the Roman Pontiff.
(4.) He will serve the King at the command of the Lord Deputy in his own person with ten horsemen and sixteen kerne (turbarii), well armed, in all great hostings; and in every other journey and sudden progress he will serve with all his power for two or three nights. For each horseman deficient he shall forfeit 3s. 4d. a day, and for each kerne (turbarius) 20d.
(5.) He will pay every year to the King 10l. Irish.
Contemp. copy.

FITZWILLIAM BOURKE.  MS 603, p. 18  9 Oct 1544

Former reference: MS 603, p. 18

3 pages + 7 pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 185.

Petition of the Lord FitzWilliam Bourke to Sir Anthony Sentleger, Lord Deputy, and the Council.
To have the King's pardon. To have the feefarm of the King's town of Galway, which his ancestors have possessed time out of mind, reserving to the King the gift of all the benefices within the same town. To have the towns of Leghreghe, Claer, Cloncastell, Balleforver, and Leytrom, which he and his ancestors have built; they are the principal manors in his possession. To have Roscoman, "which is of the King's Majesty's own gift, being now with O'Connor by usurpation;" and all such rents as are due to the said McWilliam, called "rents of defence." To have in feefarm the cockets of Sligo, Porterade, and Leighborne, with all other creeks and havens, which his ancestors have had, and whereof the King has never had profit, as they are kept from his Highness by usurpation; the cockets of Sligo, however, to remain in suspense till O'Donell be written to, and show his title for the same. To be made grand captain of his country, as the Earls of Thomond and Desmond are in their confines, by letters patent; to renounce the name of McWilliam, and to have some name of honour. He will forsake all Brehon law, and from henceforth execute the King's laws everywhere under his power and rule. As to all such benefices and other spiritual promotions (bishoprics only excepted) as are of the King's gift within the said McWilliam's country, "he to name an able clerk to the Lord Deputy, and to be presented by his Lordship." He will nominate no unlearned person to take place. Of first fruits the King to have two parts and he the third; "provided that all archbishops and bishops within the said McWilliam's country, benefices and collations to their bishoprics appertaining reserved." "To have commissioners sent down with him to Galway and other parts thereabout, and to take with them such articles as shall be thought meet by the Lord Deputy and Council to be observed, the which the said McWilliam will see shall be put in execution accordingly; and those that will not follow and obey the same to forfeit such penalties as shall be devised by the said Council, the one half to the King's Majesty and the other moiety unto him.
The Lord Deputy and Council grant the premises to the said Lord FitzWilliam Bourke, according to his request, till the King's pleasure be further known.
His demand for Sligo to be in suspense. As to his demand for the possession of two castles called Milegh and Bengher, to send for O'Madden, who has the custody of them, to see what answer he will make thereto. As for the castle of Tecoyn in O'Kelly's country, and by him detained, to send for O'Kelly to see what title he can show; "and if the said O'Kelly do not submit himself to the King's obedience between this and Midsummer or Lammas next, the said McWilliam to have it; and in case he do submit him, then he to enjoy it accordingly." To send for O'Flarty to make answer for the castle of Moycullen, demanded by McWilliam. His demand for the rent of Clanwilliam to be in suspense.
McWilliam has condescended to hold the premises and all other his lands of the King, as the Earls of Ormond and Desmond and other nobles of this realm do, and to pay in yearly rent 10l. sterling, and more hereafter, when they are reduced to better civility. If the above-named parties come not to show their titles before Midsummer or Lammas next, FitzWilliam shall have the premises. For this agreement he has put into the Lord Deputy's hands, as pledge, his son Richard Bourke.
Contemp. copy.
II. Order of the Lord Deputy and Council, at Limerick, for the captainship, superiority, and rule of the country of Clanricard, 9 Oct., 36 Henry VIII.
Memorandum that the King, by his letters patent, granted to Ulick Burke, otherwise called FitzWilliam de Burgh, the captainship and rule of Clanricard, and all his lands within that country, with various religious houses then suppressed and dissolved in Clanrycard, and their lands, and gave the title of Earl of Clanricard to him and his heirs male. After the decease of the said Earl it came in doubt to us, which of his sons was heir male of his body lawfully begotten, or whether any one of them ought of right to be his heir male. The Earl was first married to Grany, daughter of Mulrone O'Karwell, which marriage was solemnized in the face of the church, as was proved before us by sufficient witnesses, whose examinations were subscribed by our hands; and they had issue Richard Burke. While that marriage remained in force the Earl married Honora, sister of Ulick de Burgh who now is, also in the face of the church. Subsequently the said Honora was divorced from him; but we know not whether that divorce was lawfully effected or not. Afterwards the Earl, in the face of the church, married Mary Linche, by whom he had issue John Burke. The aforesaid Mary Linche and Honora repudiated the marriage between the Earl and Grany, alleging that a long time before that marriage was solemnized the said Grany had been lawfully married to O'Mollaghlen.
We have therefore assigned a day to the said Honora and Mary to prove the marriage between O'Mollaghlen and Grany Ny Karwell before the Purification next, and have caused a public proclamation to be made, that whoever wishes to produce witnesses before us at Dublin in proof of the premises will be accepted and ratified. ["Quicunque"...... "acceptabitur et ratificabitur."]
Considering the said country to be destitute of a governor, all the gentlemen and other free tenants thereof assembled, and chose the said Ulick for their principal Governor and Captain by the name of McWilliam, according to ancient Irish custom, contrary to the King's ordinances and statutes. We therefore directed our letters to the said Ulick, commanding him to appear before us at Limerick to answer in the premises; and the said Ulick appeared before us, submitted himself to our order and decree, renounced his name and the government of the same country, gave himself up to his Majesty, and on bended knees publicly declared that what he had done he did at the special request of the said gentlemen and free tenants, for the government of the country until his Majesty's pleasure should be signified. We have therefore ordained as follows.
(1.) The said Ulick to have the rule of Clanrycard during the minority of the heir or heirs male of the said Earl, if any such shall be proved, with the dues and profits belonging to the said captainship, in as ample manner as the said Earl enjoyed the same, excepting the rents, lands, and tenements which the Earl had of the dissolved houses, and in the royal town of Galway, or by any other collateral right of inheritance or ancient custom in the said country, and also the lands and tenements belonging to the said captainship.
(2.) If the said Ulick, during his government, should exact from the poor men of the said country more than to the captainship pertains, or permit them to be spoiled or invaded without his defence or assistance, or if he should take rents from the lands previously excepted, or from any lands which shall come to the hands of the King, he shall forfeit the said rule and government. When the office of Governor becomes vacant, either by such causes as above-mentioned or by the death of the said Ulick, then Thomas Burke, his second brother, shall have the same, and after him the [other] brothers of the said Ulick in succession. In case it should be found that the said Earl has no heir male, then the said Ulick and his brothers shall successively possess the said captainship until the King's pleasure be known.
(3.) Also, in consideration of the said concession, the said Ulick and his brothers successively shall permit all such receivers as shall be appointed to collect the rents and profits of the lands above excepted.
(4.) [If] he that shall be proved to be the heir male of the said Earl be 23 years of age, then, after notification of the same, the said Ulick will immediately surrender the said captainship to the said heir as the Earl of Clanricard, according to the letters patent granted to the said [late] Earl.
(5.) The said Ulick is to pay annually 10l. sterling to the King for the captainship, at Easter and Michaelmas.
(6.) He is to deliver to the Lord Deputy such hostage or hostages as shall be required of him and the said Thomas, and of other gentlemen and free tenants of the said country, as by a schedule signed by our hands, containing their names, will appear.
(7.) As John Burke, otherwise called Shane Oge Burke of Cloghroge, has well and faithfully executed the office of sheriff in that country of Clanricard since the said Earl's death, he shall peaceably hold that office during the King's pleasure, or until it shall be by us otherwise determined. He shall receive such profits of the office as by the Archbishop of Tuam, the Bishop of Clonfert, the Mayor of the town of Galway, McOge, McHobbert, and Thomas Burke, brother of the said Ulick, shall be reasonably limited. And for that divers complaints were made before us, by the said John Burke, the sheriff, and the inhabitants of the same country, that since the death of the late Earl they have been spoiled of their goods, we order and arbitrate that the said Ulick, the Archbishop of Tuam, the Bishop of Clonfert, the Mayor of Galway, [and] John Wackley and Giles Ovynden, captains of one hundred horse, (whom we now send with the said Ulick to receive the hostages above mentioned, and to assist and defend the same Ulick,) or three of them, of whom the said Ulick to be always one, shall have full power to hear and determine all complaints. If any complaint be made against the said Ulick, its determination is referred to the determination of the other three (sic).
(8.) A complaint is exhibited to us as well by the said reverend fathers as by other ecclesiastical persons of the country of Clanricard, that they cannot be permitted (permitti poterint) to collect the revenues of their benefices, seeing that the profits of the same are usurped and altogether detained as well by horsemen as by other lay persons. We order that the said Commissioners shall call before them all persons who interrupt or impede any spiritual persons in their spiritual stipends, and require and compel them to permit such ecclesiastical persons to receive the revenues and profits of their benefices; and that they shall also cause spiritual persons to reside upon their benefices, as by law they are bound to do.
(9.) Whereas a controversy between the Earl of Ormond and the said Ulick is referred by the consent of each of them to the determination of the wives of the said Ulick and of John Grace, gentleman; nevertheless, in case those arbitrators cannot agree, the final judgment shall remain to the Lord Deputy and Council.
In witness whereof we, the aforesaid Lord Deputy and Council, have set our hands to these presents.
Contemp. copy.

EARL OF TYRONE and LORD O'DONELL.  MS 603, p. 40  24 Aug 1545

Former reference: MS 603, p. 40

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 186.

Related information: State Papers III., 506.

Conclusion of peace between the Earl of Tiron and Magonius O'Donell.
As to the controversies between the Lord Con O'Neyle, Earl of Tyrone, and Magonius O'Donell, chief of Tirconell, who personally appeared for a final arrangement of the same before the Lord Deputy and Council at Dublin, 24th August, 37 Henry VIII., it was thus ordered and concluded:--
(1.) Whereas Terence, son of the Earl of Tyrone, has invaded and spoiled the country of Lord O'Donell, since O'Donell came to Dublin for the conclusion of peace, it is ordered that the spoil shall be immediately restored.
(2.) As O'Donell did not pay to the Earl an annual rent of 60 kine out of the dominion of Inyshone, according to our order at Dublin, 14th July, 35 Hen. VIII., the Earl took a pledge of O'Donell for the said rent; but not content with that pledge, he and certain inferior lords and captains of those parts invaded O'Donell's country. It is arbitrated that O'Donell shall not pay that rent; saving however to the Earl, after the death of O'Donell, all the right, claim, and interest which he has or can show to the dominion and rent.
(3.) Whereas O'Daghartie was taken by the Earl as pledge, and at present is detained as parcel of the said pledge, it is ordered that O'Daghartie and all other prisoners on each part shall be liberated without ransom.
(4.) It is further ordained, that all other matters concluded between the Earl and O'Donell by the former order shall remain in force. The Archbishops of Armagh and Dublin, and all other prelates and spiritual pastors, are intercessors, that is to say, "slantighe," so that they can fulminate censures and ecclesiastical penalties against the violators of this peace. Each party has taken his corporal oath for the observance of this peace.
(5.) In case the Earl should commit anything against O'Donell and his, we, the Lord Deputy and Council promise that we will declare his disobedience to the King, and afford our aid to O'Donell.
Contemp. copy.

EARL OF TYRONE, MAGWYRE, and Others.  MS 603, p. 6  20 June 1549

Former reference: MS 603, p. 6

10 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 188.

Order made by the Lord Deputy and Council of Ireland at Dublin, 20 June, 3 Edward VI., between Con, Earl of Tyrone, and Phelom Roo; and between the said Earl and Lord Magwyre and Patrick McRory; and also between Cowla McCardill, James McCardill, McDonell, Hugh O'Neyle, and other inferior captains and gentlemen in Ulster.
The said Phelom complains that the Earl of Tyrone and the Baron of Dungennan, his son, detain certain lands from him. It appears that by an order between the aforesaid parties made at Trym, 1st Jan., 34 Hen. VIII., the said Phelom was to have such lands as his father was seized of in Tirone, as of his inheritance, at the time of his captaincy there; and that Sir Walter Bedlow, the Dean of Armagh, McDonell, Arthur McDonell, Moriertaghe O'Neyle, Donald McMelaghlyn, Iberus McPhelym McBryne, and Egidia Ynytege McCoyne, or the greater part of them, were to determine the metes and bounds of the same lands, and declare the same metes before the Lord Primate of Armagh and the Baron of Lowthe, at Dundalk or Carlingford. As they have not yet made that declaration, we order that as many of the above-named persons as are still living, or any others approved of by the Lord Primate and Baron of Lowthe, shall make the same declaration of metes and bounds before the Lord Primate, Lord Lowthe, and James Gernon, between this and Michaelmas next. This declaration shall obtain due effect.
As to the restoration of spoil now in litigation between Cowla McCardill and James McCardill, the said Cowla committed that spoil upon the same James for certain unlawful payments, ransoms, and rewards, which are altogether repugnant to the decree of the Lord Deputy and Council. Therefore the said James shall have full restitution of the said spoil; and because the said Cowla was bound in 100 marks (as Mr. Thomas Cusake asserts) to make restitution, he shall remain in prison under safe custody until restitution be made.
As to the complaint of Patrick McRory, captain of Ferney, against the said Earl of Tyrone for the death of Redmund McRory, late captain there, and the spoil of that country, it appears to us, by the relation of the Lord Primate, the Baron of Lowthe, and Mr. Thomas Cusake, that the premises were decided and ordered at Drogheda (villam Pontanam) between the parties; which order (signed by the hands of the said arbitrators) remains in the custody of the Lord Primate. Therefore our decision now is, that the said Earl shall perform the said order; and because the said Patrick is entirely exempt from the rule of the said Earl, and the country of Ferney is not part or member of Tyrone, it is ordered that the same Patrick and his successors shall be exonerated towards the said Earl and his heirs from all rents, bonaughts, tributes, suits, services, and personal obediences, and shall immediately obey the King, and remain for ever under his peace and defence. The said Patrick and his successors shall pay all dues to the King.
Complaints exhibited on the part of Magwyre against the Earl of Tyrone.--The said Earl has burnt and spoiled his country and put his men to death. By affirmation of the parties it plainly appears to us that this matter was formerly ordered and arbitrated between them, and that it was decreed the said Earl should defend Magwyre against all men in the country under his rule. We adjudge that the said order shall obtain its due effect.
Magwyre also complains that Con O'Neyle, son of the said Earl, made two spoils upon him; and the said Earl acknowledged that he ought to compel Con to make restitution. Therefore it is ordered that the said Earl shall compel his son to make such restitution as shall be proved to be due before the Bishop of Clogher, McMolyn, and Patrick Oge O'Multhry. Magwyre has further complained that John O'Neyle, another son of the Earl, spoiled this country and killed 11 of his servants and followers. As from the confession of the parties it appears that the said John had no just cause of committing the same spoil, we order that the said Earl, according to the prior order, shall procure restitution. Magwyre further complains that they of the sept (stirpe) of Arthur O'Neyle committed divers spoils upon him. It is ordered, with the consent of the said Earl, that the same sept (prosapia) shall make restitution; and that Magwyre shall make similar amends to them, as before the said arbitrators it shall be proved. A similar complaint was exhibited by Magwyre against Terence O'Neyle, that he took certain of Magwyre's servants against his will, who committed against him as well slaughter of men as divers other damages. It is ordered that the said Terence shall deliver to Magwyre so many of his followers as Magwyre shall prove to be his, and for whose deeds he shall answer before the above-named, or three of them. As to the lands which Magwyre complained were kept from him by the said Terence, Magwyre affirms that those lands are in Farmanagh, and on the contrary, the said Earl alleges that they are in Tyrone, and it is unknown by us in what country they are situate. Therefore we order, that if it shall be proved before the Bishop of Clogher, McMolyne, and Brian McOwen Bought y Neyle, that they are situate in Tyrone, they shall be yielded to the said Terence; or if in Fermanagh, to Magwyre. Lastly, Magwyre complains that Con McBryne O'Neyle made divers spoils upon him, and they are confessed by the Earl of Tyrone. Therefore it is ordered by us, with the consent of the said Earl, that Con shall make restitution; and Magwyre shall do the same if he has done wrong.
Magwyre shall deliver a sufficient hostage into the hands of Hugh Oge McMahon to the use of the said Earl, for the performance of the said prior arbitration. Then the Earl shall see that restitution is made to Magwyre. Subsequently Magwyre shall pay to the said Earl a ransom for his hostage, or, if he refuse to do so, the said hostage shall be delivered to the Earl. Provided that if restitution be not made by Michaelmas next, the same hostage shall be delivered to Magwyre, who shall be exonerated against the said Earl in respect of the prior order.
Moreover, Magwyre shall not be burthened with, or pay to the said Earl or his heirs, rent, bonaught, tribute, suit, or service; nor shall the Earl demand of Magwyre, or of any other person in Farmanaghe, any manual or personal service. Magwyre shall be immediately subject to the King, and remain for ever under his peace and defence, and shall pay to his Highness bonaught and all other dues.
McDonell complains that Hugh O'Neyle detains from him two horses, the restitution of which, as stated by the Lord Primate, the Baron of Lowthe, and James Gernon, has been adjudged. It is ordered that the first order shall obtain due effect.
The Lord Primate complains that Hugh O'Neyle occupies his lands in Clankerroll, parcel of the manor of Yneskyn. At "villam Pontanam," called Drougheda, it was ordered by the Council there, that neither Bernard McMahon nor any other person should occupy those lands unless with the consent of the Primate. We therefore order that the said Hugh shall pay to the Lord Primate rent for the last half year, and as long as he shall occupy the said lands, and that he shall not occupy them unless with the licence of the Primate.
The Dean of Aredemaghe complains that the Earl of Tyrone will not permit him to enjoy his deanery. As it appears to us that the Dean was lawfully nominated and elected, we order that the Earl shall permit the Dean to occupy that benefice.
Charles McHughe Roo complains that Patrick McRory, captain of Ferney, has oftentimes committed manifold wrongs and injuries against him. These disputes were formerly determined by the Baron of Slane, whose order we adjudge the said Patrick to perform. But as the certainty of the same order does not appear to us, we have appointed the Primate, the Baron of Lowthe, and James Gernon to examine the said Baron of Slane, and to learn from him the circumstance and process of the said order. Then the said order shall be duly performed by the parties. If it appear to the Lord Primate and the other arbitrators that anything between the said Patrick and Charles remains unrestored, they shall duly determine it before Michaelmas next; and in the meantime each party shall observe the King's peace, and this upon surety (fide-jussio), otherwise called "slantye," of the Lord Deputy in 200l. For the better observance of the same, and for the delivery of their hostages into the hands of the said arbitrators at a day to be assigned by them, the said Patrick and Charles have placed themselves in the hands of the Lord Deputy; and his Lordship shall permit them to depart upon his "slantye." The said Patrick is to place Rory Boye, his eldest son, and the said Charles Edmund his eldest son, in the hands of the said arbitrators as hostages, after they have returned home, when they shall be required by the said arbitrators.
The Earl of Tyrone demands from Magwyre the 120 kine and 10 horses which he gave to Magwyre on his marriage with his daughter, who left Magwyre and fled to Phelim Roo, with whom she now remains. As the Earl's daughter was married to McGwyre and not divorced from him, but quitted him without his consent, it is ordered that Magwyre shall make no restitution of the said goods, and shall receive his wife again, as he is content.
The said Earl requires from the said Magwyre 320 mares which the murderers of Magwyre's father carried away to the Earl, and which the Earl caused to be restored to the parties seeking them. Therefore it is ordered that Magwyre shall not be bound to make restitution.
The said Earl claims from Magwyre 1,300 kine for his nomination as captain, which the Earl alleges he promised him on that account. Magwyre, in answer, alleges that he entirely refused the Earl's nomination, and received his nomination to the captaincy there from the King; and that he held his country from the King and his late Deputy by indentures. It is therefore ordered that Magwyre shall be acquitted of the Earl's claims and demands, and for ever exempted from his rule and order.
The said Earl also requires eight horses, an armed tunic, otherwise called a "jacke," and an "habergyne," which he gave to Magwyre as a stipend and for his service, which he has not rendered hitherto. Nevertheless, because Magwyre has well merited the premises, and duly rendered his service to the said Earl, we order that he shall be acquitted towards the said Earl.
Rory, son of Redmund McMahon, has complained that his grandfather was seized of certain lands in Ferney; and after his decease they descended to a certain Mollaghlen, brother of the whole blood and lawfully born to the said Redmund; and after the death of Mollaghlen to Re[d]mund, father of the said Rory, as Mollaghlen's brother and heir. After the death of the said Re[d]mund the said lands ought to have descended to the said Rory; but while the said Rory was a minor, Patrick McRory entered them and still retains them. The said Patrick could not deny this, but he claimed them as elder brother to the same Redmund, though he was illegitimately born. We order that the said Rory shall have all such lands as the said Redmund had and enjoyed.
Phelom Roo has complained of the Baron of Dongenen for divers spoils, thefts, and robberies committed during the last five years. This contention, by the confession of the parties, was ordered between them by the Lord Primate, the Baron or Lowthe, and Justice Howthe, and we decree that the same order shall be duly performed. The said Phelom confesses to have that order in his custody, and is content to send it to the said Lord Primate and Baron to read; and the said Baron [of Dongenen] offers to make restitution of what remains unrestored. For the performance of the said order, and for preserving the King's peace on both parts, the same Baron and Phelom have placed the Lord Deputy as surety, otherwise "slanty," for them; penalty 200l.
Brian Fertagh O'Neyle complains that the Earl of Tyrone detains in prison a certain Phelom Rioghe McShane Dowe. The said Earl affirms that he was a public malefactor, and spoiled the daughter of the Prior, the widow McQuilyn, ["Filiam prioris viduam McQuilyn."] and took from her and divers others a great number of kine and draft horses (caballorum). As the Earl has no just or reasonable pretext for detaining the said Phelom, especially as he is not of the country of Tyrone, or under the rule of the said Earl, --although we have not thought it convenient to restore him to liberty, because the parties aggrieved would thus be without remedy, --nevertheless it is ordered that the same Phelom shall deliver his best hostage into the hands of Donald McEnnosse, knight, until the Lord Primate of Ardemagh shall have heard the complaints of the said widow and others; and the Earl shall deliver the said Phelom to the said Magennesse, to remain in his hands. Because the said Brian Fertagh is totally exempted from the rule of the said Earl, it is further ordered that the same Brian and his successors, and all others of Claneboy, shall be exonerated against the said Earl and his heirs, from all rents, bonnaughts, tributes, services, and personal obediences, and pay all dues to the King.
Hugh O'Neyle complains that McDonell, who is now dead, promised him 40l. in the name of a purchase, ["Emptionis."] (as is the custom of the Irish,) in order that he should be a friend to him from thenceforth; and that McDonell, who now is, interfered for the payment of the said sum. ["Intervenit pro solutione."] It appears to us, by the relation of the Primate and Baron of Louth, that that matter has been before this time determined by them, and that by their order the said McDonell, now dead, was exonerated from payment of the said 40l. We order therefore that the said McDonell, who now is, shall not be burthened with the payment of the said sum. As for all other controversies, litigations, and quarrels depending between them, as well respecting homicides, felonies, and robberies, as depredations, burnings, and other similar offences, we have remitted them to the determination and judgment of the said Primate and Baron of Lowth, together with James Gernon.
Finally, that all the above-named shall keep the King's peace towards each other, perform the above orders, and render obedience and service to the King, the Lord Deputy is surety or "slantye" in 1,000l., to be levied upon their bodies, goods, and lands at his pleasure, and as their demerits shall demand and require. They have also made solemn oath on the holy gospels for the observance of the premises on the day, month, and year above written. They renounce, moreover, the usurpation called "slantye" in any parts beyond their rules, unless they be assigned to it on urgent necessity by the Lord Deputy.
Contemp. copy.

MCMAHON and OTHERS.  MS 603, p. 47a  15 July 1549

Former reference: MS 603, p. 47a

1 Page.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 189.

Memorandum that McMahon, Brian McMahon, his brother, and Hugh Oge, captains, on the 15th July 3 Edward VI., appeared before the Lord Deputy and Council at Kilmaynam, and before them were objected and alleged as well the refusal of the King's Scots under their several rules, as divers other misdeeds and offences, and particularly the violation of such orders as were lately taken between them at "villam Pontanam," commonly called Drogheda, by reason of which they have incurred the penalty of 500 marks; but upon their submission to the King, the Lord Deputy and Council have remitted that penalty. They faithfully promise to be true subjects, or forfeit all their possessions. The Lord Deputy is surety, commonly called "slanetye.
Contemp. copy.

MAGONIUS O'DONELL AND HIS SONS.  MS 603, p. 50  18 July 1549

Former reference: MS 603, p. 50

4 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 190.

Covenants and orders made by Sir Edward Bellingham, Deputy, and the Council, between Magonius O'Donell, chief of Tirconnell, and Calough his son, and between the same Calough and his brother Hugh, touching the disposition of the castles of Fyn and Liffer, and other controversies, 18th July, 3 Edw. VI.
By occasion of the war between the said Calough, Hugh O'Donell and the sept of Hugh O'Galthar, the kinsmen and followers of the same Hugh O'Donell, (the same Calough dwelling in the castle of Liffer, and Hugh in the castle of Fynne, which castles are not more than three miles apart,) the country was thoroughly desolated, in consequence of their frequent depopulations and burnings. We have heard the allegations and titles of each of the parties to the said castles, but could not definitively determine to whom they belong. Now, however, O'Donnell has submitted himself to our order.
(1.) We decree that the castle of Fyn shall be delivered to O'Donell, and that he shall not grant it to the said Hugh, the sept of Hugh O'Galthar, or any other, except the said Calough. O'Donell shall not appoint under himself in the said castle a constable or any other having horsemen, kerne, or Scots, for fear of disturbing the country, but only one man to keep the house and superintend agriculture there. With the said castle O'Donell shall have Twoekynall Mohana, upon which it is built, and the circuit of land on each side of the town hitherto belonging to the castle, together with the barony of Clanheyne, which extends westward from the said castle twelve miles towards the mountains.
(2.) Because the said Calough took his oath to serve the King, to follow his father in all things lawful, and keep the King's peace towards his father and the whole country, it is ordered that he shall have the castle of Liffer, where he now dwells, with such lands of the said Twoakinaly Mohana as have at any time belonged to the castle since it was built, or which ought to belong to the castle or the town, with two baronies called the Lagan and Tirrebressell, extending from Dyrre to Lyffer, with all the profits, fisheries, and perquisites now in his possession; annually paying the usual rent and dues to O'Donell as principal captain, excepting the profits of the fishery of Loghfoyle, and the rents, profits, and casualties belonging to the town of Dyrre, for which O'Donell is content every year to give him 20 marks.
(3.) All the prisoners now in the custody of Calough, of the kinsmen and servants, [Sic.] and all those whom Hugh O'Donell, the sept of Hugh O'Galthar and O'Donell detain as prisoners of the sons, servants, and followers of Calvatius, shall be liberated without ransom, as soon as O'Donell and Calough have returned Tirconell.
(4.) Whereas O'Donell detains in prison McSwyne Faenet, the cause of whose incarceration he affirms to be that he committed spoil on Margaret O'Donell, daughter of the said O'Donell; we order that as soon as O'Donell has returned into his country he shall conduct McSwyne before the Bishop of Dyrre, O'Doughertie, and Donald Gorme McSwyne, and of as much as shall be proved to have been taken away, McSwyne shall be compelled to make restitution, and then O'Donell shall liberate him; a hostage being placed by McSwine in the hands of O'Doughertie for performance of the restitution.
(5.) Walter McSwyne shall be restored to liberty, and deliver his hostage into the hands of O'Duagherty to stand to the arbitration and order of said Bishop and O'Duagherty in all contentions depending between him and O'Donell.
(6.) Because the damages between O'Donell and Calough and between Calough and Hugh and the sept of Hugh O'Galthar are so immense that they are wholly unable to make restitution to each other, we order that restitution shall be made of all horses, draft horses (caballorum), kine, armour (loricarum), and other goods, which can be proved within the country of Tirconell.
(7.) Con O'Donell shall have the baronies of Glanele and Tyremakkyryn, which lands used to belong to the Tanist there; and O'Donell shall dispose his son Hugh and the sept of Hugh O'Galthar to dwell elsewhere within the country, where they will give no occasion of contention.
(8.) Joan O'Reyly, late wife to O'Donell, possesses the castle of Bellike, which O'Donell desires to be restored to him, alleging that the said Joan has no title to it. The castle was given by him to her upon certain conditions, by a writing in the Irish tongue, and now, of his own accord, he confirms his former grant, on condition that if the said Joan shall hereafter permit the said Calough, Magwyre, or any other to disturb the country of Tyrconell or O'Donell himself with the aid of the said castle, she shall forfeit it. O'Donell promised that the castle should be given to his said wife with a sufficiently strong garrison. If hereafter he should be in a more peaceful mind towards her and her children, it shall be free to him to claim the said castle in his own right.
Contemp. copy.

EARLS of DESMOND and THOMOND.  MS 603, p.57  11 March 1550

Former reference: MS 603, p.57

6 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 192.

Agreement made between the Earls of Desmond and Thomond at Limerick, 11th March 4 Edward VI., by Sir Wm. Brabazon, Lord Justice of Ireland, and the Council.
(1.) It appears by their several complaints to us exhibited that great disputes depend betwixt them, "the one maintaining outlaws and malefactors of other's country," notwithstanding a former order taken between them on the 9th January, 3 Edw. VI., by the Bishop of Cashel, Sir John Travers, and Thomas Howthe, Justice, that each of them should restore such malefactors, which order has not been observed, but more harm has ensued than before. The greatest cause of the breach thereof was that the said Earls put in no pledge or security for performance of the same. We have therefore caused the Earl of Desmond to put as pledge, into the Mayor of Limerick's hands, William Lashe of the Brove, gent; and the Earl of Thomond to put as pledge Rickard McGillariaghe of Donogan; neither of them to be delivered or enlarged without consent of the said parties until the order and agreement be fully performed.
(2.) For the contentions betwixt Sir Donell O'Bryen and Sir Tirreloghe O'Bryen, brother to the said Sir Donell, and betwixt the Earl of Thomond and the said Sir Tirrellaghe O'Brien, through which great harm has ensued to the country of Thomond, the said Sir Tirrelaghe has put himself as pledge into the hands of Sir Donnoghe O'Bryen, Lord of Ibreacan, for the performance of the orders which shall be taken by the arbitrators appointed betwixt them; and the said Earl of Thomond and the said Sir Donell will put in the said Lord's hands such pledges as he shall chose.
(3.) It appears to us that the Earl of Desmond maintains O'Chonour, Kery Teig McMahon, and Tirrelaghe McDonoghe Oge "as outlaws and malefactors upon the Earl of Thomond, that bring spoils, boddrags, and robberies daily sithens the said first order, from Thomond to the countries under the said Earl of Desmond's rule;" and that the Earl of Thomond "before that time did maintain and keep as outlaws upon the said Lord of Desmond, and yet doth, all the clan Mahowns, except the said Teige, Cale O'Chonnour, Teig O'Chonnour, Cahyre O'Chonour, sons to O'Chonnour, Kyry Tirrelaghe McDonell, MacTeige and his sons, Donnoghe Oge McDonnoghe Ny Knoyke, Dermote O'Bryen and Donnoghe O'Bryne, sons to O'Bryen; which malefactors commit likewise daily harms to the countries under the said Earl's rule, as burning, killing of men, robberies, and boddraggs." As we cannot abide here to hear the proofs of the poor people, we have remitted the hearing of the process to the Ladies of Desmond and Thomond, David FitzMorishe, Hubbert Mahon, McBryen Hy Bren, William Lex, McGlanther, the parson of Kilkorman, [and] Don McGorman, or to any four of them, so that the said Ladies be two. "In case they do not agree in the examination of the said proofs, then the same to be taken by the Lord of Ibracan, indifferently chosen by their assents to examine and determine the same.
The Earl of Thomond to see full restitution made of all goods taken by the said malefactors under Desmond's rule, except those left this side the Shannen, and expel the said sons of O'Chonnour and all other malefactors from the country of Thomond. The Earl of Desmond to make like restitution. They are to keep the King's peace the one to the other, and to join together as friends to serve the King's Majesty for defence of his country, or else forfeit to the King 500l. sterling.
(4.) "Where the said Earl of Desmond did give to Dermott O'Bryen, son to the said Earl of Thomond, under colour and pretence of marriage to be had betwixt the said O'Bryen and the Earl of Desmond's daughter, with the consent and agreement of the said Earl of Thomond, in part of payment of a more sum, four chief horses, and after the delivery of the same horses the promise of marriage was not performed of the behalf of the Earl of Thomond and his son:" therefore we order that the Earl of Thomond shall restore the said four horses to the Earl of Desmond within 12 days, or the price of them, according as it shall be proved before the Lord of Ybraccan; "and also any cause that the Earl of Thomond or any of his country have under the Earl of Desmond's rule, upon complaint made of the same to the said Earl, restitution and satisfaction to be made accordingly, and the Earl of Thomond to do the like to the said Earl of Desmond.
(5.) As to the "controversy betwixt Sir Donell and the said Tirlaghe and their brethren concerning the division of the land betwixt them, as brethren, according to the custom of their country, for the which Bunratye, in the possession of the said Tirlaghe, is now in contention," it is ordered "that the division shall be made and done betwixt them as the Lord of Ibrakan and Boylaghe McGlaughe, Donell Oge McGlaughe, Doctor O'Nelane, Sir Donnoghe McGrade, Hugh McGlaughe, O'Griffa, Cornells Juvenis O'Dea;" and in case the said arbitrators cannot agree, then the Lord of Ybracan shall be sole umpire, for that he is the elder brother.
(6.) The same arbitrators shall also order the contentions betwixt the Earl of Thomond and Sir Tirlaghe; "and the said Earl and Sir Tirlaghe to put their pledges" to perform the order taken.
Contemp. copy.

SUBMISSION of HUGH, son of NELAN JUVENIS.  MS 603, p. 48  28 Dec 1552

Former reference: MS 603, p. 48

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 198.

Order made between King Edward VI. and Hugh, son of Nelan Juvenis.
(1.) The said Hugh submitted himself to the clemency of the King, repenting of the war which he had waged against him, and supplicated pardon, which was granted to him by us the undersigned. [The signatures are not given in this copy.]
(2.) Whereas he petitioned that the late monasteries within his country, which are now devastated, should be granted to him in farm with their lands at such rent as the King's Commissioners should assign, and that for the first two years he should be exonerated from payment for the same, we grant that exemption.
(3.) We have granted his petition for the monastery of the friars of Knockfergus, that divine services may be celebrated, and three secular priests serve there, as he asserts that the sepulchres of his ancestors are there, and that there is no other fitting temple in his country.
(4.) He asserts that in time of peace between him and Captain Lyppett, that captain spoiled him and killed two of his women servants (mulierculis); and he petitions that the affair should be examined and restitution made, which we have granted.
(5.) We grant his petition for the castle of Belferside to be restored to him in the same state as when he first possessed it.
(6.) He is content to forfeit his captaincy and all his lands, goods, flocks, and farms if ever he should depart from his faith or obedience, or from such orders as we or the governors of this kingdom shall prescribe for the government of his country; and because his hostages now remain with the Scots for payment of their stipends, so that he is unable to give hostages, he binds himself by oath.
(7.) He is content to pay all burdens, impositions, and services, and to perform all orders prescribed to him by the Lord Deputy heretofore.
In witness whereof, he set his hand, 28th December, 6 Edw. VI.
After the above was written, it was further ordered that of all [spoils] committed in time of peace, restitution should be made.
Contemp. copy.

EARL OF TYRONE.  MS 603, p. 49  30 Dec 1552

Former reference: MS 603, p. 49

4 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 199.

Memorandum, that by occasion of the war and dissension between the Earl of Tiron and his sons, their country was reduced to great misery and desolation, in consequence of which Sir James Crofte, Deputy, and the Council at Ardmaghe, perceiving the Earl not to be minded to amend these enormities, procured that he should come to Dublin, where by our counsel and assent he is retained, and certain captains and soldiers have been appointed to remain at Ardmaghe and in other places in the North, for the greater tranquillity of the country in the Earl's absence. The Baron of Dungennan and the said captains were appointed commissioners to amend and order those enormities and abuses, yet nevertheless that country was not amended, but reduced to a worse state than before; and on account of intestine wars, they introduced so many Scots to make war on John O'Neyle and others, that it was much to be feared lest they should injure the English subjects. Moreover the King has been at great expense for the sustenance of the Earl and Countess, (who have received nothing from their country,) and for victuals and stipends of soldiers. Therefore, and on account of the burthens of the country, it is thought, if the Earl were restored to liberty for sufficient hostages, that quiet and tranquillity would follow, and that the Scots could be the more easily expelled from the northern parts; and it is agreed by the undersigned that the Earl shall be restored to liberty for the following hostages: Bernard, the son of Con Roo, brother of John, as a hostage for John O'Neyle; for McDonell, Patrick O'Mulcrewe and Conchour McArdill; [for] the Countess of Tiron and Henry Juvenis, son of the Earl and Countess, the son of Terelagh O'Neyle or McDonell; and the son of Phelom Roo, until the son of Terelagh shall be found, and McArdyll the brother of Konor, until Patrick Juvenis Mulcrewe be found. ["Et pro McDonell, Patricio O'Mulcrewe et Conchour McArdill, Comitissa de Tiron, et Henrico Juveni, filio Comitis et Comitissæ, filio Tereleto [sic] O'Neyle, aut McDonell, et filio Phelomei Rufi, quousque filius Tereleti inveniatur," &c.] Whenever he shall be commanded to come to the Lord Deputy and Royal Council he shall do so, and observe all their orders, pay impositions, and render service to the King with his horsemen, Scots, and kerne (turbarii).
Dated at Lesmollen, 30 December, 6 Edward VI.
Postscript.--The Earl agreed to observe the King's peace towards the Baron of Dungannen, Calough O'Donell, Tirrelagh Lynnaghe O'Neyle, and Magwyre, because they adhere to the King. For observance of the premises, besides the hostages, he is content to forfeit 6,000l. If the Baron, Calough, Tirelagh and Magwyre do any injury to the Earl, he will stand to the order of the Deputy and Council.
Contemp. copy.

EUGENE MAGENNESSE.  MS 603, p. 10a  6 Dec 1553

Former reference: MS 603, p. 10a

2 Pages.
Language:  Latin

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 201.

Order indented at Drougheda, 6th December [1 Mary], between Sir Anthony Sentleger, Deputy of Queen Mary, and the Council in Ireland, of the one part, and Eugene Magennesse, now constituted captain and principal of his nation by the Lord Deputy and Council, of the other part.
Magunesse shall be the Queen's faithful subject. He shall not admit any provisor from the Roman Court. He shall be always ready to serve the Queen, and in all expeditions and journeys into the northern parts render aid to the Lord Deputy with twenty-four horsemen and sixty foot, and an entire band (proelium) of galloglaghes, for three days and nights, going and returning. He shall not conduct or retain any Scots, but repel them with all his force. He will permit Ferdorgh, daughter of the Lord Donald Magunesse, and the wife of [the said] Donald and her children, to possess their lands and goods. He will be favourable and assistant to all the Queen's tenants in Mourne and Lecale, and not impose on them any imposition by way of a purchase (per modum emptionis) or any other exaction, unless of their own free will.
The Lord Deputy and Council grant to the said Eugene that if any of his nation or of his men should at any time be rebels, then the Lord Deputy will render assistance to him in repressing them. According to ancient custom he ought to pay to the Lord Deputy for granting him the dignity of Magunesse, 100 kine, but the Lord Deputy has remitted and condoned them to the said Eugene.
To all the above articles the said Magennesse pledged his corporal oath on the Holy Evangelists.
Dated 6 December, 1 Mary.
Contemp. copy. At the end is the following note: "The copies contained in this volume of 26 written leaves do agree with the copies found registered in the Old Council book.--John Chaloner." [This note refers also to other copies contained in the same volume, on ff. 6. 10., &c., which are noticed under their respective dates.]

PHELYM ROO.  MS 603, 10  9 March 1554

Former reference: MS 603, 10

1 Page.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 202.

Order taken with Phelym Roo at Dundalk, 9th March 1553.
He submits himself to the Queen, to serve and obey her Highness in all things, and to refuse others, and is thereto solemnly sworn upon the Holy Evangelists. As to all contentions between him and Sir James Gernon, Sir John Bedlowe and other gentlemen of the county of Uriell, he shall stand to the order of Christopher Dowdall and Patrick O'Callan, or, if they cannot agree, to the order of the Lord Primate and the Dean of Armagh. For the performance of their order he shall put such pledges in the hands of the Lord Primate as shall be named by the said arbitrators. Such pledges as he has of Sir John Bedlow, and such as Sir John Bedlow has of him shall be delivered to the Lord Primate, to be enlarged at his discretion. He shall be allowed to come and go within the English pale as a subject and neighbour.
Contemp. copy.

EARL OF THOMOND and SIR DONALD O'BRENE.  MS 603, p. 25*  Sep 1554

Former reference: MS 603, p. 25*

5 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 204.

Indenture, 9th May, 6 Edw. VI., between Sir James Crofte, Deputy of Ireland, of the first part, Donough O'Brene, knight, Earl of Thomond, of the second part, and Sir Donald O'Brene of the third part.
The said Earl and Donald agree to join together for the service of the King, and to observe mutual friendship towards each other, as becomes kinsmen. For the better support of the said Donald, the Earl will grant such a portion of seventeen quarters of the lands which the said Donald and his tenants and followers possess within the countries of Corckymrow, Baryn, and Kialarwaky, entirely free from all claim, as is equivalent to the clear annual rent and profit of half of the possessions of the barony of Ibrecan, which [barony] the said Earl, by grant of King Henry VIII., obtained for himself and his heirs male. If the said 17 quarters should not suffice for the full value of the said half, then the said Donald shall be satisfied for the remainder elsewhere amongst the lands of the said Earl. Sir Donald to hold the said lands in tail male by knight service, that is, by the 20th part of one knight's fee. If the Earl should be unable to confer those lands, then he will be a mediator to intercede with the King, and get the Lord Deputy to petition his Highness to grant the premises to the said Donald and his heirs.
The said Donald covenants that he will not make any claim for anything which the Earl has obtained or shall obtain from the King, or which he possesses of right, but obey the Earl and his heirs, and lend him his support, as becomes a good brother. The Earl agrees that the said Donald shall enjoy the office of steward of Bonyn and Tradrey with all the emoluments of the same during his life.
II. Ordinances, made in Michaelmas, 2 Mary, between Cornerus O'Bryen, by the King's authority Earl of Thomond, and Donald O'Bryen, named O'Bryen according to the ancient custom of the country.
The said Donald petitioned that according to that nominatian he may be established by the Queen, and thenceforth he will be a faithful subject, and serve against the Queen's rebels under the Lord Deputy. The Lord Deputy and Council answered that they could not accede to his request, but would write to the Queen in his favour.
With respect to all controversies between the said Earl and Donald, the title or name of O'Brien only excepted, the latter is content to stand to the arbitrament of the Lord of Mountgaret, the Baron of Dunboyne, and the Baron of Caher, for the said Earl, and of the Lord Occarwell, Thadeus O'Mulryan and MacO'Bryen Ara, for the said Donald, and that they shall conclude and determine all controversies between the parties. If they should not agree, superiority is then granted to the Lord Deputy, the Lord Chancellor and the Earl of Desmond.
Moreover the said Earl and Donald consent that on each side hostages shall be placed in the hands of the Lord Deputy and remain in the custody of the Mayor of Limerick, namely, Moriertaghe O'Bryen, son of the said Donald, for him, and Terence O'Bryen, brother of the said Earl, for him, for the due observance of peace and the fulfilment of the arbitrament to be made by the arbitrators before named, and also, on the part of the said Donald, for peace towards the Lady Helena, mother of the said Earl, her servants and followers, as well within the country of Thomond as without. For the greater security of the said Earl, his mother, their servants and followers, as well the brothers of the same Donald as the sons of Maurus O'Bryen shall give hostages out of their own servants or followers, to remain in the hands of the said Mayor.
The said arbitrators shall duly examine all controversies respecting the title of lands and castles, and the chief rectories and tithes, and other rights claimed to belong to the Earl or his mother. If it shall be found that any of them belong to the Earl or his mother, restitution shall be adjudged.
The parties also agree that after the determination thus made, if either of them break the peace contracted in this manner, he shall lose his hostage, who is to be placed in the hands of the other, and the hostage of him who has observed the peace shall be released; and also that he who refuses to stand to the said arbitrament shall lose his hostage, to be placed in the hands of the other party.
Whereas Donough, son of Maurus O'Brien, now remains a hostage in the hands of the Baron of Dunboyne by the assignation of the said Earl of Thomond, it is ordered, with the consent of the parties, that the arbitrators shall examine the cause of the detention of the said hostage, and make order in that behalf according to justice, and that the said Donough shall be brought to Limerick, at the assignation of the said arbitrators. Moreover, whereas Moriertaghe O'Bryen, son of the said Donald, now remains hostage for him, and Terence O'Bryen for the said Earl, they may be changed from time to time for other sufficient hostages from their followers with the approbation of both parties, provided that this be signified to the Mayor aforesaid; and the said parties shall find security in Limerick for the fulfilment of the said arbitrament.
It is ordered, as well by the said Lord Deputy and Council, as by the said Earl and Donald, that if the Queen be not pleased that the same Donald shall remain in the estate and name of O'Bryen, but wishes to maintain the said Earl in the same as Earl of Thomond, then the said Donald shall have his hostage delivered into his hands without payment of expenses, and have one month's notice before any injury is done to him either by the King or the said Earl, his confederates or followers.
For fulfilment of the premises besides the hostages aforesaid, the Earl and Donald have taken their oaths on the slanty of the Lord Deputy and Council, the Earl of Desmond and all the archbishops and bishops of this kingdom. The said Donald has solemnly sworn that he will accept the said Earl as his own son, and protect and defend him, and permit all the Earl's servants and followers to be with him at all times without impediment.
In witness whereof the Lord Deputy and Council and the parties aforesaid have affixed their names to each part of this indenture.
Moreover, it is ordered by the Lord Deputy and Council, with the consent of the parties, that if the above named Moriertaghe O'Bryen, hostage for the said Donald, should not appear to the said arbitrators fit or sufficient, then they shall nominate another hostage for the said Donald, to be placed in the hands of the said Mayor; and the said Earl shall do the like with respect to his hostage.
Contemp. copy.
At the end is this note: "The copies contained in this transcript of 11 [This number includes some other copies, noticed under their respective dates.] written leaves agree with the copies found"........ The rest of the note has been cut off.

MINES.  MS 603, p. 1  1557

Former reference: MS 603, p. 1

8 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 213.

1557.--An abstract for the setting forth of the King and Queen's Majesties' mines in Barristoune by Clamyne, in the county of Waxfforthe.
If it please their Majesties to let the said mines in farm, it is sufficient for them to take of the lessees, as annual rent, "the thirteenth part gotten in the said mines in byng ore, crayple ore, and water ore, ready dressed to the melting," or at most the twelfth part. The lessees to have "free and large liberty everywhere over their Grace's woods next adjoining unto the said mines, for their commodity for the carriage of their timber either by land or by water at their will and pleasure, to their profit," and to cut timber and wood for the timbering of the pits and drysties, for making charcoals, and for melting ore into lead, and fining the same into silver. Also, to have large commission to engage workmen and labourers at their Majesties' wages, at the discretion of the overseer of the works. The overseer to purchase iron, steel, tallow, candlewick, ropes, pitch, tar, and stone coals for the smythes (smithies), with horses for carriage.
II. "The charges of certain necessary officers, workmen, and laborers.
One clerk overseer, a man expert and of good knowledge, having experience in the said mines," 18d. a day. The overseer to have under him a discreet wise man, to take charge in his absence, at 10d. a day. 12 miners: two of them to be able to take charge in the grove or pits, for finding of the veins and timbering of the pits, at 12d. a day each; the other ten, "if they be natural men of this country," at 6d. 4 labourers attending on the 12 miners in the grove, to carry and take away from the miners the dead work and ore, and convey it to the shaft mouth, 4d. each. 6 labourers at the two windlasses upon the two pits, to draw up the ore and dead works, and to keep the pits dry and free from water, 4d. A smith to make the miners' tools and sharpen the same, and to do other work, 10d.; the smith to have a labourer to blow the bellows and to smite before him, at 4d. 2 labourers to dress and break the ore after it is taken out of the grove, and to make thereof byng ore, at 4d. each. 2 women to wash the ore after it is broken small, and to make the same into crayple ore and water ore; if they be English, to have 6d. each. ("Nota. These dressers of byng ore and washers of crayple ore must you have of force, unto your stamping mill be made, which will discharge both the breakers of ore and washers, and do more in one day than the other in ten days.") A cooper to make buckets for the drawing up of the ore and dead work, "and also at times water," 6d. Other charges for steel, iron, tallow, candlewick, pitch, tar, ropes, and stone coals, will amount every week at least to 20s. Timber, 40l. a year.--Total yearly charge, 359l. 12s. 8d.
The said 12 miners will get or break out of the rock every day one hundred weight of grove ore, which amounts every week to 8 thousand 4 hundred weight; and that will make in byng ore, crayple ore, and water ore, 5 thousand 5 hundred [weight]. Every thousand weight of the said ore is worth 50s., so that the miners every week will obtain ore worth 13l. 15s., or yearly 715l; profit, 353l. [Sic.] 7s. 4d.
Whereas a special good master of mine, and a proved and a very trusty friend when I was desolate of friends, and wrapped in divers sorrows and miseries, being in despair even of life," together with the Lord Deputy, moved me to declare my knowledge of mineral affairs, I have "drawn out this little and short abstract, wherein he may taste and feel what is the profit of the mines if they be well overseen and wrought.
If the mines be rich in sight, in the sinking thereof, you shall find a certain stone, white in colour, and very hard, wherein silver is engendered, and it is called abaxanoo. There is also marchasyties in mines, which sheweth the goodness of the mines, and these marchasyties are tinctures of mineral exhalations, which also declareth and sheweth the goodness of the mines. Further, if they approach in colour white as much as may be, and to consist in small grains and not great in quantity; for how more the narrower they be, the more they show the goodness of the mines. There is also oftentimes in a mine of silver a vein found great in quantity and small in quality, not able to bear the charges of the digging thereof. Therefore it is very expedient that you take of every vein newly found in any mines the say thereof, to try the goodness of the vein, lest your labour and painful travail in the same be to your great hindrance and damage.
III. "The order and charges for the melting of ore into lead in a bole with the wind, after the manner of the bollars in Derbyshire in England.
Two men of good knowledge in that work are sufficient, the one a bollare and the other a smelter, after it be burned; each to have 12d. a day.
These men must have divers workmen, to cut great timber and divers sorts of wood for the boyle; and labourers for the carriage of the said timber both by water and land to the boyle hill. "It is not only painful and tedious, but also chargeable; it is uncertain to make an estimate thereof. The cause is, the workmen must patiently abide for a south-west wind for the burning and melting of the ore into lead by the said boylle. Other wind will none serve, for this wind is most steadfast. There may be made and molten in one boyle in two days and two nights, if the wind serve, six fother lead, and every fother is 20 hundred in weight; but yet, in mine opinion, it is better and the less labour and pain, and also more for the profit of the surveyor, who shall have the great burthen and charges thereof, to melt in a close furnace; for I have the knowledge and practice in both kind of meltings.
IV. "The order and charges for the melting of ore into lead is a close furnace, and for the fining of the same into fine silver.
If you will melt your ore into lead in a close furnace, it must be blown with very great bellows, and by violence of water by the means of a certain instrument called a sleagyll, for the which instrument all the timber and stuff is in a good readiness made and lying in the King and Queen's Majesties' storehouse at Bosse. And this instrument will not only serve to blow the bellows for the melting of the ore into lead, but also it will serve to stamp and break the grove ore, and wash it also, and it will serve to blow the bellows for the fining; which is not only very commodious and great case for the melters and finers, but also very profitable for the head and chief officers or general surveyor of the mines.
Six men of good knowledge will serve this work, both for the melting of the ore into lead in the close furnace, and also for fining; and one carpenter with his man will keep the mill in good temper, and the sleagyll in reparations, and also will break and wash the ore in the said mill. This is a necessary instrument, which of necessity must be had and made.
These six men will be chargeable in wages, for the labour is both great and painful, by reason of the much occupying of the fire. Wherefore the master and head workman, if he will take the charge both of the melting of the ore into lead, and the fining of the same into fine silver," will have 2s. a day. Two other workmen at 12d.; and three at 10d. 2 colliers to make charcoals for the melting, one of them at 10d., the other at 8d. The carpenter at 12d., and his man at 6d.
The carriage of coals and also wood by land and water to the melting house, and fining, will mount every year 100l. Howbeit the lead will bear the charges, and the silver clearly reserved, with some more advantage to the surveyor.
The whole charge thereof will amount yearly to 272l. 13s.
If the mines be thoroughly set forth and wrought according this abstract, it will mount to the greater profit in fine.
V. "Mint.--An abstract for the order to be taken for the setting forth of a mint, and the sum of the wages of the head officers, with the other inferior officers and workmen, with all other necessary furnitures thereunto appertaining or belonging, according the order of the last mint at Dublin, set forth by Mr. Thomas Agard.
The head officer is the Treasurer, at 6s. 8d. a day; the Comptroller at 5s.; the "Say Master," at 3s. 4d.; the Surveyor of the melting house 18d.; two melters under him 9d. each; the clerk of the irons 2s.; the teller 2s.; the graver 2s.; the master blancher 12d.; two other blanchers 9d. each; the master finer 12d; another finer 9d.; the master smith 12d.; two smiths 10d. each; the porter 9d.; the collier 12d.--Total per annum, 594l. 20d.
Wages of 40 workmen 8d. a day each; victualling of the whole house, as well officers as workmen, 30s. a day; the carriage of charcoals and cutting wood for the coals, "and the necessary occupying of the house," will extend to 120l. a year at least; steel, iron, candle, smythe (smithy) coals, &c., 54l. a year; saltpeter, sandyever, sal ammoniac, salt, alum, arguell, verdigris, and copperas, with other necessary furnitures for fining and blanching, 30l. a year.-- Total per annum, 1,236l. 6s. 8d.
For the entertainment of divers men, to travel about from place to place "to buy and make provision for bullion for the furniture of the mint, with the surmounting of the price of the bullion over and above 5s. the ounce," 10s. a day. "There was also certain [Sic. A word omitted.] made by Mr. Agard and Mr. Peire, comptroller of the mint, with divers merchantmen of London, who hath great acquaintance and in good credit in Flanders with the Fullkers, who hath great store of bullion at all times in their hands, and the said merchants had for their charges per diem 10s." To men conveying the said bullion from London to Chester, and from Chester to Dublin by sea, 10s. a day. --Total per annum, 547l. 10s.
The charges of copper every day, 75 lb. at 8d. a lb.; total yearly, 780l. Every day you will spend and melt 25 lb. fine silver, which amount in tale to 100l.; total yearly, 31,200l. Annual rent to the King and Queen, 10,000l. Other charges, 100l., a year.
Total of the whole mint yearly, 44,377l. 18s. 4d.
Now let us see how this sum made be made by the mint and discharged." If the overseers of the shop see that nothing go to waste, the 40 workmen "will make five journeys every day they work in ready money, and every journey is in tale 48l.; so the five journeys mounteth in tale 240l. every day; so that in every week the said 40 workmen will make in ready money, after six days to the week," 1,440l.; total per annum 74,880l. After deducting the above-mentioned sum, 44,387l. [Sic.] 18s. 4d., there remain 30,492l. 20d.
Finis. Quod T. B.

ABSTRACTS OF INDENTURES.  MS 603, p. 132  1559

Former reference: MS 603, p. 132

5 pages. [On p. 135 a portion of p. 134 has been rewritten by the same hand, but crossed out.]

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 221.

13 Ric. II.--Indenture between John Stanley, Lord Justice of Ireland, and O'Neale and his sons. Neale O'Neale, son to O'Neale, "was delivered upon pledges and ransom." O'Neale and his sons to be the King's liege men, and true to the King and the Earl of Marche, and their heirs. "To yield back and not to intermeddle with the bonnaughe of Ulster; but that the King for his time, and the Earl of Marche, when he shall be of full years, and his heirs, shall at their will, without contradiction of O'Neale, his sons or heirs, dispose the said bonnaughe for ever." The King and the Earl shall have the lordships, rents, exactions, and answerings of all the Irishmen of Ulster and Uriell, "as amply as the ancestors of the King and Earl of Ulster of antiquity have used to have; reserving to O'Neale and his successors such things as of old custom they have used to have of them. The pledges be named, &c.
3 Hen. IV.--Indenture, between Thomas of Lancaster, &c, and Awghly Mcch. Mahon. Mcch. Mahon to be a liege man. To rise out with the King or his Lieutenant against all rebels with all the force he can make. A manor is let to farm to him for 10l. rent.
28 Hen. VIII.--Indenture between Lord Leonard Grey and O'Neale. O'Neale to serve against all rebels. An indenture made by Skevington is confirmed. The King to levy his right, and O'Neale his rights. "O'Neale offereth, in his submission made to the Lord Deputy in Ireland, to take what name and lands the King will give him.
O'Neale, in his submission in England, promiseth to forsake for ever the name of O'Neale, with all claims that he might pretend by the same, and to take such name as it shall please the King to give him.
The Lord Deputy declareth Neale Connylaughe's suit to have a piece of land in recompence of the land the King gave to th' Earl of Tyrone, &c.
O'Neale acknowledges the King; desires pardon, and to be accepted and proclaimed a subject; "requireth leading of men at the King's appointment;" promises to come to Parliaments; refuses his black rent upon Uriell; promises to answer all hostings; and consents to the cutting of woods between the Irish pale and his county.
O'Neale and Phelem Roo be made friends by the Lord Deputy, and restitutions ordered on either sides.
35 Hen. VIII.--The Earl of Tyrone and O'Donnell submit the order of their causes to the Lord Deputy and Council.
The Lord Deputy takes order between the Earl of Tyrone and Phelym Roo. Mcch. Cardell to make restitutions of exactions, &c.
35 Hen. VIII.--Neale Connylaughe is on the King's peace. To pay 100 kine towards "the Earl's charges into England," and his lands to be free from the Earl, saving for hostings. Order is taken between Neale Connylaughe and Conn Mac Neale.
The Lord Deputy maketh a peace between the Earl of Tyrone and Hugh O'Neale.
O'Neale riseth with the Lord Deputy at every hosting, with a great number of men.
35 Hen. VIII.--Arbitrators appointed by the Lord Deputy to end causes between the Earl and Phelym Roo.
35 Hen. VIII.--O'Donnell to give to the Earl of Tyrone the arrearages of the chief rent for Inishen.
35 Hen. VIII.--Radmond Mcch. Rowry, captain of Ferny, submits to the King.
3 Edw. VI.--Certain of the Mcch. Mahons forfeited 500 marks to the King "upon breach of orders, and were upon their submission remitted, upon condition, if ever they did the like, to forfeit their lands, &c. for ever.
34 Hen. VIII.--Mcch. Donnell submits.
33 Hen. VIII.--Donnell Oge Mcch. Genisse, elected by the country and admitted by the Lord Deputy to be Mcch. Genisse, and Arte Mcch. Phelyme Mcch. Genisse are in controversy, which of them ought to be McGennysse. Donnell Oge is judged to be Mcch. Gennisse, and Arte to have his lands free.
1 Mary.--Eugeny Mcch. Gennisse, captain of his nation, submits. "He answereth to hostings 20 horsemen and 60 kearne, &c." He pays 100 kine for his nomination.
35 Hen. VIII.--McWille and Occane promise not to disturb the Queen's farmers of the Bande. They shall use the castle of Colarne. They have 10l. a piece given to them yearly.
34 Hen. VIII.--McWille to serve and obey the King only; and "to stand to the King's order for his customs of the Bande.
33 Hen. VIII.--O'Rwrerke acknowledges the King for his sovereign Lord. Commissions appointed to order the controversies for lands between him and O'Raylie.
33 Hen. VIII.--O'Donnell submits. McGuere and Felym Backer were taken as O'Donnell's friends and adherents. "This indenture is worth the reading.
33 Hen. VIII.--O'Donnell acknowledges the King to be his sovereign Lord.
28 Hen. VIII.--Phelym Roo submits.
28 Hen. VIII.--Savage submits.
34 Hen. VIII.--O'Neale, Phelym Roo, and McDonnell "put their contentions by consent to the Lord Deputy to be ordered.
25 Hen. VI. (sic.)--McMahon submits. To give over the black rent upon the Kings subjects. "To make satisfaction to the King's subjects of hurts done, according the laws and March parliaments." To carry nothing out of the English pale contrary to the statutes. To pay all bonnaughes, &c., as he paid to the Duke of York. "He payeth for the peace to the Lord Lieutenant four score kine; to the Chancellor, a white palfrey; or, in lieu thereof, twenty kine, at Gs. 8d. the piece.
37 Hen. VIII.--Preys taken by Tirloughe O'Neale be restored to O'Donnell. O'Donnell to pay no rent to the Earl of Tyrone for Innyshene, in respects of the hurts done to him by the Earl. "O'Dohertie was taken by the Earl and delivered to the Lord Deputy.
38 Hen. VIII.--"English soldiers be sent with ordnance to take a castle from Neale Connylaughe, which he took from the Earl, and to put it in indifferent hands until the matter be tried.
33 Hen. VIII.--Bryan O'Maughry McMahon, captain of his nation, submits.
Hewghe Reaughe McMahon, captain of his nation, serveth the King in all hostings, and findeth a battle of galleglas for a quarter.
[The date "38 II. 8." has been struck out.] "The Earl is bound to make restitution to the Baron of Dongannon, Callaughe O'Donnell, Tirloughe Leoneghe, and McGuire; and if any of them do any hurt to him, he to stand to the Lord Deputy's order, for that they hang upon the King.
1 Elizabeth.--"Shane O'Neale claimeth to be O'Nele; re-mitteth to the Queen's judgment whether the superiorities of McMahon, McGennisse, &c., ought to belong to her Majesty or to O'Neile; and in the meantime the Queen to levy her duties, and he his claims upon them, &c.

IRISH PARLIAMENTS.  MS 603, p. 156  12 Jan. 1560

Former reference: MS 603, p. 156

8 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 222.

A Note of the Parliaments holden in Ireland and before whom they were so holden; also what number of chapters every roll doth contain." From 11 Hen. IV. to 12 Jan. 2 Eliz. Endorsed.

ACTS OF PARLIAMENT in IRELAND.  MS 603, p. 151  1 June 1562

Former reference: MS 603, p. 151

5 Pages.

Supplementary information: Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, ed. J. S. Brewer & W. Bullen (6 vols., 1867-73), vol. I, document 233.

A note of certain Acts of Parliament," from 11 Hen. IV. to 33 Hen. VIII.
11 Hen. IV.--An act for coyne and livery, and the takers to be adjudged traitors.
25 Hen. VIII.--A subsidy for extinguishing coyne and livery for three years.
28 Hen. VI.--"That every liegeman may kill or take a thief or murderer taken with the manner, and shall have for his labour 1d. of every ploughland, and of every cottier ½d.; and townships to be amerced for escapes.
11 Henry IV.--Shreives of shires or justices of peace receiving or succouring felons to be accompted accessories.
32 Hen. VI.--"A recital of a good act made at Kilkenny, that one shire being at war with Irishmen, the other shires adjoining shall take their part.
32 Hen. VI.--That he that shall build a castle upon a border have 10l.
29 Hen. VI.--That no ship transport any labourer over sea upon pain of 40s.
36 Hen. VI.--The closing of Dundalk vacat, but it were good to be renewed.
10 Edw. IV.--Concerning the prices of all kind of victuals and merchandises.
10 Edw. IV.--That commissioners be assigned to search men's "hagardes," to cause them to bring corn to the market.
7 Edw. IV.--Authority given to the Lord Deputy to levy such black rents as before were paid to Irishmen to hire soldiers.
16 Edw. IV.--The Deputy made a Deputy when he went into England.
10 Hen. VII.--"Assault for death of men made felony, and assaults or erites made felony, and order for the putting of the statute of Winchester in execution.
10 Hen. VII.--That if any person English or Irish move or stir against the Lord Deputy, or stir any Irishmen to make war upon the English pale, it is treason.
28 Hen. VIII.--"The order made by the Commissioners before rehearsed, notwithstanding Poynings' Act, and that owners of land on the marches either dwell there themselves, or else to set able persons there.
38 Hen VI.--That no subject of Ireland be compelled to depart the realm by virtue of any other seal than the seal of thesame realm, upon forfeiture of lands and goods.
In an Elizabethan hand. Endorsed by Cecil: "1 Junii, 1562. A note of certen Actes of Parlement in Irland." Those only are noticed above which are not contained either in the "Statutes at Large," or "in the following document.

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